List of whips in the Australian Senate

Whips have managed business and maintained party discipline for Australia's federal political parties in the Senate since Federation. Though the Remuneration Tribunal and parliamentary website refer to the senior Labor and Liberal whips as "chief" whips and their junior whips as "deputy whips", the parties tend to refer to the senior whips as "whips" when announcing their officeholders to the Senate.[1][2] A number of Senate whips have gone on to serve as ministers, and several as Leader of the Government or Leader of the Opposition in the Senate.

Australian Labor Party

In addition to those below, Kay Denman served as a deputy whip from 18 September to 31 December 1995, a period when one of Labor's two whips was on leave of absence while conducting parliamentary business overseas.[3][4][5]

WhipDate Leader
James Stewart21 May 1901[6][7] Chris Watson
David O'Keefe29 April 1904[8]
Hugh de Largie20 February 1907[9]
Andrew Fisher
Rudolph Ready18 September 1914[10]
Billy Hughes
Frank Tudor
Ted Needham8 May 1917[11]
Vacant[a 1]1 July 1920
Matthew Charlton
Ted Needham6 July 1923[12]
Charles McHugh9 July 1926[13]
Charles Graham28 September 1927[14]
James Scullin
James Dunn14 August 1929[15]
Bert Hoare18 March 1931[16]
John V. MacDonald1 July 1935[a 2]
John Curtin
Bill Ashley20 September 1938[18]
Robert Clothier6 October 1941[19]
Ben Chifley
Jack Critchley13 June 1950[20][21]
H. V. Evatt
Sid O'Flaherty4 September 1957
Arthur Calwell
WhipDate Deputy WhipDate Deputy WhipDate Leader
Justin O'Byrne[a 3]20 February 1962[22] Bob Poke20 February 1962[22] Arthur Calwell
Gough Whitlam
George Poyser18 December 1972[23]
George Poyser10 June 1974[a 4] Don Devitt10 June 1974[a 4]
George Georges27 January 1976[26] Gordon McIntosh27 January 1976[27]
Bill Hayden
Ted Robertson24 November 1980[28] Kerry Sibraa[a 3]24 November 1980[29]
Gordon McIntosh10 March 1983[27] Bob Hawke
Gerry Jones22 August 1985[30]
Gerry Jones14 September 1987[30][31] Graham Maguire14 September 1987[31] Jim McKiernan14 September 1987[31][32]
Dominic Foreman4 November 1988[33]
John Faulkner12 February 1991[34]
Paul Keating
Bryant Burns4 May 1993[35]
Chris Evans20 March 1996[36] Stephen Conroy30 April 1996[37] Kim Beazley
Kay Denman24 September 1997[3]
Kerry O'Brien19 October 1998[38] John Quirke19 October 1998[39]
Joe Ludwig17 August 2000[40]
Susan Mackay22 November 2001[41] Trish Crossin22 November 2001[42] Geoff Buckland22 November 2001[43] Simon Crean
Mark Latham
George Campbell22 October 2004[44] Ruth Webber22 October 2004[45]
Kim Beazley
Linda Kirk1 July 2005[46]
Kevin Rudd
Kerry O'Brien3 December 2007[38] Dana Wortley3 December 2007[47]
Anne McEwen1 July 2008[48][49] Don Farrell1 July 2008[50]
Julia Gillard
Anne McEwen27 September 2010[48][49] Carol Brown27 September 2010[51][52] Helen Polley27 September 2010[53][54]
Kevin Rudd
Catryna Bilyk18 October 2013[55] Anne Urquhart18 October 2013[56] Bill Shorten
Anne Urquhart30 August 2016[56] Jenny McAllister30 August 2016[57]
Sam Dastyari3 February 2017[58]
Chris Ketter5 December 2017[59]
Notes
  1. Albert Gardiner was the only Labor senator from 1 July 1920 to December 1922.
  2. On 1 July 1935, the composition of the Senate changed such that there were three Labor senators. MacDonald was the whip, the others being leader and deputy leader of the party in the Senate.[17] MacDonald died on 17 August 1935, and his replacement, Ben Courtice, was appointed in September. Courtice had to defend the seat at the federal election in October 1937, and he succeeded. In addition, two other Labor candidates won elections for casual Senate vacancies at that election, raising Labor's Senate caucus to five members. It is unclear if any of the five was elected whip for the 22 sitting days between November 1937 and the end of June 1938.
  3. Later served as President of the Australian Senate.
  4. Poyser and Devitt were the Labor whips in the 29th Parliament.[24] The pre-sessional caucus was held on 10 June 1974.[25]

Coalition

Liberal Party of Australia

WhipDate Deputy WhipDate Leader
Unclear[l 1]21 February 1945[l 2] Robert Menzies
Annabelle Rankin1 July 1947[62]
Reg Wright21 February 1950[l 3]
Annabelle Rankin11 June 1951[65]
Malcolm Scott8 March 1966[67] Harold Holt
Bob Cotton12 March 1968[68] John Gorton
Reg Withers25 November 1969[69] William McMahon
Harold Young[l 4]16 August 1971[70]
Billy Snedden
Fred Chaney20 November 1974[71]
Fred Chaney8 April 1975[71] Kathy Martin8 April 1975[72] Malcolm Fraser
Peter Baume11 October 1977[73]
Peter Baume28 February 1978[73] John Knight1 March 1978[74]
John Knight25 November 1980[75] Allan Rocher25 November 1980[76]
Bernie Kilgariff24 February 1981[77]
Bernie Kilgariff24 March 1981 Andrew Thomas24 March 1981[77]
Margaret Reid[l 4]18 November 1982[78]
Andrew Peacock
John Howard
Margaret Reid[l 4]14 September 1987[78] Susan Knowles14 September 1987[79]
Andrew Peacock
John Hewson
John Panizza4 May 1993[80]
Alexander Downer
John Howard
John Panizza9 May 1995[80] Paul Calvert[l 4]9 May 1995[81]
Paul Calvert[l 4]11 February 1997[81] Bill Heffernan11 February 1997[82]
Helen Coonan10 November 1998[83]
Jeannie Ferris23 November 2001[84]
Jeannie Ferris22 August 2002[84] Alan Eggleston22 August 2002[85]
Stephen Parry11 September 2006[86][87]
Stephen Parry[l 4]12 April 2007[86][87] Julian McGauran8 May 2007[88][89]
Judith Adams3 December 2007[90][91] Brendan Nelson
Malcolm Turnbull
WhipDate Deputy WhipDate Deputy WhipDate Leader
Stephen Parry12 April 2007[86][87] Judith Adams3 December 2007[90][91] David Bushby4 February 2009[92][93] Malcolm Turnbull
Tony Abbott
Helen Kroger4 July 2011[94][95]
Chris Back8 May 2012[96][97]
David Bushby1 July 2014[98] Anne Ruston1 July 2014[98] David Fawcett1 July 2014[99]
Dean Smith 13 October 2015[100]Malcolm Turnbull
Jane Hume7 September 2018[101]Scott Morrison
Dean Smith22 January 2019[100] Jonathon Duniam12 February 2019[102]
Notes
  1. Allan MacDonald was elected the United Australia Party's Senate whip in October 1941.[60] In parts of 1943, Oliver Uppill was acting whip due to MacDonald's illness. From July 1944, James McLachlan took over the duties associated with a whip, acting as a teller in divisions and requesting leave of absence for his party's senators. Except for periods when McLachlan was himself on leave and Burford Sampson performed those duties, McLachlan continued to act in the role of whip, suggesting he was elected to replace MacDonald in July 1944 (when senators elected at the 1943 election took their seats) and continued until June 1947, when he and all but one other Liberal were forced to vacate their seats following the party's electoral annihilation at the 1946.
  2. Dated from the announcement in the Senate of George McLeay that "[M]embers of the party which I have the honour to lead in this chamber, wish from henceforth to be regarded as members of the Liberal party of Australia."[61]
  3. Wright was the whip during the 19 Parliament.[63][64][65] In the early 1950s, Liberal Senate whips were elected,[65] and party elections for the 19th Parliament were held on 21 February 1950.[66]
  4. Later served as President of the Australian Senate.

National Country Party/National Party of Australia

WhipDate Leader
Ron Maunsell27 February 1973[103] Doug Anthony
Glen Sheil21 February 1980[104]
Stan Collardby 24 March 1981[77]
Ian Sinclair
Glen Sheil21 February 1985[104]
Grant Tambling14 September 1987[105]
Charles Blunt
Tim Fischer
David Brownhill1 July 1990[106]
Florence Bjelke-Petersen23 March 1993[107]
Bill O'Chee1 July 1993[108]
Julian McGauran1 July 1999[109] John Anderson
Mark Vaile
Nigel Scullion7 February 2006[110]
Fiona Nash6 February 2007[111][112]
Warren Truss
John Williams22 September 2008[113][114]
Bridget McKenzie13 September 2013[115]
Barry O'Sullivan1 July 2014[116]
Matt Canavan10 September 2015[117]
Barry O'Sullivan24 February 2016[118] Barnaby Joyce
John Williams1 September 2016[119][120]
Michael McCormack

Australian Greens

Western Australian Greens

In May 1996, following the 1996 election, the two members of the Western Australian Greens in the Senate announced they were to be whip and deputy whip of their party. The deputy whip, Christabel Chamarette, had lost her seat at the election, and left the Senate just over a month after the announcement. The party lost its other seat (and its whip) at the 1998 election, with her leaving office in June 1999. The party only merged with the Australian Greens in 2003, after it lost its senators.

WhipDate Deputy WhipDate
Dee Margetts20 May 1996[121] Christabel Chamarette20 May 1996[122]
None1 July 1996
None1 July 1999

Australian Greens

The Australian Greens appointed their first whip in the Senate when the party increased from two to four members in 2005. She became entitled to a salary when the party increased to five members in 2008.

WhipDate Leader
Rachel Siewert9 August 2005[123] Bob Brown
Christine Milne
Richard Di Natale

Pauline Hanson's One Nation

One Nation first entered the Senate in 1999, but had only one seat and consequently did not elect a whip. The party's senator was defeated in 2004 and left the Senate in 2005. In 2016, four One Nation senators were elected, and the party elected a whip for the first time.

WhipDate Leader
Brian Burston1 September 2016[124] Pauline Hanson
Peter Georgiou24 May 2018[125]

Nick Xenophon Team

Senator Nick Xenophon entered the Senate as an independent in 2008. In 2016 he ran as part of the Nick Xenophon Team, which saw Xenophon and two of his running mates (and a lower house MP) elected, so the Nick Xenophon Team elected a whip.

WhipDate Leader
Skye Kakoschke-Moore1 September 2016[126] Nick Xenophon

Democratic Labour Party

The Democratic Labour Party (until 2013 the Democratic Labor Party) elected its first whip in 1968, when its membership increased from two to four. The party continued to do so until 1974, when the party lost all its seats at the double dissolution election. The party re-entered the Senate following the 2010 election, but did not have a whip as it only had one senator, who left the party in 2014.

WhipDate Leader
Condon Byrne13 August 1968[127] Vince Gair
Jack Little10 October 1973[128] Frank McManus
None10 May 1974

Palmer United Party

The Palmer United Party won three Senate seats at the 2013 election, the new senators taking their seats on 1 July 2014. Two of the three had left within a year, but the remaining senator retained the position of whip until his defeat in 2016.

WhipDate Leader
Zhenya Wang1 July 2014[129][130] Glenn Lazarus
None9 May 2016[129]

Defunct

Free Trade/Anti-Socialist Party (1901–09)

WhipDate Leader
John Clemons1901[131] George Reid
Henry Dobson21 November 1907[132]
Thomas Chataway26 November 1908[133] Joseph Cook

Protectionist Party (1901–09)

WhipDate Leader
None1901[134][135] Edmund Barton
John Keatingby 30 April 1902[d 1]
Noneby 5 July 1905[141] Alfred Deakin

Commonwealth Liberal Party (1909–17)

WhipDate Leader
Thomas Chataway21 June 1909[142] Alfred Deakin
Joseph Cook
Unclear[d 2]1 July 1913

National Labor (1916–17)

WhipDate Leader
Hugh de Largie14 November 1916[143] Billy Hughes

Nationalist Party of Australia (1917–31)

WhipDate Leader
Hugh de Largie13 June 1917[d 3] Billy Hughes
Edmund
Drake-Brockman
10 February 1923[148] Stanley Bruce
Harry Foll1 July 1926[149]
John Latham

United Australia Party (1931–45)

WhipDate Leader
Harry Foll7 May 1931[150] Joseph Lyons
George McLeay29 November 1937[d 4]
Dick Dein7 November 1938[153]
Robert Menzies
Allan MacDonald8 October 1941[60] Billy Hughes
Robert Menzies
James McLachlanJuly 1944?[d 5]

Australian Democrats (1977–2015)

The Australian Democrats first elected a whip in 1981, reflecting an increase from two to five of the party's Senate membership. The party lost all its seats at the 2007 election, and its senators duly left their seats the following June.

WhipDate Leader
Michael Macklinby 19 November 1981[154] Don Chipp
Janine Haines
Paul McLeanby 31 October 1989[155]
Janet Powell
Vicki Bourne3 September 1991[156] John Coulter
Cheryl Kernot
Meg Lees
Natasha Stott Despoja
Lyn Allison1 July 2002[157] Andrew Bartlett
Andrew Bartlett13 December 2004[158] Lyn Allison
None1 July 2008
Notes
  1. Keating was initially appointed to act for the ministry, not the party, solely during the pendency of the tariff bill.[136] However, he seems to have acted as a more traditional whip by the press during that session.[137] Keating continued as whip into the following session,[138][139] though it is not clear whether the arrangement persisted when the Protectionists went into opposition in 1904. At the latest, Keating ceased to be whip upon becoming a minister in July 1905.[140] No Government whip was appointed.[141]
  2. Chataway's term as a senator ended on 30 June 1913. In June 1913, immediately before the formation of the Cook Ministry, there was speculation Senator Keating would become whip, but this does not appear to have eventuated. The Liberals may have chosen not to appoint a whip because they had only seven (of 36) senators, three of whom were in the ministry. This proposition receives some support from a mocking question asked by Senator Ready, the Labor whip: "I should like the Honorary Minister to inform the Senate who is the Whip of the large party sitting opposite?" The only answer came from a fellow Labor senator, James Long, who said, "They are all crackers. I do not know who is Whip." Various Liberals acted as teller during the Cook Government, and while Thomas Bakhap and Charles Oakes did so the most, there is no evidence from Hansard that either was the whip. Following the 1914 double dissolution, the Liberals' numbers in the Senate fell to five.
  3. Senator de Largie was the National Labor whip, continued as Senate whip[144] after the formation of the National Labor and Liberal coalition in February 1917,[145] and remained whip[146] after the parties merged on 13 June 1917.[147]
  4. McLeay was in post by 4 December 1937,[151] and caucus elections were held and portfolios assigned on 29 November.[152]
  5. From July 1944, James McLachlan took over the duties associated with a whip, acting as a teller in divisions and requesting leave of absence for his party's senators. Except for periods when McLachlan was himself on leave and Burford Sampson performed those duties, McLachlan continued to act in the role of whip, suggesting he was elected to replace MacDonald in July 1944 (when senators elected at the 1943 election took their seats) and continued until June 1947, when he and all sitting Liberal were forced to vacate their seats following the party's electoral annihilation at the 1946.

References

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