Litchfield is a town in and former county seat of Litchfield County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 8,466 at the 2010 census. The boroughs of Bantam and Litchfield are located within the town. There are also three unincorporated villages: East Litchfield, Milton, and Northfield. Northfield, located in the southeastern corner of Litchfield, is home to a high percentage of the Litchfield population.
Commercial blocks on West Street
Unitas Sub Lege (Latin)
"Unity Under the Law"
Location in Litchfield County, Connecticut
|Coordinates: 41°44′50″N 73°11′23″W|
|• Type||Selectman-town meeting|
|• First selectman||Leo Paul, Jr. (R)|
|• Selectmen||Paul J. Parsons (R)|
Jonathan E. Torrant (R)
Diane Knox (D)
Jeffrey J. Zullo (D)
|• Total||56.8 sq mi (147.1 km2)|
|• Land||56.1 sq mi (145.2 km2)|
|• Water||0.7 sq mi (1.9 km2)|
|Elevation||495 ft (151 m)|
|• Density||200/sq mi (60/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-5 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-4 (EDT)|
06750 [Bantam], 06759 [Litchfield], 06778 [Northfield]
|GNIS feature ID||0213452|
Litchfield incorporated in 1719. The town derives its name from Lichfield, in England.
In 1784, the first law school in the United States, the so-named Litchfield Law School, was established by judge and legal scholar Tapping Reeve. Prior to its establishment Reeve had accepted several legal apprentices since he had settled there in 1773, but saw such demand for his expertise that he formally opened the one-room school within a decade. During the school's fifty year history it would accept more than 1,100 students, including Aaron Burr, Jr., Horace Mann, and Levi Woodbury, the first justice of the US Supreme Court to attend law school.
Litchfield has a high tourism rate due to its unique historical district. In the summer, visitors come from New York City and surrounding areas as a vacation home to spend time in the country. In the fall, many people from surrounding states come to Litchfield for the beautiful foliage.
Located southwest of Torrington, Litchfield also includes part of Bantam Lake. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 56.8 square miles (147.1 km²), of which, 56.1 square miles (145.2 km²) of it is land and 0.7 square miles (1.9 km²) of it (1.3%) is water.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2000, there were 8,316 people, 3,310 households, and 2,303 families residing in the town. The population density was 148.4 people per square mile (57.3/km²). There were 3,629 housing units at an average density of 64.7 per square mile (25.0/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 96.99% White, 0.75% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.46% from other races, and 1.09% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.56% of the population.
There were 3,310 households out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.9% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.4% were non-families. 26.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.98.
In the town, the population was spread out with 25.2% under the age of 18, 3.6% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 28.6% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.3 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $58,418, and the median income for a family was $70,594. Males had a median income of $50,284 versus $31,787 for females. The per capita income for the town was $30,096. About 2.8% of families and 4.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.6% of those under age 18 and 5.2% of those age 65 or over.
|Voter registration and party enrollment as of October 25, 2005|
|Party||Active voters||Inactive voters||Total voters||Percentage|
Government and infrastructure
The 1812 Litchfield County Jail, the town's oldest public building and a former jail, resides in Litchfield. While controlled by the Connecticut state government, the facility historically held inmates convicted of minor offenses. Governor of Connecticut Lowell P. Weicker Jr. ordered the facility closed for financial reasons in 1993. It was converted into the McAuliffe Manor, a substance abuse treatment center for women operated by Naugatuck Valley HELP Inc., but in 2009 the contract between Naugatuck Valley HELP Inc. and the state expired, leading to the closure of McAuliffe Manor.
U.S. Route 202 is the main east-west road connecting Bantam and Litchfield center to the city of Torrington and New Milford, Connecticut. Route 63 runs north-south through the town center. The Route 8 expressway runs along the town line with Harwinton. It can be accessed from the town center via Route 118. The town is also served by buses from the Northwestern Connecticut Transit District connecting to the city of Torrington. The Shepaug Valley Railroad opened a Litchfield terminal in 1872, but passenger service ended in 1930 and freight service in 1948.
Litchfield Public Schools operates public schools. Litchfield High School is the area high school. Students may also attend Wamogo Regional Six to study agriculture, located in Litchfield, or Oliver Wolcott Technical School, located in Torrington, Connecticut.
- Andrew Adams, political leader during and after the Revolutionary War
- Josephine Cables Aldrich (1843-1917), spiritualist, Theosophist, editor, and publisher
- Ethan Allen, one of the founders of Vermont
- Catharine Beecher, educator
- Henry Ward Beecher, Congregationalist clergyman
- Lyman Beecher, Presbyterian minister
- Mary Charlotte Ward Granniss Webster Billings, writer, evangelist, and missionary
- Peter Brimelow, founder of VDARE
- Solyman Brown, creator of the first dental school
- Adelaide Deming, painter
- Dick Ebersol, television executive
- Caroline Fitzgerald (1865–1911), poet
- Eugene Fodor, travel writer
- Jerome Fuller, chief justice of Minnesota Territorial Supreme Court, 1851–52
- Elizabeth Gilbert, author of Eat, Pray, Love
- F. Norton Goddard, Republican politician
- Benjamin Hanks (1755–1824), goldsmith, instrument maker, and first maker of bronze cannons and church bells in America
- Uriel Holmes, US congressman
- Isabella Beecher Hooker, women's suffrage activist
- Daniel Albion "Jumping Jack" Jones (1860–1936), professional baseball pitcher
- Madeleine L'Engle, author
- Charles B. McVay III, US naval officer
- Phineas Miner, US congressman
- Joseph Robert Morris, entrepreneur, investor, mayor of Houston, Texas; born and raised in Milton
- Samuel S. Phelps, US senator from Vermont
- Sarah Pierce, teacher, educator and founder of the Litchfield Female Academy
- John Pierpoint, Chief Justice of the Vermont Supreme Court
- Robert Pierpoint, Lieutenant Governor of Vermont
- Austin M. Purves Jr., 20th century artist and educator
- Tapping Reeve, lawyer, judge, and law educator
- Mary Livingston Ripley, horticulturist, entomologist, and photographer
- Susan Saint James, actress
- Richard Skinner, governor of Vermont
- Roger Skinner, judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of New York
- Harriet Beecher Stowe, abolitionist and author
- Benjamin Tallmadge, American military officer during the Revolutionary War
- Frederick A. Tallmadge, lawyer and New York politician
- Frank Livingston Underwood (1844–1918), banker, copper magnate, railroad founder
- Emily Noyes Vanderpoel (1842–1939), painter, writer, philanthropist
- Louis Fenn Wadsworth (1825–1908), early baseball pioneer
- Paul Winter, saxophonist
- Oliver Wolcott Sr., signer of the U.S. Declaration of Independence
- Oliver Wolcott Jr., US Secretary of the Treasury, 24th governor of Connecticut
On the National Register of Historic Places
- Capt. William Bull Tavern — CT 202 (added July 30, 1983)
- Henry B. Bissell House — 202 Maple St. (added October 7, 1990)
- J. Howard Catlin House — 14 Knife Shop Rd. (added September 6, 1993) (Since demolished)
- Litchfield Historic District — Roughly both sides of North and South Sts. between Gallows Lane and Prospect St. (added December 24, 1968)
- Milton Center Historic District (added March 14, 1978)
- Humaston Brook State Park (added May 8, 1997)
- Oliver Wolcott House — South St. (added December 11, 1971)
- Rye House — 122–132 Old Mount Tom Rd. (added September 10, 2000)
- Tapping Reeve House and Law School — South St. (added November 15, 1966)
- Topsmead — 25 and 46 Chase Rd. (added December 19, 1993)
- "Litchfield Connecticut". City-Data.com. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- U.S. Census Bureau Population Estimates
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved October 4, 2019.
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- A LITCHFIELD JAIL FOR BEN FRANKLIN'S SON Retrieved January 30, 2019
- Dictionary of Canadian Biography - Mathews, David Retrieved January 30, 2019
- Bulkeley, Alice Talcott (1907). Historic Litchfield, 1721-1907. The Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company. p. 15.
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- "Registration and Party Enrollment Statistics as of October 25, 2005" (PDF). Connecticut Secretary of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 23, 2006. Retrieved October 2, 2006.
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- Ryan, Bill (October 16, 1994). "Litchfield's Jail Begins Another Era With Women Hoping for New Lives". The New York Times. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
- Taylor, Alex (May 22, 2009). "Rehab center closing: McCauliffe Manor's contract expires". The Register Citizen. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
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- "ADAMS, Andrew, (1736–1797)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- Pallastrelli, Gottardo (2018). Ritratto di signora in viaggio : un'americana cosmopolita nel mondo di Henry James [Portrait of a Travelling Lady] (eBook) (in Italian). Roma: Donzelli editore. ISBN 978-88-6843-7770.
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- "PHELPS, Samuel Shethar, (1793–1855)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- Ullery, Jacob G. (1894). Men of Vermont Illustrated. Brattleboro, VT: Transcript Publishing Company. pp. 183–184.
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- "Susan Saint James". Connecticut Women's Hall of Fame. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
- "Biography, Richard Skinner". The Ledger: A Database of Students of the Litchfield Law School and the Litchfield Female Academy. Litchfield, CT: Litchfield Historical Society. 2010. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
- Johnson, Crisfield (1878). History of Washington Co., New York. Everts & Ensign: Philadelphia, PA.
- Kilbourne, Payne Kenyon (1859). Sketches and Chronicles of the Town of Litchfield, Connecticut. Hartford, CT: Case, Lockwood and Company. p. 211.
- "TALLMADGE, Benjamin, (1754–1835)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- "Connecticut Governor Oliver Wolcott Jr.publisher=National Governors Association". Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- Carley, Rachel. Litchfield: The Making of a New England Town (Litchfield: Litchfield Historical Society, 2011). 303 pp.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Litchfield, Connecticut.|
- Official town website
- Litchfield Historical Society
- Litchfield, Connecticut, at City-Data.com
- ePodunk Profile for Litchfield, Connecticut