List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll

This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll. It covers the name of the event, the location and the start and end of each event. Some events may belong in more than one category. In addition, some of the listed events overlap each other, and in some cases the death toll from a smaller event is included in the one for the larger event or time period of which it was part.

Wars and armed conflicts with highest estimated death tolls of 100,000 or more

This section list all wars in which the highest estimated casualties exceed 100,000, this includes deaths of both soldiers, civilians, etc from causes both directly and indirectly caused by the war, including combat, disease, famine, massacres, suicide, and genocide.

Event Lowest estimateHighest estimate Geometric mean estimate[1]LocationFromUntilDurationNotes, see also
World War II 60,000,000 118,357,000[2] 84,269,920 Worldwide 1939 1945 6 years and 1 day See also: World War II casualties.
Three Kingdoms 36,000,000 40,000,000 37,947,332 China 184 280 96 years Academically, the period of the Three Kingdoms refers to the period between the foundation of the state of Wei in 220 and the conquest of the state of Wu by the Jin dynasty in 280. The earlier, "unofficial" part of the period, from 184 to 220, was marked by chaotic infighting between warlords in various parts of China.
Mongol conquests 30,000,000[3] 40,000,000 34,641,016 Eurasia 1206 1368 163 years See also: Mongol Empire, Destruction under the Mongol Empire
European colonization of the Americas 8,400,000[4] (mostly by disease) 138,000,000 (mostly by disease)[5] 34,047,026 Americas 1492 1691 199 years Death toll estimates vary due to lack of consensus as to the demographic size of the native population pre-Columbus, which might never be accurately determined. The 90% death rate was mainly caused by disease.[lower-alpha 1] Vast depopulation contributed to Little Ice Age[8]
Taiping Rebellion 10,000,000[9] 100,000,000[10][11][12] 31,622,777 China 1851 1864 14 years See also: Qing dynasty
Transition from Ming to Qing 25,000,000[13] 25,000,000 25,000,000 China 1618 1683 65 years See also: Qing dynasty
Second Sino-Japanese War 20,000,000 25,000,000 22,360,680 China 1937 1945 8 years – Part of World War II
An Lushan Rebellion 13,020,000 36,000,000 21,633,308 China 755 763 8 years Also known as the An–Shi rebellion
World War I 17,500,000[14] 100,000,000+ (includes Spanish flu influenza epidemic[15] 23,568,559 Worldwide 1914 1918 4 years, 3 months, 1 week
Conquests of Timur 8,000,000[16][17] 17,000,000[18][19] 12,649,111 Central Asia, Middle East and South Asia 1370 1405 35 years Up to 5% of the world's population at the time.
Dungan Revolt 8,000,000 12,000,000 9,797,959 Qing dynasty 1862 1877 15 years See also: Qing dynasty
Chinese Civil War 8,000,000[20]11,692,000[21] 9,671,401 China 1927 1949 22 years
Reconquista 7,000,000 7,000,000 7,000,000 Iberian Peninsula 711 1492 781 years Note: cannot be considered a single war
Russian Civil War 5,000,000 9,000,000[22] 6,708,204 Russia 1917 1921 5 years See also: Russian Revolution, List of civil wars
Thirty Years' War 3,000,000[23] 11,500,000[24] 5,673,870 Holy Roman Empire, Europe 1618 1648 30 years Initially a religious war between Catholics and Protestants, it became a general European political war. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history.
Mughal–Maratha Wars 5,600,000 5,600,000 5,600,000 India 1680 1707 27 years
Napoleonic Wars 3,500,000
7,000,000[25] 4,949,747 Europe, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean 1803 1815 13 years See also: Napoleonic Wars casualties
Yellow Turban Rebellion 3,000,000[26] 7,000,000[26] 4,582,576 China 184 205 22 years – Part of the Three Kingdoms War
Second Congo War 2,500,000[27] 5,400,000[28] 3,674,235 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1998 2003 6 years
Korean War 1,500,000[29] 4,500,000[29] 3,000,000 Korean Peninsula 1950 1953 4 years Categorized as part of the Cold War.
French Wars of Religion 2,000,000 4,000,000[30] 2,828,427 France 1562 1598 37 years Largely a religious war between Catholics and Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants)
Indian Rebellion of 1857 800,000 10,000,000 2,828,427 India 1857 1858 1 year
Hundred Years' War 2,300,000[31] 3,300,000[32] 2,754,995 Western Europe 1337 1453 116 years Edwardian War (1337–1360), Caroline War (1369–1389), Lancastrian War (1415–1453)
Vietnam War 966,000[33] 3,800,000[34] 2,383,000 Southeast Asia 1955 1975 21 years Cold War and First Indochina War
Crusades 1,000,000[35] 3,000,000[36] 2,000,000 Holy Land, Europe 1095 1291 196 years Christian military excursions in the Middle East.
Nigerian Civil War 1,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 Nigeria 1966 1970 4 years Ethnic cleansings of the Igbo people followed by Civil War.
Mfecane 1,500,000[37] 2,000,000[38] 1,750,000 Southern Africa 1816 1828 13 years Ndwandwe–Zulu War
Punic Wars 1,250,000[39]1,850,000 1,520,691 Medi­terranean 264 BC 146 BC 118 years See also: Carthage, Roman Republic
Second Sudanese Civil War 1,000,000[40] 2,000,000 1,414,214 Sudan 1983 2005 23 years First Sudanese Civil War
Qin's wars of unification 2,000,000 2,000,000[41] 2,000,000 China 230 BC 221 BC 9 years See also: History of China[42][43]
Seven Years' War 868,000 1,400,000 1,102,361 Worldwide 1756 1763 7 years
Soviet–Afghan War 600,000[44] 2,000,000[44] 1,095,445 Afghanistan 1980 1988 9 years Sometimes categorized as a proxy war during the Cold War.

– Part of the War in Afghanistan

Japanese invasions of Korea 1,000,000[45] 1,000,000 1,000,000 Korea 1592 1598 7 years
French Revolutionary Wars 1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 Worldwide 1792 1802 10 years
Mexican Revolution 500,000[46] 2,000,000[46] 1,000,000 Mexico, United States 1911 1920 10 years Includes Pancho Villa's raids and the Columbus Raid.
Italian conquest of the Horn of Africa 1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 Horn of Africa 1924 1940 16 years
Panthay Rebellion 890,000 1,000,000 943,398 China 1856 1873 18 years
Wars of the Three Kingdoms 876,000 876,000 876,000 British Isles 1639 1651 12 years
Conquests of Mehmed the Conqueror 873,000 873,000 873,000 Eastern Europe 1451 1481 30 years
Ethiopian Civil War 500,000 1,500,000 866,025 Ethiopia 1974 1991 17 years
Jewish–Roman wars 350,000 2,000,000 836,660 Roman Empire 66 136 70 years See also: Roman Empire
American Civil War 650,000 1,000,000 800,000 South­eastern United States and Pennsylvania 1861 1865 4 years See also: United States
Algerian War 350,000 1,500,000 724,569 Algeria 1954 1962 7 years, 4 months, 2 weeks, and 4 days [47]
War of the Spanish Succession 400,000 1,251,000 707,389 Europe, North America, South America 1702 1714 12 years
Spanish Civil War 500,000 1,000,000 707,107 Spain 1936 1939 4 years
Eighty Years' War 230,000 2,000,000 678,233 The Low Countries, South America, Caribbean Sea, East and Southeast Asia 1568 1648 80 years
Gallic Wars 400,000 1,000,000 632,445 France 58 BC 50 BC 9 years See also: Roman Empire
Spanish American wars of independence 600,000 600,000 600,000 Americas 1808 1833 25 years
Paraguayan War 300,000[48] 1,200,000[49] 600,000 Southern Cone 1864 1870 7 years Military history of South America, Francisco Solano López and Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias
Iran–Iraq War 289,220 1,100,000 564,041 Iran–Iraq border 1980 1988 8 years Iran claims: 123,220 KIA + 11,000 civilians

Iraq claims: 105,000 KIA + 50,000 in Kurdish Genocide Others claim 600,000 Iranians killed and 500,000 Iraqis

French invasion of Russia 540,000 540,000 540,000 Russia 1812 1812 5 months, 2 weeks and 6 days – Part of the Napoleonic Wars
Syrian Civil War 500,000 570,000 535,000 Syria 2011 Present 8 years
English Civil War 356,000 735,000 511,527 England 1642 1651 9 years – Part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Angolan Civil War 504,158 504,158 504,158 Angola 1975 2002 27 years
First Sudanese Civil War 500,000 500,000 500,000 Sudan 1955 1972 17 years
War on Terror 480,000[50] 507,000[50] 493,500 Worldwide 2001 Present 18 years Includes Iraq War, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), and War in North-West Pakistan.
Albigensian Crusade 200,000 1,000,000 447,214 Southern France 1208 1229 21 years
First Congo War 250,000 800,000 447,214 Zaire 1996 1997 1 year
Maratha invasions of Bengal 400,000 400,000 400,000 India 1741 1751 10 years
First Indochina War 400,000 400,000 400,000 Southeast Asia 1946 1954 8 years Also known as the Indochina War
Continuation War 387,333 387,333 387,333 Northern Europe 1941 1944 3 years – Part of World War II
Somali Civil War 300,000 500,000 387,298 Somalia 1986 Present 32 years
Crimean War 356,000 410,000 382,047 Crimea 1853 1856 3 years
Iraq War 268,000[50] 461,000[51] 364,500 Iraq 2003 2011 8 years See also: Casualties of the Iraq War

– Part of the War on Terror

Cuban War of Independence 362,000 362,000 362,000 Cuba 1895 1898 3 years
Great Northern War 350,000 350,000 350,000 Northern and Eastern Europe 1700 1721 21 years
Italian Wars 300,000 400,000 346,410 Southern Europe 1494 1559 65 years Also known as the Great Wars of Italy
French conquest of Algeria 300,000 300,000 300,000 Algeria 1829 1847 18 years
Burundian Civil War 300,000 300,000 300,000 Burundi 1993 2005 12 years
War in Darfur 178,258 461,520 286,827 Sudan 2003 Present 15 years
Bangladesh Liberation War 26,000 3,000,000 500,000 East Pakistan 1971 1971 1 year See also: Bangladeshi Genocide casualties
Second Italo-Ethiopian War 278,350 278,350 278,350 Ethiopia 1935 1936 1 year Also known as the Second Italo–Abyssinian War
Papua conflict 150,000 400,000 244,949 New Guinea 1963 Present 55 years
Ten Years' War 241,000 241,000 241,000 Cuba 1868 1878 10 years Also known as the Great War
Philippine–American War 234,000 234,000 234,000 Philippines 1899 1912 13 years Also known as the Philippine War
Venezuelan War of Independence 228,000 228,000 228,000 Venezuela 1810 1823 13 years – Part of the Spanish American Wars of Independence
Ugandan Bush War 100,000 500,000 223,607 Uganda 1981 1986 5 years Also known as the Luwero War
Lord's Resistance Army insurgency 100,000 500,000 223,607 Central Africa 1987 Present 31 years
Franco-Dutch War 220,000 220,000 220,000 Western Europe 1672 1678 6 years Also known as the Dutch War
Colombian conflict 220,000 220,000 220,000 Colombia 1964 Present 54 years
Iraqi-Kurdish conflict 138,800 320,100 210,784 Iraq 1918 2003 85 years
Campaigns of Suleiman the Magnificent 200,000 200,000 200,000 Eastern Europe, Middle East and North Africa 1521 1566 25 years
Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659) 200,000 200,000 200,000 Western Europe 1635 1659 24 years
Carlist Wars 200,000 200,000 200,000 Spain 1820 1876 56 years
La Violencia 192,700 194,700 193,697 Colombia 1948 1958 10 years
Internal conflict in Myanmar 130,000 250,000 180,278 Myanmar 1948 Present 70 years
Kalinga War 150,000 200,000 173,205 India 262 BC 261 BC 2 years
Winter War 153,736 194,837 173,071 Finland 1939 1940 1 year – Part of World War II
Greek Civil War 158,000 158,000 158,000 Greece 1946 1949 3 years
North Yemen Civil War 100,000 200,000 141,421 Yemen 1962 1970 8 years
1991 Iraqi uprisings in Iraq 85,000 235,000 141,333 Iraq 1991 1991 1 month and 4 days
Balkan Wars 140,000 140,000 140,000 Balkans 1912 1913 1 year
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) 138,285 138,285 138,285 Europe and Americas 1585 1604 19 years
Saint-Domingue Expedition 135,000 135,000 135,000 Haiti 1802 1803 1 year
Yugoslav Wars 130,000 140,000 134,907 Balkans 1991 2001 10 years
Lebanese Civil War 120,000 150,000 134,164 Lebanon 1975 1990 15 years
Sierra Leone Civil War 50,000 300,000 122,474 Sierra Leone 1991 2002 11 years
Great Turkish War 120,000 120,000 120,000 Eastern Europe 1683 1699 16 years Also known as the War of the Holy League
Thousand Days War 120,000 120,000 120,000 Colombia 1899 1902 3 years
Moro conflict 120,000 120,000 120,000 Philippines 1969 Present 49 years
Arab–Israeli conflict 116,074 116,074 116,074 Middle East 1948 Present 70 years
Mexican Drug War 106,800 106,800 106,800 Mexico 2006 Present 12 years Also known as the Mexican War on Drugs
Aceh War 97,000 107,000 101,877 Indonesia 1873 1914 41 years Also known as the Infidel War
Bosnian War 97,214 104,732 100,903 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1991 1995 4 years – Part of the Yugoslav Wars
German Peasants' War 100,000 100,000 100,000 Germany 1524 1525 1 year Also known as the Great Peasants' War
Kurdish rebellions in Turkey 100,000 100,000 100,000 Middle East 1921 Present 97 years
Congo Crisis 100,000 100,000 100,000 Republic of the Congo 1960 1965 5 years
Insurgency in Laos 100,000 100,000 100,000 Laos 1975 2007 32 years
Kivu Conflict 100,000 100,000 100,000 Democratic Republic of the Congo 2004 Present 14 years – Part of the Second Congo War
Kashmir Conflict 80,000 110,000 93,808 North India, Pakistan 1947 Present 71 years
Algerian Civil War 44,000 200,000 93,808 Algeria 1991 2002 11 years
Angolan War of Independence 82,991 102,991 92,452 Angola 1961 1974 13 years
Sri Lankan Civil War 80,000 100,000 89,443 Sri Lanka 1983 2009 26 years
Indian annexation of Hyderabad 29,212 242,212 84,116 India 1948 1948 5 days Also known as Operation Polo

War crimes, massacres and ancient war atrocities

This section lists non-combatant deaths during wars that were committed or caused by military or quasi-military forces. They may not particularly target ethnic, religious, or political groups but are usually part of a military strategy that disregards civilian lives, or they may be arbitrary acts of cruelty.

Event Lowest estimateHighest estimate Geometric mean estimate[1]LocationFromUntil DurationNotes
War crimes during World War II 29,000,000 30,500,000 29,074,054 Worldwide 1939 1945 6 years See also: World War II casualties.
Japanese war crimes 3,000,000 (lowest estimate to include soldier deaths, famine or disease caused by Japanese imperialism)[52] 14,000,000+[53] 6,480,741 In and around East and South East Asia, Oceania and the Pacific 1931 1945 8 years Japanese war crimes occurred in many Asian and Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. If total casualties for these conflicts are assigned exclusively to Japanese aggression the toll could reach some 30 million deaths. These incidents have also been described as an Asian Holocaust[54] and Japanese war atrocities.[55][56][57] Some war crimes were committed by military personnel from the Empire of Japan in the late 19th century, although most took place during the first part of the Shōwa Era, the name given to the reign of Emperor Hirohito, until the surrender of the Empire of Japan, in 1945.
Three Alls Policy 2,700,000 2,700,000 2,700,000 China 1940 1942 2 years In a study published in 1996, historian Mitsuyoshi Himeta claims that the Three Alls Policy, a scorched-earth policy implemented by the Imperial Japanese Army on China, sanctioned by Emperor Hirohito himself, was both directly and indirectly responsible for the deaths of "more than 2.7 million" Chinese civilians.[58]
War crimes during the Chinese Civil War 1,800,000 3,500,000[59] 2,509,980 China 1927 1950 23 years During the war, both Nationalists and Communists carried out mass atrocities, with millions of non-combatants deliberately killed by both sides.[60]
War crimes during the First and Second Sudanese Civil Wars 2,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 Sudan 1956 2005 49 years [61]
War crimes during the Soviet–Afghan War 500,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 Afghanistan 1979 1989 10 years Some refer to the mass murder of civilians during the Soviet Invasion as a genocide, however those killed were on the basis of political alignment making it a politicide.


War crimes of Zhang Xianzhong 1,000,000 1,000,000[64] 1,000,000 Sichuan, China 1644 1646 2 years Committed during a bloody peasant revolt that massacred a large portion of Sichuan's population.
War crimes during Warlord Era China 910,000 910,000 910,000 China 1900 1927 27 years [65]
War crimes during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War 62,000[66] 485,000[66] 173,407 Ethiopia 1935 1941 6 years Angelo Del Boca, The Ethiopian War 1935–1941 (1965), cites a 1945 memorandum from Ethiopia to the Conference of Prime Ministers, which tallies 760,300 natives dead; of them: battle deaths: 275,000, hunger among refugees: 300,000, patriots killed during occupation: 78,500, concentration camps: 35,000, Feb. 1937 massacre: 30,000, executions: 24,000, civilians killed by air force: 17,800.
Mongol sacking after the Siege of Baghdad (1258) 200,000[67] 2,000,000[68] 632,456 Baghdad January 29, 1258 February 10, 1258 12 days Mass slaughter of civilians by the Mongols in Baghdad. Considered to be the end of the "Islamic Golden Age."
War crimes during the Angolan Civil War 500,000 500,000 500,000 Angola 1975 2002 27 years The 27-year war can be divided roughly into three periods of major fighting – 1975–91, 1992–94, and 1998 to 2002 – broken up by fragile periods of peace. By the time the MPLA achieved victory in 2002, more than 500,000 people had died and over one million had been internally displaced. The war devastated Angola's infrastructure, and severely damaged the nation's public administration, economic enterprises, and religious institutions.
Biological warfare and human experimentation by the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II 400,000 580,000[69] 481,664Parts of Russia and China especially Manchuria 1931 1945 14 years See also: Unit 731 and the Asian Holocaust.
War crimes during the Maratha invasions of Bengal 400,000[70][71] 400,000[70][71] 400,000 Bengal and Bihar regions of Indian subcontinent 1741 1751 10 years Maratha Empire invaded Bengal Subah, occupied the western Bengal and Bihar regions, and perpetrated atrocities against the local population.[70][71]
War crimes during La Violencia 200,000[72] 300,000[72] 244,949 Colombia 1948 1958 10 years

La Violencia was a ten-year period of civil war and violence in Colombia from 1948–58, between the Colombian Conservative Party and the Colombian Liberal Party, fought mainly in the rural countryside.
Death toll may include non-civilian victims.

War crimes during the Philippine–American War 200,000 250,000 223,607 Philippines 1899 1902 3 years [73][74][75][lower-alpha 2]
Manila Massacre100,000500,000 223,607Manila, Philippines19451945 1 month[76][77][78][79]
War crimes during the Colombian conflict 177,307 177,307 177,307 Colombia 1964 present 54 years [80]
War crimes during the War in the Vendée100,000[81][82]250,000[83][84] 158,114France during the French Revolution17931796 3 yearsDescribed as genocide by some historians,[82] but this claim has been widely discounted.[85] See also: French Revolution.
War crimes during the First and Second Chechen Wars 55,000 330,000 134,722 Chechnya 1994 2009 15 years [86][87][88][89]


War crimes during the Iran–Iraq War 61,000 282,000 131,156 Iran and Iraq 1980 1988 8 years 11,000 to 100,000[92] civilians killed on both sides, plus 50 to 182 killed in Kurdish Genocide.
War crimes committed by South Vietnam during the Diem era and Vietnam War 57,000 284,000 127,232 Vietnam 1954 1975 21 years [93]
War crimes during the Syrian Civil War 106,390 110,218 108,287 Syria 2011 present 7 years See also: List of massacres during the Syrian Civil War
War crimes of the Viet Cong 36,725[94] 227,000[95] 91,305 Vietnam 1955 1975 20 years
War crimes during the Second Italo-Senussi War 80,000 125,000 100,000 Libya 1923 1932 9 years Specific war crimes alleged to have been committed by the Italian armed forces against civilians include deliberate bombing of civilians, killing unarmed children, women, and the elderly; rape and disembowelment of women; throwing prisoners out of aircraft to their death, running over others with tanks, regular daily executions of civilians in some areas, and bombing tribal villages with mustard gas bombs, beginning in 1930.
War crimes of the Lord's Resistance Army 100,000 100,000 100,000 Uganda, Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of Congo 1986 2009 23 years The Guardian reported in 2015 that Kony's forces had been responsible for the deaths of over 100,000 people and the kidnapping of at least 60,000 children. Various atrocities committed include raping young girls and abducting them for use as sex slaves.
War crimes of the National Islamic Front 100,000 100,000 100,000 Sudan 1964 1999 35 years Alleged human rights abuses by the NIF regime included war crimes, ethnic cleansing, a revival of slavery, torture of opponents, and an unprecedented number of refugees fleeing into Uganda, Kenya, Eritrea, Egypt, Europe and North America.[96]
War crimes during the Papua conflict 100,000[97] 100,000[98] 100,000 West Papua 1963 present 55 years Since Indonesia has taken control of West Papua in 1963, the population of West Papua has recorded more than 100,000 unnatural deaths. The administration of West Papua has been called a police state.
War crimes during the Kashmir Conflict 47,000[99] 100,000[100] 68,556 Jammu and Kashmir, India 1947 present 71 years See also: Human Rights Abuses in Jammu and Kashmir, Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir, List of massacres in Jammu and Kashmir
The Rape of Nanking 13,000[101]
(all victims)
(Civilian massacre victims)
(all victims)
(Civilian massacre victims)
(all victims)
(Civilian massacre victims)
Nanking, China 1937 1938 1 year The Nanking Massacre, commonly known as the Rape of Nanking, was a war crime committed by the Japanese military in Nanjing, then capital of the Republic of China, after it fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on December 13, 1937.
See: Death toll of the Nanking Massacre.
War crimes during the Internal conflict in Peru61,007[104] [see notes]77,552[see notes] 68,784[see notes]Peru19802000 20 yearsIn the late 20th century, the Peruvian government (armed forces and civil rondas) fought against communist terrorists in Peru. The principal actors in the war were the Communist Party of Peru or "Shining Path" and the government of Peru; the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement was also involved and other paramilitary entities. Peru's Truth and Reconciliation Commission reached a figure of approx. 68,784 deaths and disappearances, of which 54% were ascribed to Shining Path, 1.5% to Tupac Amaru and 37% to State officials, who were also responsible for 83% of reported cases of sexual violence, and systematic use of torture. An academic research published in 2019 contests the Commission's methodology, reaching a total figure of approx. 47,849, of which 27,872 were victims of State officials, 18,341 of the Shining Path, and 1,636 by all other actors.[105][106]
War crimes during the Sheikh Said rebellion 15,000






Turkey 1925 1925 1 month The Sheikh Said Rebellion was a rebellion to revive the Islamic Caliphate System, and used elements of Kurdish nationalism for recruiting.[109] It was led by Sheikh Said and a group of former Ottoman soldiers, known as Hamidiye soldiers. The rebellion was of two Kurdish groups, the Zaza people and the speakers of the related Kurmanji dialect of Kurdish: it "was led specifically by the Zaza population and received almost full support in the entire Zaza region and some of the neighbouring Kurmanji-dominated regions".[110]
Violations of Human rights in ISIL-controlled territory Many tens of thousands Many tens of thousands Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan, Libya, Philippines, Nigeria and sporadic terrorism worldwide 2014 present 7 years ISIS has existed as an active terrorist organization in one form or another since at least 2003. Many tens of thousands of casualties in the Iraqi wars of the 21st century can be attributed to them and their parent organizations. See also the death tolls from 2014 onwards in International military intervention against ISIL
War Crimes during the Sri Lankan Civil War 7,000[111] 40,000[112] 16,733 Sri Lanka 1983 2009 26 years There are allegations that war crimes were committed by the Sri Lankan military and the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Tamil Tigers) during the Sri Lankan Civil War, particularly during the final months of the Eelam War IV phase in 2009. The alleged war crimes include attacks on civilians and civilian buildings by both sides; executions of combatants and prisoners by both sides; enforced disappearances by the Sri Lankan military and paramilitary groups backed by them; acute shortages of food, medicine, and clean water for civilians trapped in the war zone; and child recruitment by the Tamil Tigers.[113][114]
Sack of Thessalonica (904)15,00015,000[115] 15,000Byzantine Empire904904 ?The sack of the second city of the Byzantine Empire by a Muslim fleet under the command of Leo of Tripoli. In addition to the thousands killed, the Saracen fleet also took 20,000 Greek slaves.
Use of child soldiers in Iran during the Iran–Iraq war 6,000 18,000 10,392 Iran 1980 1988 8 years 3% of two to six hundred thousand casualties.[116][117][118][119][120][121][122][123][124][125]
Massacres during the Algerian Civil War 10,000 10,000 10,000 Algeria 1991 2002 11 years [126][127]
War crimes during the Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War 8,085 8,085 8,085 Syria September 2015 present 4 years [128] See also: Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War.
War crimes during the Balochistan conflict 7,628 7,628 7,628 Balochistan, Pakistan 1937 present 81 years [129][130][131]
September 11 attacks 2,977 2,977 2,977 United States September 11, 2001 September 11, 2001 1 day [132]
War crimes during the War in Donbass 2,000 2,000 2,000 Donbass, Ukraine 2014 present 4 years [133]
Sabra and Shatila massacre 460[134] 3,500[135] 1,269 West Beirut, Lebanon September 16, 1982 September 18, 1982 2 days Massacre of a Palestinian refugee camp by Lebanese Christians.
Fort Pillow massacre 235 235 235 Lauderdale County, Tennessee April 12, 1864 April 12, 1864 1 day Death toll includes both U.S. and Confederate dead. U.S. dead includes those both killed in combat and murdered by the Confederates afterwards.
Lawrence massacre 204 204 204 Douglas County, Kansas August 21, 1863 August 21, 1863 1 day Death toll includes both U.S. and Confederate dead. Deadliest terrorist attack in U.S. history until the Oklahoma City bombing of 1995.

Genocides, ethnic cleansing, and mass ethnic and/or religious persecution

This section lists events that entail the mass murder (or death caused by the forced eviction) of individuals on the basis of race, religion, or ethnicity.

Event Lowest estimateHighest estimate Geometric mean estimate[1]LocationFromUntil DurationNotes
Generalplan Ost (World War II casualties of the Soviet Union) 13,684,700 40,000,000 23,396,324 German-occupied Europe and Russia 1939 1945 6 years Germany's extermination of Slavic peoples and citizens of the Soviet Union.

Figure given is both as intentional genocide and overall civilian war casualties.

Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas 2,000,000[136] 138,000,000[5](mostly by disease) 16,613,248 North and South America 1492 1996[137][138][139][140] 504 years While the overall toll of man made deaths of Amerindians is unknown, there have been a few known events in which many Amerindians perished.

Thousands to millions more killed in forced labor, wars and massacres; Covers both North and South America Unknown number of Apache killed for bounty

See also: Spanish colonization of the Americas, Encomienda system, Mexican Indian Wars, List of Indian massacres

The Holocaust4,200,000[141] 6,300,000[142][143] 5,143,928 German-occupied Europe 1941 1945 4 years The systematic and bureaucratic genocide of European Jews by Germany and its puppet states.
Holodomor 2,711,000 7,811,000 4,601,698 Ukraine 1932 1933 1 year The term "Ukrainian Genocide" usually refers to the man-made famine of 1932 through 1933, called the Holodomor, in which the grain of Ukrainians was confiscated to the point where they could not survive off the amount of grain they had, and were also restricted from fleeing their villages to find food under threat of execution or deportation into a Gulag camp.

The term also includes the killing of Ukrainian intelligentsia during the Great Purge, especially the Orthodox Church.

The main advocate for this view was Raphael Lemkin, creator of the word genocide.

Data from after the opening of the Soviet archives records deaths at 2.4 to 7.5 million in famine, 300,000 during the purge, and 1,100 from the Law of Spikelets.

Some scholars dispute that the famine was deliberately engineered by the Soviet government or that it was a genocide.[144][145][146]

– Part of the Soviet famine of 1932–33

Nazi crimes against the Polish nation 2,770,000 2,770,000 2,770,000 German-occupied Poland 1941 1945 4 years Genocide of Christian Poles during the invasion of Poland by Germany.
Three Alls Policy 2,700,000 2,700,000 2,700,000 China 1940 1942 2 years In a study published in 1996, historian Mitsuyoshi Himeta claims that the Three Alls Policy, a scorched earth policy implemented by the Imperial Japanese Army on China, sanctioned by Emperor Hirohito himself, was both directly and indirectly responsible for the deaths of "more than 2.7 million" Chinese civilians.– Part of the Japanese war crimes
Cambodian genocide 1,386,734[147] 3,400,000[148] 2,171,381 Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 4 years Deaths due to arbitrary torture, execution, starvation, and forced labor among the population of Cambodia under the rule of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge, including both killings of ethnic Khmer (the majority ethnic group) as well as a genocide of religious and ethnic minorities by the Khmer Rouge.

Minimum death toll is the number of corpses found in the Killing Fields.
Samuel Totten argues the mass killings were committed by fellow Khmer, and the Khmer were killed more in proportion to their population than other victims of the Khmer Rouge, making it more of a politicide.[149]

These killings have been described as autogenocide or civil genocide.

According to Samuel Totten 1,325,000 ethnic Khmers were killed.

Rwandan and Burundian genocides 905,000 1,595,000 1,234,190 Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire 1959 1997 38 years Combined death toll of all genocides and other massacres between the Hutus and the Tutsis.

Regarded as the most efficient genocide of the 20th century, the Rwandan genocide was the disorganized communal mass murder of Tutsis, by their rival tribe the Hutu through the Rwandan government and Hutu Power militias such as the Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi.

Violence peaked in the hundred days between April 7, 1994 and July 15, 1994, during which time between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people were killed.

Population transfer in the Soviet Union 1,000,000 1,500,000 1,224,745 Soviet Union 1920 1951 31 years May include casualties of decossackization.
Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50) 500,000 3,000,000 1,224,745 Eastern Europe 1944 1950 6 years Both direct and indirect deaths of ethnic German civilians and POWs during the redrawing of national borders after World War II.
Kazakh famine of 1932–1933 1,500,000 2,300,000 1,857,418 Kazakhstan 1932 1933 1 year – Part of the Soviet famine of 1932–33
Armenian Genocide 800,000 1,500,000 1,095,445 Ottoman Empire 1914 1918 4 years The first genocide of the 20th century to kill over 1,000,000 people, this event was conducted by the Young Turks government of the Ottoman Empire under the administration of Talaat Pasha, Enver Pasha and Djemal Pasha.
Persecution of Hazara people during the 1888–1893 Uprisings of Hazaras 400,000[150] 2,500,000[151] 1,000,000 Afghanistan 1888 1893 5 years Over 60% of the Hazara population were either massacred or displaced in Abdur Rahman Khan's crackdown of the Hazaras.
Punti-Hakka Clan Wars 1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 China 1850 1867 17 years After the fall of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom the Qing government cracked down on the Hakka ethnic group for allying with the kingdom slaughtering 30,000 per day. The death toll of the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars is estimated to be 1,000,000 and there was also a mass execution done during the Taiping Rebellion. It is unclear whether these events refer to the Qing crackdown. If this death toll is applied to the estimated death rate, the massacre likely took place over the course of a month.[152][153][154]
French conquest of Algeria 500,000 1,000,000 707,107 Algeria 1827 1875 48 years Within the first three decades, the French military massacred between half a million to one million from approximately three million Algerian people.[155]
Partition of India 200,000 2,000,000 632,456 India 1947 1957 10 years In the riots which preceded the partition in the Punjab Province, it is believed that between 200,000 and 2,000,000 people were killed in the retributive genocide between Hindus and Muslims.[156][157][158]
Dzungar genocide 480,000 600,000 536,656 Dzungar Khanate 1755 1758 3 years The mass extermination of Dzungar Mongols by the Qing dynasty under the order of the Qianlong Emperor.
Greek genocide 289,000 750,000 465,564 Ottoman Empire 1913 1922 9 years Violent ethnic cleansing of Greeks from their historical homeland of Anatolia.
Persecution of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia 200,000[159] 1,000,000[159] 447,214 Independent State of Croatia 1941 1945 4 years Genocide of Serbs by the Ustaše government of the Independent State of Croatia
Circassian genocide 400,000 500,000 447,214 Circassia 1864 1867 3 years Deaths from mass expulsion of Circassians after Russian conquest.
Albigensian Crusade 200,000[160] 1,000,000[160] 447,214 Languedoc, France 1209 1229 20 years Raphael Lemkin, well known as the coiner of the term "genocide", referred to the Albigensian Crusade as "one of the most conclusive cases of genocide in religious history".[161]
Soviet killings of Polish peoples (Polish Operation of the NKVD (1937–38) and Soviet repressions of Polish citizens (1939–1946)) 260,000 750,000 441,588 Soviet Union and Poland 1937 1946 9 years [162]
Genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil 235,000 800,000 433,590 Brazil 1900 1985 85 years [163] – Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas
Occupation of Tibet 144,000[164] 1,200,000[165] 415,692 Tibet 1950 present 68 years In 1960, the western-based nongovernmental International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) gave a report titled Tibet and the Chinese People's Republic to the United Nations. The report was prepared by the ICJ's Legal Inquiry Committee, composed of eleven international lawyers from around the world. This report accused the Chinese of the crime of genocide in Tibet, after nine years of full occupation, six years before the devastation of the cultural revolution began. The ICJ also documented accounts of massacres, tortures and killings, bombardment of monasteries, and extermination of whole nomad camps. Declassified Soviet archives provides data that Chinese communists, who received a great assistance in military equipment from the Soviets, broadly used Soviet aircraft for bombing monasteries and other punitive operations in Tibet.[166]
Romani Genocide 220,000 500,000 331,662 Nazi occupied Europe 1941 1945 4 years The genocide of Romani by Nazi Germany and its puppet states.
1971 Bangladesh genocide


3,000,000[168] 279,285 East Pakistan March 21, 1971 December 16, 1971 8 months, 2 weeks and 3 days See also: Bangladesh Liberation War, Operation Searchlight, List of massacres in Bangladesh, Rape during the Bangladesh Liberation War
Chinese genocide under Khmer Rouge 215,000[149] 225,000 219,943 Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 4 years More than half of the Chinese population of Cambodia were slaughtered by the Khmer Rouge.[169]– Part of the Cambodian genocide
Assyrian genocide 150,000 300,000 212,132 Ottoman Empire 1914 1920 6 years One of the various genocides and ethnic cleansings the Ottoman Empire committed under the administration of the Young Turks.
Cham genocide under Khmer Rouge 90,000[149] 500,000[170] 212,132 Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 4 years The genocide slaughtered over 70% of the Cham Muslim population in Cambodia according to themselves.

According to Ben Kiernan, Cham were subjected to the most brutal treatment of those persecuted by the Khmer Rouge and subjected to the slaughter of 36% of their population according to Samuel Totten.

– Part of the Cambodian genocide

Massacres of Hutu refugees during the First Congo War 200,000 220,000[171] 209,762 Zaire 1996 1997 1 year During the First Congo War, Rwanda was able to destroy refugee camps, which the génocidaires had been using as their safe-bases, and forcibly repatriate Tutsi to Rwanda. During this process, Rwandan and aligned forces committed multiple atrocities, mainly against Hutu refugees. The true extent of the abuses is unknown because the AFDL and RPF carefully managed NGO and press access to areas where atrocities were thought to have occurred;[172] however, Amnesty International claimed as many as 200,000 Rwandese Hutu refugees were massacred by them and the Rwandan Defence Forces and aligned forces.[173] The United Nations similarly documented mass killings of civilians by Rwandan, Ugandan and the ADFL soldiers in the DRC Mapping Exercise Report.
Extermination of the Wu Hu 200,000 200,000 200,000 Northern China 350 351 1 year Ancient Chinese texts record that General Ran Min ordered the extermination of the Wu Hu, especially the Jie people, during the Wei–Jie war in the fourth century AD. People with racial characteristics such as high-bridged noses and bushy beards were killed; in total, 200,000 were reportedly massacred.[174]
Cromwellian conquest of Ireland 200,000 200,000 200,000 Ireland 1649 1653 4 years The Parliamentarian reconquest of Ireland was brutal, and Cromwell is still a hated figure in Ireland.[175] The extent to which Cromwell, who was in direct command for the first year of the campaign, was responsible for the atrocities is debated to this day. Some historians[176] argue that the actions of Cromwell were within the then-accepted rules of war, or were exaggerated or distorted by later propagandists. These arguments, in turn, have been challenged by others.[177]
Caste War of Yucatán 200,000 200,000 200,000 Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico 1847 1901 54 years The Caste War of Yucatán against the population of European descent, called Yucatecos, who held political and economic control of the region. Adam Jones wrote, "Genocidal atrocities on both sides cost up to 200,000 killed."[178]– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas
Great Famine of Mount Lebanon 200,000 200,000 200,000 Mount Lebanon 1915 1918 3 years One of the various genocides and ethnic cleansings the Ottoman Empire committed under the administration of the Young Turks.
Third Punic War 150,000[179] 250,000[180] 193,649 Tunisia 149 BC 146 BC 3 years This war was a much smaller engagement than the two previous Punic Wars and focused on Tunisia, mainly on the Siege of Carthage, which resulted in the complete destruction of the city, the annexation of all remaining Carthaginian territory by Rome, and the death or enslavement of the entire Carthaginian population. The Third Punic War ended Carthage's independent existence.
Destruction of Kurdish villages during the Iraqi Arabization campaign 87,500 388,100 184,279 Iraq 1977 1991 14 years 87,500 to 388,100 Kurds were killed in the destruction of Kurdish villages during the Iraqi Arabization campaign including: 2,500[181] to 12,500[181] in the Ba'athist Arabization campaigns in North Iraq, 10,000[182] to 25,000[183][184] were killed during the Feyli Kurds operation, 5,000[185] to 8,000[186] Kurds were disapeared in the

1983 Barzani killings, 50,000[187] to 100,000[187] (although Kurdish sources have cited a higher figure of 182,000[188]) more Kurds were massacred in the Anfal genocide, and at least 20,000[189] were killed during the 1991 Iraqi uprising notwithstanding an additional 48,400[190] to 140,600[190] Kurdish refugees that starved to death along the Iranian and Turkish borders.

Darfur genocide
  • 168,375 (non-government estimates)
  • 54,772 (government estimates)
Darfur, Sudan 2003 present 15 years The War in Darfur is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan that began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups began fighting the government of Sudan, which they accused of oppressing Darfur's non-Arab population.[195][196] The government responded to attacks by carrying out a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Darfur's non-Arabs. This resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians and the indictment of Sudan's president Omar al-Bashir for genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Court.[197]
Polish Operation of the NKVD 110,000 250,000 165,831 Soviet Union 1937 1938 1 year The operation from 1937 to 1938 to eliminate the Polish minority in the Soviet Union.
Deportation of the Chechens and Ingush 123,000[198] 200,000[199] 156,843 Soviet Union February 1944 March 1944 1 month Expulsion of the whole of the Vainakh (Chechen and Ingush) populations of the North Caucasus to Central Asia.
Hamidian Massacres 80,000 300,000 154,919 Ottoman Empire 1894 1896 2 years Mass murder of Armenian (and other Christian) civilians under Sultan Abdul Hamid II that foreshadowed the Armenian Genocide.
Indonesian occupation of East Timor 60,000[200] 308,000[201] 135,941 East Timor 1974 1999 25 years The civilian deaths under the Indonesian occupation of East Timor, including killings, disappearances, and deaths caused by conflict-related hunger and illness,[202] resulted in an enormous proportional loss of life upon the island some estimating as high as 13% up to almost a third to almost 44% of the population.[201][203][204]
Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia 60,000[205][206][207] 300,000[208] 134,164 Volhyn and Eastern Galicia 1943 1944 1 year Genocide[209][210] of Polish civilian population in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA).[211][212][213][214][215]
1972 Genocide of Burundian Hutus 80,000 210,000 129,615 Burundi 1972 1972 ? Communal mass murder of Hutus by their rival tribe the Tutsi in Burundi.

– Part of the Rwandan and Burundian genocides

Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire 52,000 254,500 115,039 Russian Empire 1903–1906 1917–1922 19 years The massacres of Jews in the Russian Empire reached their peak in the early 20th century, through the killing of thousands from 1903 to 1906[216] and tens to hundreds of thousands from 1917 to 1922.[217]
Kurdish Rebellions in Turkey 33,835 357,000 109,905 Turkey 1921 present 97 years All casualties from the various Kurdish uprisings against the Turkish state.
Deportation of the Crimean Tatars 100,000 100,000 100,000 Soviet Union 1944 1945 1 year Often considered an ethnic cleansing, and Ukraine considers the event genocide.
Massacres of European colonists during the rebellions of Túpac Amaru II and Túpac Katari 100,000 100,000 100,000 Present day Peru 1780 1782 2 years The indigenous rebellions of Túpac Amaru II and Túpac Katari against the Spanish between 1780 and 1782, cost over 100,000 colonists' lives in Peru and Upper Peru (present-day Bolivia).[228]
Spanish repressions of Dutch Protestants 100,000 100,000 100,000 The Low Countries 1566 1609 43 years 100,000 massacred under Charles V and Philip II during the Eighty Years' War.[229]
Al-Anfal genocide[230] 50,000[230] 182,000[188] 95,394 Iraq[230] 1986 1989 3 years The Kurdish genocide led by Ali Hassan al-Majid under the order of Saddam Hussein.
Atrocities against Harkis after the Algerian War 50,000[231] 150,000[231] 86,603 Algeria 1962 ? ? The Harkis were seen as traitors by many Algerians, and many of those who stayed behind suffered severe reprisals after independence. French historians estimate that somewhere between 50,000 and 150,000 Harkis and members of their families were killed by the FLN or by lynch mobs in Algeria, often in atrocious circumstances or after torture.
Aktion T4 70,273 93,521 81,068 Nazi Germany 1939 1941 2 years A euthanasia program in Nazi Germany used to purge those deemed genetically deficient.
Italian Pacification of Libya 80,000 80,000 80,000 Libya 1923 1932 9 years [232]
Guatemalan genocide 35,000 166,000 76,223 Guatemala 1960 1996 36 years According to the Historical Clarification Commission, 140,000 to 200,000 were killed or disappeared, and at least 42,275 were killed by human rights violations during the Guatemalan Civil War, of which 93% were from officially sanctioned government terror and 83% of the victims were Maya.

– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas

Racial violence during the Rwandan Revolution 50,000 Hutus and tens of thousands of Tutsis Burundi and Rwanda 1959 1962 3 years [233]
Indian annexation of Hyderabad 27,000 200,000 73,485 Hyderabad State, India 1948 1948 5 days [234][235]
Decossackization 5,000[236] 1,000,000[237] 70,711 Former Russian Empire 1917 1933 16 years Violent class purge, ethnic cleansing, and mass murder of Cossacks, especially Kuban and Don Cossacks, by the Bolsheviks.
Effacer le tableau 60,000 70,000 64,807 Democratic Republic of Congo 1998 2003 5 years Pygmy peoples were murdered en masse as they were regarded as subhumans.
Herero and Namaqua genocide 34,000 110,000 61,156 German South-West Africa 1904 1907 3 years Genocides of the Herero and Nama peoples by the German Empire during the Herero Wars.
Ethnic cleansing and genocide committed by all sides during the Yugoslav Wars 52,856 64,917 58,577 Yugoslavia 1991 2001 10 years All civilians killed in the Yugoslav Wars including events such as the Srebrenica Massacre, Žepa Massacre, Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing, and other atrocities.

69.8% to 82% of civilian victims of the Bosnian War were Bosniak. During the War in Croatia, 43.4% of the killed on the Croatian side were civilians.[238]

American Indian Wars of the United States 49,000 64,000 56,000 Now the United States 1511 1890 389 years From the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1894): "The Indian wars under the government of the United States have been more than 40 in number. They have cost the lives of about 19,000 white people, including those killed in individual combats, and the lives of about 30,000 Indians. The actual number of killed and wounded Indians must be very much higher than the given ... Fifty percent additional would be a safe estimate ..." Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas.
Massacres of Polish civilians during the Warsaw Uprising 50,000 60,000[245][246] 54,772 Occupied Poland August 5, 1944August 12, 1944 1 weekPolish fatalities in districts of Wola and Ochota committed during Warsaw Uprising
1993 Genocide of Burundian Tutsis 50,000 50,000 50,000 Burundi 1993 1993 ? Communal mass murder of Tutsis by their rival tribe the Hutu in Burundi.

– Part of the Rwandan and Burundian genocides

Witch trials in the early modern period 20,000 100,000 44,721 Europe 1400 1800 300 years [247]
British concentration camps during the Second Boer War 26,000 40,000 32,249 Transvaal 1900 1902 2 years Lord Kitchener led the British army against the Boer Republics in the Second Boer War in Southern Africa. In an attempt to pacify Boer guerrillas, he targeted their families, and 116,000 Boer women and children were captured and jailed by the British, Within 2 years, 22,074 children died and 4,177 women died due to deliberate neglect by the British. 115,000 black people were separately jailed, of whom 15,000 died in prison camps.[248]
Great Fire of Smyrna 10,000[249][250] 100,000[251][252] 31,623 Smyrna, Ottoman Empire September 9, 1922 September 24, 1922 15 days Fires set during attacks on Greeks and Armenians by Turkish mobs and military forces in Smyrna at the end of the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922).

The violence and fires resulted in the destruction of the Greek and Armenian portions of the city and the massacre of their populations.

After the attacks, 30,000 Greek and Armenian men left behind were deported by Turkish forces, many of whom were subsequently killed.

Massacres of Kyrgyz people during the Central Asian revolt of 1916 3,000 270,000 28,460 Russian Empire, Kyrgyzstan 1916 1916 7 months In 1916, there was an uprising and crackdown of Kyrgyzstanis against and by Tsarist Russia in what is now known as the Urkun.

A public commission in Kyrgyzstan called the crackdown of 1916 that killed 100,000 to 270,000 Kyrgyzstanis a genocidethough Russia rejected this characterization.[253]

Russian sources put the death toll at 3,000.[254]

Captivity of Mangalorean Catholics at Seringapatam 10,000 65,000 25,495 Canara 1784 1799 15 years A 15-year imprisonment of Mangalorean Catholics and other Christians at Seringapatam in the Indian region of Canara by Tipu Sultan, the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.
1988 Burundian massacre of Hutus 25,000 25,000 25,000 Burundi 1988 1988 ? [233] – Part of the Rwandan and Burundian genocides
Parsley massacre 17,000[255][256] 35,000[255][256] 24,393 Dominican Republic October 2, 1937 October 8, 1937 6 days Genocidal massacre of people who say perejil (Spanish: "parsley") in a French accent in order to determine if they are Afro-Haitian or Afro-Dominican.
Australian frontier wars 22,000 22,500 22,249 Australia 1788 1934 146 years Wars between Indigenous Australians and settlers in which about 20,000 aboriginal were massacred, along with two to 2,500 settlers dying in combat.See also: List of massacres of Indigenous Australians
Ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia 17,000 28,000 21,817 Abkhazia and Georgia 1992 1993 1 year The ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia,[257][258][259][260][261][262][263][264][265][266][267][268] also known as the "massacres of Georgians in Abkhazia",[269][270] and "genocide of Georgians in Abkhazia"[271] Refers to ethnic cleansing,[272] massacres[273] and forced mass expulsion of thousands of ethnic Georgians
Dersim Massacre 7,594 40,000 17,429 Dersim, Turkey 1937 1937 8 months The Dersim massacre was a massacre of Kurdish people (Alevi Kurmanj and Zaza) by the Turkish government in the Dersim region of eastern Turkey, which includes parts of Tunceli Province, Elazığ Province, and Bingöl Province.[274][275][276][277][278][279][280] The massacre occurred after a rebellion led by Seyid Riza against the Turkification policies of the Turkish government.[281] As a result of the Turkish military campaign against the rebellion, thousands of Alevi Zazas[282] died and many others were internally displaced due to the conflict.

– Part of the Kurdish Rebellions in Turkey

1966 anti-Igbo pogrom 10,000 30,000 17,321 Nigeria May 29, 1966 October 1966 4 months, 2 days [283]
Indian massacres in the United States frontiers 16,349 16,349 16,349 What is now the United States 1511 1890 379 years It is difficult to determine the total number of people who died as a result of Indian massacres. However, one book, The Wild Frontier: Atrocities during the American-Indian War from Jamestown Colony to Wounded Knee, presents an estimate by counting every recorded atrocity in the area that would eventually become the continental United States, from first contact (1511) to the closing of the frontier (1890). The parameters were limited to the intentional and indiscriminate murder, torture, or mutilation of civilians, the wounded, and prisoners. The results revealed that 7,193 people died from atrocities perpetrated by those of European descent, and 9,156 people died from atrocities perpetrated by Native Americans.[284]– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas
Persecution of Biharis in Bangladesh 1,000 150,000[285][286] 12,247 Bangladesh 1971 1971 ? Most extreme episode of the massacres of Biharis by Bengali mobs
Gukurahundi 3,750[287] 30,000[288] 10,607 Zimbabwe 1983 1987 5 years Ethnic cleansing and executions of members of the Ndebele by the Robert Mugabe's Fifth Brigade.
Vietnamese genocide by Khmer Rouge 10,000[149] 10,000 10,000 Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 4 years 100% of the Vietnamese in Cambodia were slaughtered during the genocide, according to Samuel Totten.

– Part of the Cambodian genocide

Thai Genocide by Khmer Rouge 8,000[149] 8,000 8,000 Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 4 years 40% of Thai in Cambodia were killed during the Cambodian genocide according to Samuel Totten.

– Part of the Cambodian genocide

1946 Bihar riots 2,000 30,000 7,746 Bihar, British India October 30, 1946 November 7, 1946 8 days Killings of Bihari Muslims by Bengali Hindus in retaliation to the Direct Action Day riots.[289][290]
Noakhali riots 5,000 10,000 7,071 Noakhali Region, Bengal, British India October 1946 November 1946 1 month Killings of Bengali Hindus by Bengali Muslims in retaliation to the Direct Action Day riots.
Sétif and Guelma massacre 1,020 45,000 6,775 Algeria 1945 1945 ? [231]
Deaths of indigenous children in the Canadian residential schools system 3,201[291][292] 32,010 17,606 Canada 1876 1996 120 years [293][137][138][139][294][295][140][296]– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas
Genocide of native Tasmanians 3,000 15,000 6,708 Australia 1803 1905 102 years After the death of Fanny Cochrane Smith there were no non-mixed raced Tasmanians left in the world.
Massacres of Arabs and Indians during the Zanzibar Revolution 2,000 20,000 6,325 Zanzibar 1964 1964 ? Thousands of Arabs and Indians were massacred during the Zanzibar Revolution
1964 East Pakistan riots 5,590 5,690 5,640 East Pakistan January 2, 1964 March 28, 1964 2 months, 26 days All casualties from the various riots in East Pakistan during the year 1964.
  • Khulna: 200–300
  • Dhaka: 1,000
  • Narayangang: 3,500
  • Bhulta: 267
  • Golkandi: 623
Simele massacre 5,000[297] 6,000[298][299] 5,477 Simele, Kingdom of Iraq August 7, 1933 August 11, 1933 4 days The Simele massacre inspired Raphael Lemkin to create the concept of genocide.[300]
1950 East Pakistan riots 4,803 4,833 4,818 East Bengal February 1950 March 1950 1 month All casualties from the various riots in East Pakistan during the year 1950.
  • 70–100: Nachole
  • 215: Dhaka
  • 2,500: Barisal
  • 17: Rajshahi
  • 2,000: Mymensingh
  • 1: Jessore
1984 Sikh Massacre 2,800 8,000 4,733 India October 31, 1984 November 3, 1984 1 month A series of pogroms against Sikhs primarily done by members of the Indian National Congress party due to the assassination of the prime minister.
Nellie massacre 2,191 10,000 4,681 Assam, India Six hours on February 18, 1983 Six hours on February 18, 1983 6 hours Killings of 2191 Bengali Musims after Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's decision to give 4 million Bengali Musilms in Assam the right to vote[301]
Laotian genocide by Khmer Rouge 4,000 4,000 4,000 Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 4 years 40% of Laotians in Cambodia were killed during the Cambodian genocide according to Samuel Totten.[149]– Part of the Cambodian genocide
Direct Action Day 4,000 4,000 4,000 India August 16, 1946 August 18, 1946 2 days Also known as the Great Calcutta Killings, a day of widespread riot and manslaughter between Hindus and Muslims in the city of Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal province of British India.
1804 Haiti massacre 3,000 5,000 3,873 Haiti Early February 1804 April 22, 1804 ? Genocide of French people in Haiti.[302]
Trail of Tears 2,000 6,000 3,464 United States 1830 1850 20 years The forced relocation of various Native American tribes under the order of Andrew Jackson.

– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas

Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL 2,000[303][304] 5,000 3,162 Sinjar, Iraq and Syria 2014 present 4 years Ethnic cleansing, execution, forced conversion, rape, and enslavement of Yazidis by ISIL
Selk'nam genocide 2,500[305] 3,900[306] 3,122 Tierra del Fuego, Chile Late 1800s Early 1900s ? Genocide of Selknam Native Chilean tribe.

– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas

Massacre of protesters at the Demolition of the Babri Masjid 2,000 2,000 2,000 Ayodhya, India 1992 1993 1 year The destruction of a prominent mosque in India by Hindu extremists and killings of Muslim protesters.[307]
2002 Gujarat riots 1,044 2,977[308] 1,763 Gujarat, India February 2002 March 2002 1 month Minimum death toll includes 790 Muslim death toll. Both death tolls include 254 Hindu deaths. Maximum death toll includes 223 presumed mixing as dead, and a higher 2,500 Muslim death toll.
Genocide of Shias by ISIL Tens of thousands[309] Tens of thousands Tens of thousands Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan 2003 present 16 years Ethnic cleansing, execution, forced conversion, rape, and enslavement of Shias by ISIL. One of the first instances was the Imam Ali Mosque bombing in Najaf
Conquest of the Desert 1,300 1,300 1,300 Argentina Mid 1870s 1884 ? Military campaign, directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca, which established Argentine dominance over Patagonia, then inhabited by indigenous peoples.[310]– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas
Genocide of Christians by ISIL Thousands[311] Thousands Thousands Worldwide 2014 present 4 years Ethnic cleansing, execution, forced conversion, rape, and enslavement of Christians by ISIL. In Iraq, the genocide started before 2014, as exemplified by the 2010 Baghdad church massacre
Black War 878 878 878 Australia Mid 1820s 1832 ? – Part of the Genocide of native Tasmanians
Biological warfare at the Siege of Fort Pitt ? ? ? Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania June 22, 1763 August 10, 1763 1 months, 18 days The death toll resulting from the event is unknown – Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas

Political purges and repressions

This section lists events that entail the mass killings of political opposition (such as those of certain ideology, class or political persuasion).

See also: Red Terror (disambiguation), White Terror, and Politicide.

Event Lowest estimateHighest estimate Geometric mean estimate[1]LocationFromUntil DurationNotes
Mass killings of landlords under Mao Zedong 800,000 28,000,000 4,732,864People's Republic of China19471951 4 yearsMillions of landlords were killed during land reforms before the formation of the People's Republic of China because they were seen as class enemies.[312]
See also: Struggle session
Cultural Revolution400,000[313]10,000,000[314] 2,000,000People's Republic of China19661976 10 yearsThe Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 until 1976. Set into motion by Mao Zedong, then Chairman of the Communist Party of China, its stated goal was to preserve 'true' Communist ideology in the country by purging remnants of capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese society.
See also: Struggle session
Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66500,000[315]3,000,000[316] 1,224,745Indonesia19651966 1 yearMassacres of people connected to the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) were carried out in 1965–66 by the Indonesian Army and associated death squads with support from Western powers such as the United States.[317] Death tolls are difficult to estimate,[318] but it is widely accepted by scholars that roughly 1 million people were killed.[319]
Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries712,000[320]2,000,000[321] 1,193,315People's Republic of China19501951 1 yearThe Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries (Chinese: 镇压反革命; pinyin: zhènyā fǎn gémìng; literally: 'suppressing counterrevolutionaries' or abbreviated as Chinese: 鎮反; pinyin: zhènfǎn) was the first political campaign launched by the People's Republic of China designed to eradicate opposition elements, especially former Kuomintang (KMT) functionaries accused of trying undermine the new Communist government.[320]
Great Purge681,692[322]1,704,230[323] 1,077,850Soviet Union19361938 2 yearsThe Great Purge or Great Terror was a period of intense political repression in the Soviet Union including execution (especially through open air shootings) and forced labor through the Gulag system.
White Terror (Russia) 300,000 300,000[324] 300,000 Former Russian Empire 1917 1923 6 years Political repression by the White movement during the Russian Civil War.
White Terror (Spain) 150,000[325]400,000[326] 244,949Spain during and after the Spanish Civil War19361945 9 yearsIn Spain, the White Terror (also known as "la Represión Franquista" or the "Francoist Repression") was the series of acts of politically motivated violence, rape, and other crimes committed by the Nationalist movement during the Spanish Civil War (July 17, 1936 to April 1, 1939) and during Francisco Franco's dictatorship (October 1, 1936 – November 20, 1975)[327]
Qey Shibir30,000750,000[328] 150,000People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia19771978 1 yearViolent purge of those deemed Anti-Communist in Ethiopia.[329][330][331][332][333]
Bodo League Massacre 100,000[334] 200,000[335] 141,421 Korea 1950 1950 ? Massacre of communists and suspected communists during the summer of 1950, at the start of Korean War.
Nazi suppression of the Freemasons80,000[336]200,000[336] 126,491Nazi occupied territory19331945 12 yearsThe Nazis targeted Freemasons as they saw them as collaborators in a Jewish conspiracy.
Red Terror10,000[337]1,500,000[338] 122,474Former Russian Empire during Russian Civil War19181922 4 yearsPolitical repression by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War.
1991 uprisings in Iraq 25,000 180,000 67,082 Iraq March the 1st, 1991 April the 5th, 1991 1 month and 4 days The death toll of the uprising against Saddam Hussein's government during 1991 was high throughout the country. The rebels killed many Ba'athist officials and officers. In response, thousands of unarmed civilians were killed by indiscriminate fire from loyalist tanks, artillery and helicopters, and many historical and religious structures in the south were deliberately targeted under orders from Saddam Hussein. Saddam's security forces entered the cities, often using women and children as human shields, where they detained and summarily executed or "disappeared" thousands of people at random in a policy of collective responsibility. Many suspects were tortured, raped, or burned alive.[339]
Operation Condor50,00080,000[340] 63,246South America19751983 8 yearsA campaign of political repression by right-wing dictatorships in South America, sponsored by the United States.[341][342]
Red Terror (Spain)38,000[343]72,344[344] 52,432Spain during the Spanish Civil War19361939 3 yearsThe Red Terror in Spain (Spanish: Terror Rojo)[345] is the name given by historians to various acts of violence committed from 1936 until the end of the Spanish Civil War "by sections of nearly all the leftist groups".[346]
Land Reform in Vietnam13,500[347]200,000[348] 51,962North Vietnam19541956 2 years
Reign of Terror 16,594[349] 41,594[350] 26,272 France during the French Revolution 1793 1794 1 year The Reign of Terror was a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between two rival political factions, the Girondins and The Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution".
1982 Hama Massacre 10,000 40,000 20,000 Hama, Syria February 2, 1982 February 28, 1982 26 days The Hama massacre (Arabic: مجزرة حماة) occurred in February 1982, when the Syrian Arab Army and the Defense Companies, under the orders of the country's president Hafez al-Assad, besieged the town of Hama for 27 days in order to quell an uprising by the Muslim Brotherhood against al-Assad's government.
1932 Salvadoran peasant massacre 10,000 40,000[351] 20,000 El Salvador January 22, 1932 July 11, 1932 6 months and 20 days Many of the victims were indigenous people.
February 28 Incident 10,000 30,000 17,320 Taiwan 1947 1947 ? Crackdown by the Kuomintang government that ushered in the White Terror (Taiwan) era.
Dirty War9,000[352]30,000[341] 16,432Argentina19761983 7 yearsAt least 9,000 people were tortured and killed in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, carried out primarily by the Argentinean military Junta (part of Operation Condor).[341]
Red and White terrors of the Finnish Civil War11,65011,650 11,650Finland19181918 3 months, 2 weeks and 4 daysBoth sides of the Finnish Civil War used Terrors where 10,000 were killed in the White Terror and 1,650 were killed in the Red Terror.[353]
1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners 4,482 30,000 11,596 Iran 1988 1988 5 months Massacre of political prisoners in Iran.[354][355][356]
White Terror (Taiwan)3,0004,000 3,464Taiwan19491987 38 yearsAn era of martial law in Taiwan in which 140,000 where imprisoned, and 3,000 to 4,000 were executed for real or perceived opposition to the Kuomintang.
1989 Tiananmen Square protests crackdown 241 10,000[357] 3,000 Tiananmen Square, People's Republic of China 1989 1989 1 month, 2 weeks and 6 days Crackdown of anti-government protest in the People's Republic of China.
Human rights violations in Pinochet's Chile 1,200 3,200 1,960 Chile 1974 1990 16 years 1,200 to 3,200 alleged communists were executed, 80,000 were forcibly interned and 30,000 were tortured under the reign of Augusto Pinochet.[358][359]

Forced labor, abuse of workers, and slave trades

This section lists deaths caused by poor labor conditions, executions for not performing labor satisfactorily, and deaths caused by mistreatment of the workforce both in transit and at work locations.

Event Lowest estimateHighest estimate Geometric mean estimate[1]LocationFromUntil DurationNotes
Arab slave trade 7,545,000[360] 70,000,000[361] 22,981,514 Middle East, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa 700s 1899 more than 1100 years

1500 to 1899:

  • (1500 - 1599-[362]
    • 1.000.000 - 1,300,000 (Africans
    • 115,000 - 180,000 ( Europeans )
  • (1600 - 1699 [363]
    • 1,300,000 ( Africans )
    • 130,000 - 200,000 ( Europeans )
  • (1700 - 1799)- 2,000,000 ( Africans) [364]
  • (1800 - 1899)- 3.000.000 ( Africans ) [365]

Other sources estimate as many as 70 million could have perished.[361]

Laogai system 15,000,000[366] 27,000,000 20,124,610 China 1945 1976 31 years Laogai (勞改/劳改), the abbreviation for Láodòng Gǎizào (勞動改造/劳动改造), which means "reform through labor", is a slogan of the Chinese criminal justice system and has been used to refer to the use of penal labour and prison farms in the People's Republic of China (PRC), which once took up more than half of the world's slaves. Laogai is different from laojiao, or re-education through labor, which was an administrative detention for a person who was not a criminal but had committed minor offenses, and was intended to reform offenders into law-abiding citizens.[367] Persons detained under laojiao were detained in facilities that were separate from the general prison system of laogai. Both systems, however, involved penal labor.
Atlantic Slave Trade 2,000,000[368] 60,000,000[369] 10,954,451 Africa, the Americas, and the Atlantic 1500s 1700s 200 years
Slavery in the Ottoman Empire 10,500,000[370][371] 11,250,000 10,868,533 Eurasia, Middle East, North Africa 1450 1800 350 years There is no concrete number for the number of people killed due to the Barbary Slave Trade.

The method many people use is to estimate the mortality rate of slave raids and multiply them by the number people took as slaves. Scholars estimates 3 people were killed for every 1 slave abducted. Includes Barbary Slave Trade.

Atrocities in the Congo Free State 3,000,000[lower-alpha 3] 13,000,000[373] 6,244,998 Congo Free State18851908 23 yearsPrivate forces under the control of Leopold II of Belgium carried out mass murders, mutilations, and other crimes against the Congolese in order to encourage the gathering of valuable raw materials, principally rubber. Significant deaths also occurred due to major disease outbreaks and starvation, caused by population displacement and poor treatment.[374] Estimates of the death toll vary considerably because of the lack of a formal census before 1924, but a commonly cited figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924.[375]
Gulag system 1,053,829[376][377] 6,000,000[378] 2,514,552 Soviet Union 1930s 1950s 20 years Gulag is an acronym for the organization that administered the forced labor system in the Soviet Union that became a colloquialism in the west for the camps themselves. The system was used to punish criminals, political dissidents, and prisoners of war. There is a growing consensus among scholars that, based on archival data, the number of deaths in the gulag system fall within the range 1.5 to 1.7 million.[379][380][381]
Forced labor in North Korea 400,000 1,500,000 774,597 North Korea 1972 ongoing 46 years [382][383]
Hacienda peonage and chattel slavery 173,000 2,015,000 590,419 Mexico 1900 1920 20 years R.J. Rummel, coiner of the word "Democide," estimated the mortality rate for Mexican Peonage, a form of debt labor, by comparing it to similar forced labor systems such as the Soviet Gulag, and then applying and reducing it accordingly to the population of Mexico at the time, coming up with an annual death rate of 69,000.
Forced labor of Koreans by Imperial Japan 270,000 810,000 467,654 Korea and Manchuria 1939 1945 6 years [384]
Slavery in the French colonial empire 200,000 13,000,000 1,612,452 Africa 1900 1940 40 years [385]
Slavery in Portugal 325,000 325,000 325,000 Portuguese Empire 1900 1925 25 years [386]
Barbary slave trade 245,000 380,000 305,123 Italy, Spain, and Portugal 1500s 1600s 100 years [387] – Part of Slavery in the Ottoman Empire
Slavery during the Amazon rubber boom 250,000 250,000 250,000 Amazon, Brazil 1900 1912 12 years [388]
Construction of the Burma Railway 102,621[389] 102,621[389] 102,621 Burma 1943 1947 4 years

Forced labour was used in the construction of the Burma Railway. More than 180,000 Southeast Asian civilian labourers (Romusha) and 60,000 Allied prisoners of war (POWs) worked on the railway. Of these, estimates of Romusha deaths are little more than guesses, but probably about 90,000 died. 12,621 Allied POWs died during the construction. The dead POWs included 6,904 British personnel, 2,802 Australians, 2,782 Dutch, and 133 Americans.[389]

Construction of the Suez Canal 30,000 120,000 67,082 Egypt, and Sudan 1859 1868 9 years French diplomat Ferdinand de Lesseps had obtained many concessions from Isma'il Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan in 1854–56 to build the Suez Canal. Some sources estimate the workforce at 30,000,[390] but others estimate that 120,000 workers died over the ten years of construction due to malnutrition, fatigue, and disease, especially cholera.[391]
Forced labor of Chinese contract workers in Peru 40,000[392] 50,054[393] 44,746 Peru 1849 1874 26 years 80,000[392] to 100,000[393][392] Chinese contract laborers, 95% of which were Cantonese and almost all of which were male, were sent mostly to the sugar plantations from 1849 to 1874, during the termination of slavery. They were to provide continuous labor for the coastal guano mines and especially for the coastal plantations where they became a major labor force (contributing greatly to the Peruvian guano boom) until the end of the century. While the coolies were believed to be reduced to virtual slaves, they also represented a historical transition from slave to free labor. A third group of Chinese workers was contracted for the construction of the railway from Lima to La Oroya and Huancayo. Chinese migrants were barred from using cemeteries reserved for Roman Catholics, and were instead buried at pre-Incan burial sites.[394] Between 1849 and 1874 half[393][392] the Chinese population of Peru perished due to abuse, exhaustion, and suicide[393] caused by forced labor.[393][392]
Forced labor of Allied POWs during World War II 35,000 35,000 35,000 In and around the Pacific 1939 1945 6 years According to the Japanese military's own record, nearly 25% of 140,000 Allied POWs died while interned in Japanese prison camps, where they were forced to work (U.S. POWs died at a rate of 27%).[395][396]
FIFA World Cup related abuses of Human rights in Qatar 1,200 1,800 1,342 Qatar 2013 ongoing 5 years Out of at least 100,000 laborers.[397]

Anthropogenically exacerbated outbreaks of disease and famine

This section includes famines and disease outbreaks that were caused or exacerbated by human action.

Note: Some of these famines diseases were partially caused by nature.

Event Lowest estimateHighest estimate Geom. mean estimate[1]LocationFromUntil DurationNotes
Great Chinese Famine11,600,000[398] 55,000,000[399] 25,258,662 People's Republic of China 1958 1962 4 years During the Great Leap Forward under Mao Zedong tens of millions of Chinese starved to death.[400] State violence during this period further exacerbated the death toll, and some 2.5 million people were beaten or tortured to death in connection with Great Leap policies.[401]
Famine and disease caused by World War II 19,000,000 28,000,000 23,065,130 Worldwide 1939 1945 6 years See also: World War II casualties
All famines in India under British influence 12,000,000[402] 51,000,000+[402] 20,500,000 India 1757 1947 190 years Between 12 and 51 million Indians (or even more) died of starvation while India under British rule (East India Company and British Raj). Millions of tonnes of wheat were exported to Britain as famine raged.[402]
Famine and disease caused by Japanese imperialism 8,136,000 14,936,000 11,023,579 Japanese Empire 1937 1945 8 years Combined death tolls from famine and disease from China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines.
Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–799,000,00013,000,000 10,816,650China18761879 3 yearsENSO famine.
Great Bengal famine of 1770 10,000,000[403] 10,000,000[403] 10,000,000 British Bengal 1769 1773 4 years The famine killed a third of the Bengali population at the time.[404] It is attributed to the policies of the ruling British East India Company.[404]
Russian famine of 1921 –225,000,000[405]10,000,000[405] 7,071,072Soviet Russia19211922 1 yearMay have been exacerbated by War Communism policies, but it is debatable to which extent.

See also: Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union, and Russian Civil War, with its policy of War communism, especially prodrazvyorstka.

Famine and disease caused by the Second Sino-Japanese War 5,000,000 10,000,000 7,071,068 China 1937 1945 8 years See also: World War II casualties.
Soviet famine of 1932–33 4,400,000 9,100,000 6,327,717 Soviet Union 1932 1933 1 year The majority of famine victims were Ukrainian. Many nations, including Ukraine, regard the famine's effect in the Ukraine as a genocide against Ukraine, known as the Holodomor.

1.8 – 4.8 million: Ukraine

600,000 – 2.3 million: Kazakhstan

2 million: Elsewhere

Famine and disease caused by World War I 5,411,000 6,100,000 5,745,181 Worldwide 1914 1918 4 years See also: World War I casualties.
Great Famine of 1876–78 6,100,000[406] 10,320,000[407] 8,300,000[408] British India 18761878 2 years ENSO famine. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts.
Famine and disease caused by the Second Congo War 3,800,000 5,400,000 4,529,901 Africa 1998 2004 6 years Majority of those who died in war perished from famine and disease.
Iranian famine of 1917–1919 2,000,000[409][410] 10,000,000[411][412] 4,472,136 Iran 1917 1919 3 years The Persian famine of 1917–1919 was a period of widespread mass starvation and disease in Persia (Iran). The famine took place in the occupied territory of Iran that had declared neutrality. According to the estimates acknowledged, 2–10 million people died of hunger and disease. A variety of factors are commented to have caused and contributed to the famine such as war profiteering, and poor harvests but mainly requisitioning and confiscation of foodstuffs by the occupying Russian and British armies.[413][414]
Famine and disease caused by Decommunization 4,000,000+[415] 4,000,000+ 4,000,000+ Former States of the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc 1991 2000 9 years Deaths caused by decrease in living conditions in Russia and other former Communist States after the fall of the Soviet Union.
Bengal famine of 19433,000,0004,000,000 3,464,100British India19431944 1 yearThe Japanese conquest of Burma cut off India's main supply of rice imports,[416] however, war-related administrative policies in British India ultimately helped to cause the massive death toll.[417][418]
Indian famine of 1896–97 and the Indian famine of 1899–1900 8,400,000[406] 19,000,000[419] 13,700,000 British India 1896 1900 4 years ENSO famines. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts.
Famine and diseased caused by the Biafran Blockade during Nigeria's Civil War2,000,000[420]3,000,000[421][422] 2,449,490Nigeria19671970 3 yearsMore than two million Igbo died from the famine imposed deliberately through blockades during the war. Lack of medicine also contributed. Thousands starved to death daily as the war progressed.
Famine and disease during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies2,400,000[423]2,400,000 2,400,000Indonesia19441945 1 yearAn estimated 2.4 million Indonesians starved to death during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. The problem was partly caused by failures of the main 1944–45 rice crop, but the main cause was the compulsory rice purchasing system that the Japanese authorities put in place to secure rice for distribution to the armed forces and urban population.[423]
Soviet famine of 1946–47 1,000,000 1,500,000 1,224,745 Soviet Union 1946 1947 1 year Debated as to whether it was caused by war or government policy.
Great Irish Famine750,000[424][425]1,500,000[426] 1,060,660Ireland18461849 3 yearsAlthough blight ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the impact and human cost in Ireland, where a third of the population was significantly dependent on the Irish Lumper potato for food, was exacerbated by a host of political, social and economic factors, which continue to remain the subject of historical debate.[427][428]
Vietnamese Famine of 1945400,000[429]2,000,000[430] 894,427Vietnam19441945 1 yearThe Japanese occupation during World War II caused the famine in North Vietnam.[430]
Cambodian Holocaust Famine800,000[431]950,000[432] 871,780Cambodia19751979 4 yearsAn estimated 2 million Cambodians lost their lives to murder, forced labor, and famine, perpetrated by the Khmer Rouge, nearly half of which was caused by forced starvation. Came to an end due to invasion by Vietnam in 1979.
1983–85 famine in Ethiopia400,000[433]1,000,000[434] 632,456Ethiopia19831985 2 yearsThe famines that struck Ethiopia between 1961 and 1985, especially the one of 1983–1985, were in large part created by government policies.[433]
Famine and disease during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines 336,000 336,000 336,000 Philippines 1942 1945 3 years See also: World War I casualties.
North Korean famine240,000[435]420,000[435] 330,000North Korea19941998 4 yearsThe famine stemmed from a variety of factors. Economic mismanagement and the loss of Soviet support caused food production and imports to decline rapidly. A series of floods and droughts exacerbated the crisis, but were not its direct cause. The North Korean government and its centrally-planned system proved too inflexible to effectively curtail the disaster. Recent research suggests the likely number of excess deaths between 1993 and 2000 was about 330,000.[435][436]
Cuban War of Independence Famine 300,000 300,000[437][438] 300,000 Cuba 1895 1898 3 years Most of dead in this war perished from famine and disease.
Great Famine of Mount Lebanon 200,000 200,000 200,000 Mount Lebanon, Ottoman Empire 1915 1918 3 years Around 200,000 people starved to death at a time when the population of Mount Lebanon was estimated at 400,000.[439] The Mount Lebanon famine caused the highest fatality rate by population of World War I. Bodies were piled in the streets, and people were reported to be eating street animals, while some resorted to cannibalism.[440]
1998 Sudan famine70,000[441]70,000 70,000Sudan19981998 ?The famine was caused almost entirely by human rights abuse and the war in Southern Sudan.[442]
Famine in Yemen (2016–present)50,000 children[443]50,000 children[443]50,000 children[443]Yemen2016present 2 yearsThe famine was triggered by Saudi Arabia's intervention into the Yemeni Civil War, which is backed by Western powers including the United States.[444] Around 13 million people, or roughly half of the country's population, is facing starvation in what the UN calls "the worst famine in the world in 100 years".[445]

Anthropogenically exacerbated floods and landslides

These are floods and landslides that have been partially caused by humans, for example by failure of dams, levees, seawalls or retaining walls.

Event Lowest estimate Highest estimate Geom. mean estimate[1] Location From Until Duration Notes
1931 China floods2,500,000[446]3,700,000[446] 3,041,381 China 1931 1931 ?
1887 Yellow River (Huang He) flood900,0002,000,000 1,341,641 China 1887 1887 ?
1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood500,000700,000 591,608 China 1938 1938 ?
Flight of the Boat People 200,000[95][447] 560,000[95][447] 334,664 Gulf of Thailand and Pacific Ocean 1978 1979 1 year
1935 Yangtze river flood145,000145,000145,000 China 1935 1935 ?
St. Felix's Flood, storm surgemore than 100,000more than 100,000100,000 Netherlands 1530 1530 ?
Hanoi and Red River Delta flood100,000100,000100,000 North Vietnam 1971 1971 ?
1911 Yangtze river flood100,000100,000100,000 China 1911 1911 ?
The failure of 62 dams in Zhumadian Prefecture, Henan, the largest of which was Banqiao Dam, caused by Typhoon Nina.26,000[448]230,000[449] 77,330 China August 1975 August 1975 ?
St. Lucia's flood, storm surge50,00080,000 63,246 Netherlands, England 1287 1287 ?
Vargas Tragedy, landslide10,00050,000 22,361 Venezuela 1999 1999 ?
North Sea flood, storm surge2,4002,4002,400 Netherlands, Scotland, England, Belgium January 31, 1953 January 31, 1953 1 day
Johnstown Flood2,2092,2092,209 Pennsylvania May 31, 1889 May 31, 1889 1 day

Human sacrifice and suicide

This section lists deaths from the practice of human sacrifice or suicide.

Event Lowest estimateHighest estimate Geom. mean estimate[1]LocationFromUntil DurationNotes
Human sacrifice in Aztec culture20,000[450]5,000,000[451] 316,228Mexico14th century1521 200 yearsSkull racks: 60,000[452] to 136,000[453] See also: Aztecs
Human sacrifice in Shang dynasty China13,000[454]13,000 13,000China1300 BC1050 BC 250 yearsLast 250 years of rule
Suicide bombings during the Iraq War 12,284 18,000+[455] 12,284 Iraq 2003 2019 Ongoing See also: Iraqi insurgency (2003–11) and Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017)
Sati ritual suicides7,941[456]7,941 7,941India18151828 13 years
Kamikaze suicide pilots3,912[457]3,912[457] 3,912[457]Pacific theatre19441945 1 yearSee also: Empire of Japan
Mass suicide at Masada967967 967Masada Spring 73 CE Spring 73 CE ?
Palestinian suicide attacks 804 804 804 Israel and Palestine July 6, 1989 April 18, 2016 27 years May only include victims
Jonestown 909 909 909 Jim Jones

Riots and political unrest

Riots and incidents where at least 100 people died are listed here.

Event Victims Country Locale(s) Date
Partition of India and Pakistan 200,000–2,000,000British IndiaPunjab and Bengal1947
La Violencia 200,000–300,000ColombiaCountry-wide1948–1960
1959 Tibetan uprising 85,000–87,000Tibet, ChinaLhasa1959
Nika riots 30,000ByzantiumConstantinople532
La semaine sanglante 6,667–20,000FranceParis1871
February 28 Incident 10,000–30,000ChinaTaiwan1947
Jeju Uprising 14,000–30,000Southern Korea, present-day South KoreaJeju island1948
August Uprising 13,000–15,500Georgia1924
1932 Salvadoran peasant uprising 10,000–40,000El Salvador1932
Romanian Peasants' Revolt 10,000–20,000Romania1907
Kronstadt rebellion 10,000RussiaKronstadt1921
1984 anti-Sikh riots 2,800–8,000IndiaNew Delhi1984
March 1st Movement 7,500Japanese Korea, present-day South KoreaSeoul1919
Second Intifada 4,179–4,354 Israel/Palestinian territories 2000–2005
Pitchfork Uprising 3,800Russia1920
Iranian Revolution[458] 2,781Iran1979
8888 Uprising 3,000–10,000Burma/Myanmar1987–1993
First Intifada 2,204 Israel/Palestinian territories 1987
Banana Massacre 47–2,000ColombiaCiénaga1928
Santa María School massacre 2,300ChileIquique1907
Assam Movement 2,191+ India Assam 1979–1985
1994 South African transitional violence 1,652[459]South Africa1994
Romanian Revolution of 1989 1,104RomaniaBucharest and major cities1989
2009 Boko Haram uprising 1,000+NigeriaStates of Bauchi, Borno, Yobe, and Kano2009
May 1998 riots of Indonesia 1,000–1,200IndonesiaJakarta, Medan, Surakarta1998
2008 Kenyan election protests 1,000[460][461]Kenya2008
2005 Togolese democracy protests 500–1,000[462][463]Togo2005
1989 Bhagalpur violence 1,000 India Bhagalpur district, Bihar 1989
1905 Bloody Sunday 132–4,000RussiaSaint Petersburg1905
2010 South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes 893 Kyrgyzstan 2010
Iranian pilgrim riot 400Saudi ArabiaMecca1987
Jallianwala Bagh (Amritsar) massacre 379–1,526British IndiaAmritsar1919
Telangana movement (Hyderabad) 360+IndiaHyderabad1969
Tunisian Revolution 338 Tunisia 2010–2011
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 300–10,454ChinaBeijing1989
Kengir uprising 700Soviet UnionKazakhstan1954
2018 Nicaraguan protests 317[464]NicaraguaCountry-wide2018
Gordon Riots 285Great Britain1780
1929 Palestine riots 249British Mandate for Palestine1929
2018–19 Sudanese protests 229+[465][466][467]SudanNationwide2018–2019
Military Police of Espírito Santo strike 215BrazilEspírito Santo2017
Ürümqi race riots 197+ChinaXinjiang2009
13 May incident 196MalaysiaKuala Lumpur1969
Andijan massacre 187–1,500UzbekistanAndijan2005
2017 Venezuelan protests 165VenezuelaNationwide2017
2009 Guinea protests 157GuineaConakry2009
Gwangju Uprising 144–2,000South KoreaGwangju1980
Durban riots 142South AfricaDurban1949
2017 Brazil prison riots 140+Brazil2017
Muhammad cartoon riots 139[468]Nigeria, Libya, Pakistan, and Afghanistan2006
Khartoum massacre 128SudanKhartoum2019
Tana River District clashes 118KenyaTana River District2012–2013
Carandiru massacre 111 Brazil São Paulo 1992
Euromaidan 121–797UkraineKiev2014
Carandiru massacre 111 Brazil São Paulo 1992
New York City draft riots 119–120United StatesNew York City1863
Georgian de-Stalinization riots 22–100GeorgiaCountry-wide1956
Napoleon's "whiff of grapeshot" 100FranceParis1795

List of prisons, concentration, and extermination camps by death toll

This s by death tollection lists deaths that occurred in particular prisons, concentration and/or extermination camps, deaths are from both the conditions within the camps and from the active murder/execution of prisoners.

Event Lowest estimateHighest estimate Geometric mean estimate[1]LocationFromUntil DurationNotes
Auschwitz concentration camp 800,000 1,500,000 1,095,445 Oświęcim, Poland 1940 1945 5 years [469][470]
Treblinka extermination camp 700,000 1,000,000 836,660 Treblinka, Poland 1942 1943 1 year [471][472]
Bełżec extermination camp 480,000 600,000 536,656 Bełżec, Poland 1942 1943 1 year [473][474][475]
Jasenovac concentration camp 100,000 700,000 264,575 Croatia 1941 1945 4 years [476][477][478]
Kolyma 130,000 500,000 254,951 Kolyma, Soviet Union 1932 1954 22 years [479]
Stutthof concentration camp 85,000 85,000 85,000 Stutthof, Poland 1939 1945 6 years See also: Second World War
Stara Gradiška concentration camp 12,790 75,000 30,972 Croatia 1941 1945 4 years Primarily for women and children.[480][481]
Tuol Sleng 17,000 17,000 17,000 Phnom Penh, Cambodia 1975 1979 4 years [482]
Camp Sumter 13,171 13,171 13,171 Andersonville, Georgia, United States 1864 1865 1 year [483]
Crveni Krst concentration camp 12,000 12,000 12,000 Niš, Serbia 1941 1944 3 years [484]
Tammisaari prison camp 2,963 2,963 2,963 Tammisaari, Finland 1918 1918 4 months
Elmira Prison 2,963 2,963 2,963 Elmira, New York, U.S. 1864 1865 1 year [485]
Shark Island concentration camp 1,032 4,000[486] 2,032 Luderitz, German South-West Africa 1905 1907 2 years The minimum death toll is out of a camp population of 1,795 people, and the maximum total includes those who died in the Luderitz area.

List of political leaders and regimes by death toll

This section lists deaths attributed to certain political leaders, deaths are from both the conditions within the country due to national policy, and active killings by forces loyal to the leader in question.

Leader(s) Lowest estimateHighest estimate Geom. mean estimate[1]LocationFromUntil DurationNotes
Mao Zedong 13,597,000 70,000,000+[487] 30,851,094 People's Republic of China 1946 1976 30 years Critics of Mao Zedong have argued Mao's China saw unprecedented losses of human life through inhuman economic policies such as the Great Leap Forward, slave labor through the Laogai, violent political purges such as the Cultural Revolution the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries, and class extermination through land reform The estimate of the minimum death toll is the sum of the minimum estimate of famine dead (11.6 million),[488] land reform dead (800,000),[489] Counterrevolutionaries dead (712,000),[320] and Cultural Revolution dead (400,000)[313] plus the minimum killed in the 1959 Tibetan uprising (85,000 to 87,000)
Genghis Khan


Kublai Khan

20,000,000 40,000,000 30,945,906 Eurasia 1206 1405 199 years Due to the lack or records and time span in which they occurred, estimates of the violence associated with the conquests of the Mongol Empire and its predecessor states vary considerably[490] not including the spread of plague to Europe, West Asia, or China it is possible that between 20 and 40 million people were killed between 1206 and 1405 during the various campaign's of Genghis Khan, Kublai Khan, and Timur[491][492]
    Adolf Hitler 13,518,250 25,495,692+ 18,564,944 German-occupied Europe 1934 1945 11 years The estimate includes The Holocaust against the Jews, plus the genocide and mass murder of Gypsies, Serbs, East Slavs, the disabled, homosexuals, Freemasons, POWs, and the Jehovah's Witnesses
    Chiang Kai-Shek 5,965,000[516] 18,522,000[516] 10,511,124 Republic of China 1928 1946 18 years Primarily from conscription campaigns but also grain confiscations and other atrocities.
    Joseph Stalin 3,300,000 15,000,000 8,990,772 Soviet Union 1922 1953 31 years The millions killed by the regime of Joseph Stalin through famine, purges, labor camps, population transfer, deportations, and NKVD massacres. The minimum death toll (to the left) uses the minimum post-archive calculations from after the fall of the Soviet regime of those not killed in famine which range from four to ten million[517][518][519] Robert Conquest, writer of the book The Great Terror, first stated an estimate of 30 million, then a few years later lowering it to 20 million,[520] and finally saying that no fewer than 15 million perished during the entire history of the USSR.[521] Following the collapse of the USSR and the opening of the archives, scholars have reached lower death tolls.[522]

    The minimum death toll (to the left) uses the minimum post-archive calculations from after the fall of the Soviet regime of those not killed in famine[523]

    Timothy D. Snyder in 2011 said that Stalin approximately killed 6 million to 9 million [524]

    see also

    Excess mortality in the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin

    Hirohito 3,000,000[52] 14,000,000[53] 6,480,741 In and around East and South East Asia, Oceania and the Pacific 1895 1945 50 years If total casualties for these conflicts are assigned exclusively to Japanese aggression the toll could reach some 30 million deaths. See also: Japanese war crimes
    Leopold II of Belgium 3,000,000[lower-alpha 4] 13,000,000[373] 6,244,998 Congo Free State18851908 13 yearsPrivate forces under the control of Leopold II of Belgium carried out mass murders, mutilations, and other crimes against the Congolese in order to encourage the gathering of valuable raw materials, principally rubber. Significant deaths also occurred due to major disease outbreaks and starvation, caused by population displacement and poor treatment.[374] Estimates of the death toll vary considerably due to the lack of a formal census before 1924, but a commonly cited figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924.[375] See also: Atrocities in the Congo Free State
    Ranavalona I 2,500,000 2,500,000 2,500,000 Madagascar 1829 1842 13 years Putting an end to most foreign trade relationships, Ranavalona I pursued a policy of self-reliance, made possible through frequent use of the long-standing tradition of fanompoana—forced labor in lieu of tax payments in money or goods. Ranavalona continued the wars of expansion conducted by her predecessor, Radama I, in an effort to extend her realm over the entire island, and imposed strict punishments on those who were judged as having acted in opposition to her will. Due in large part to loss of life throughout the years of military campaigns, high death rates among fanompoana workers, and harsh traditions of justice under her rule, the population of Madagascar is estimated to have declined from around 5 million to 2.5 million between 1833–39, and from 750,000 to 130,000 between 1829–42 in Imerina.[525] These statistics have contributed to a strongly unfavorable view of Ranavalona's rule in historical accounts.[526]
    Pol Pot 1,386,734[147] 3,400,000[148] 2,171,381 Cambodia 1975 1979 4 years Deaths due to arbitrary torture, execution, starvation, and forced labor among the population of Cambodia under the rule of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge, including both killings of ethnic Khmer (the majority ethnic group) as well as a genocide of religious and ethnic minorities by the Khmer Rouge. Minimum death toll is the number of corpses found in the Killing Fields.See also: Cambodian genocide
    The Young Turks 1,489,000 2,810,000 2,045,505 Ottoman Empire 1913 1922 9 years Under the Young Turks' regime that took powerin 1908, the Ottoman Empire committed various genocides and ethnic cleansings. The death toll is derived from the sum of the death tolls of the Armenian Genocide (800,000 to 1,500,000), Assyrian Genocide (150,000 to 300,000), Greek Genocide (289,000 to 750,000), ethnic cleansing of the Thracian Bulgarians in 1913 (50,000 to 60,000), and the Great Famine of Mount Lebanon (200,000).
    Omar al-Bashir 1,063,000 2,530,000 1,639,936 Sudan 1989 2019 29 years 1 to 2 million: Second Sudanese Civil War

    63,000 to 530,000:[527] Darfur genocide

    Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-il, and Kim Jong-un 710,000 3,500,000 1,576,388 North Korea 1948 present 70 years North Korea continues to be one of the most repressive governments in the world.[383] Over two-hundred thousand people are interned in concentrations camps for being political dissidents or being related to political dissidents. They are subject to slavery, torture, starvation, shootings, gassing, and human experimentation.[528] See also: Human rights in North Korea
    Suharto 240,500 3,418,000+ 906,658+ Indonesia 1965 1998 33 years 65/66 Politicide: 78,500 to 3,000,000 "communists"
    East Timor Atrocities: 60,000 to 308,000 East Timorese
    West Papua Atrocities: 100,000 papuans
    Petrus Killings: 2,000 to 10,000 suspected criminals
    Mengistu Haile Mariam 225,000[529] 2,000,000[530] 670,820 Ethiopia 1977 1987 10 years
    Saddam Hussein 200,000[531] 2,000,000[531] 632,456 Iraq 1979 2003 24 years see Human rights in Saddam Hussein's Iraq#Number of victims
    Ante Pavelić and Nikola Mandić 300,000[532] 1,088,000[533] 571,314 Croatia[532] 1941 1945 4 years See also: Independent State of Croatia
    Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Cong 145,225 1,082,000 396,401 Vietnam 1954 2000 46 years 95,000: re-education camps[95]
    13,500[347]–200,000:[348] land reform
    36,725[94] to 227,000:[95] war crimes
    200,000 to 560,000:[95][447] boat people
    The minimum death toll is the same of minimum estimates for war crimes, re-education camps, and land reform. The maximum death toll is the combination of the maximum estimated death toll of land reform, war crimes, re-education camps and boat people, which may or may not be attributable to the regime.
    Benito Mussolini 158,000 628,000 314,998 Italy, Libya, Ethiopia, Yugoslavia, Greece 1922 1945 24 years
    Francisco Franco 195,000 265,000 227,321 Spain, Austria, and Russia 1939 1975 36 years Diseases and starvation: 130,000 (1939–1943)
    Repression: 30,000–100,000 (1939–1948)
    Prison camps: 20,000 (1939–1943)
    Spanish Maquis: 5,548 (1939–1965)
    World War II: 5,000 (Mauthausen concentration camp in Austria)
    Blue Division: Casualties in the Russo-German conflict totalled 22,700. In action against the Blue Division, the Red Army suffered 49,300 casualties.
    Idi Amin 100,000[540][541] 500,000 223,607 Uganda 1971 1979 8 years Idi Amin's rule of Uganda saw excessive and egregious human rights abuses toward ethnic minorities and political opposition, earning him the nickname "The Butcher of Uganda."
    Josip Broz Tito 60,000[542] 802,000[543] 219,363 Yugoslavia 1944 1980 36 years
    Communist rule in Romania, various leaders 60,000[544] 435,000[545] 161,555 Romania 1945 1989 44 years Total does not take into account the Romanian orphans who perished under Nicolae Ceaușescu's policies.
    FRELIMO 83,000[546] 250,000[546] 144,049 Communist Mozambique 1975 1999 24 years See also: Mozambican Civil War
    Ivan the Terrible 60,000[547] 260,000[548] 124,900 Russian Empire 1533 1584 51 years
    Siad Barre 50,000 200,000 100,000 Somalia 1988 1991 3 years See also: Isaaq genocide
    Bashar al-Assad 100,000[549] 100,000 100,000 Syria 2011 present 9 years See also: Syrian Civil War
    King Salman 85,000[550] 85,000 85,000 Saudi Arabia 2016 present 3 years See also: Famine in Yemen
    Communist rule in Bulgaria, various leaders 31,000[551][552] 220,000[545] 81,240 Bulgaria 1944 1989 45 years Collectivization and political repression in Bulgaria.
    Henry VIII 72,000[553] 72,000 72,000 England 1509 1547 38 years
    Vlad III 43,903[554][555] 100,000[556] 66,259 Wallachia 1456 1462 6 years
    Communist rule in Czechoslovakia, various leaders 65,000[545] 65,000[545] 65,000 Czechoslovakia 1948 1968 20 years See also: Communist repression in Czechoslovakia
    Francisco Macías Nguema 50,000[557] 80,000[557] 63,246 Equatorial Guinea 1968 1979 11 years Macías Nguema is regarded as one of the most kleptocratic, corrupt, and dictatorial leaders in post-colonial African history. Sources vary, but he was responsible for the deaths of anywhere from 50,000 to 80,000 of the 300,000 to 400,000 people living in the country at the time.
    Rafael Trujillo 50,000[558][559][560] 50,000[558][559][560] 50,000 Dominican Republic 1930 1938 8 years
    François Duvalier 30,000[561] 60,000[561] 42,426 Haiti 1957 1971 14 years Duvalier's rule based on a purged military, a rural militia known as the Tonton Macoute, and the use of cult of personality, resulted in the murder of 30,000 to 60,000 Haitians, and the exile of many more.
    Hissène Habré 40,000 40,000 40,000 Chad 1982 1990 8 years In May 2016, Hissène Habré was found guilty of human-rights abuses, including rape, sexual slavery, and ordering the killing of 40,000 people. He was sentenced to life in prison. He is the first former head of state to be convicted for human rights abuses in the court of another nation.[562]
    Communist rule in Cuba, various leaders 9,240[563] 92,400[563] 29,219 Cuba 1976 present 42 years Human rights in Cuba are under the scrutiny of Human Rights Watch, which accuses the Cuban government of systematic human rights abuses. This includes offenses such as arbitrary imprisonment, unfair trials, and extrajudicial execution.[564][565] See also: Human rights in Cuba
    Ruhollah Khomeini and Ali Khemenei 10,482 48,000 22,431 Iran 1979 present 39 years 4,482 to 30,000 in P.O.C. massacre
    6,000 to 18,000 child soldiers killed
    (refer to earlier tables on page)
    Communist rule in Poland, various leaders 22,000[566] 22,000 22,000 Communist Poland 1945 1989 44 years See also: Communist Repression in Poland
    Tomás de Torquemada 2,000[567] 124,621[568] 15,787 Spanish Empire 1480 1498 18 years Minimum death toll only includes lowest estimate of those burned at the stake, whereas the maximum death toll also includes those who died from hunger and torture.
    Various leaders 7,000 27,000[545] 13,748 Hungary 1948 1956 8 years Minimum death toll does not take into account those out of the 150,000 who perished in concentration camps, and only counts the 5,000 alleged spies and 2,000 party members executed, noting that 5,000 spies came from only 98,000 out of 700,000 alleged spies.[569][570] See also: Communist Repression in Hungary
    Enver Hoxha 5,000 28,000 11,832 Albania 1941 1985 44 years
    South African Apartheid, various leaders 18,997[571] 21,000 19,999 South Africa and Namibia 1948 1994 46 years Maximum death toll does not include deaths from the South African Border War.
    Ferdinand Marcos 3,257[572] 80,000[573] 16,142 Philippines 1965 1986 21 years The conservative estimate is recorded from 1975 to 1985, while the maximum estimate is recorded from 1965 to 1976. Also Includes those from the Moro conflict.
    Tiberius 9,500[574] 9,500 9,500 Ancient Rome 14 37 23 years
    Caligula 9,000[574] 9,000 9,000 Ancient Rome 37 41 4 years
    Johnny Paul Koroma 6,000[574] 6,000 6,000 Sierra Leone 1997 1998 1 year
    Nero 5,750[574] 5,750 5,750 Ancient Rome 54 68 14 years
    Jean-Bedel Bokassa 100[575] 90,000 3,000 Central African Republic 1966 1976 10 years It was found that Bokassa personally oversaw the massacre of 100 school children.[575]
    Claudius 2,935[574] 2,935 2,935 Ancient Rome 41 54 13 years
    Communist rule in East Germany, various leaders 327[576] 1,500[576][577] 929 East Germany[576] 1949[576] 1989[576] 40 years See also: Berlin Wall deaths

    See also

    Other lists organized by death toll

    Other lists with similar topics

    Topics dealing with similar themes


    1. These death toll estimates vary due to lack of consensus as to the demographic size of the native population pre-Columbus, which some say might never be accurately determined. Modern scholarship tend to side with the higher estimates, but there is still variance based on calculation methods used. Even using conservative populations estimates, however, "one dreadful conclusion is inescapable: the 150 years after Columbus's arrival brought a toll on human life in this hemisphere comparable to all of the world's losses during World War II. ... Against the alien agents of disease, the indigenous people never had a chance. Their immune systems were unprepared to fight smallpox and measles, malaria and yellow fever. The epidemics that resulted have been well documented."[6] A small industry of researchers in recent years have focused their attention on Native American population size in 1492, and the subsequent decimation of the population after contact with Europeans.[7] They have stated that their findings in no way diminish the "dreadful impact Old World diseases had on the people of the New World. But it suggests that the New World was hardly a healthful Eden." For example, they note that as the previously thriving indigenous peoples became more urbanized and less mobile, they succumbed to the same declining sanitation and health conditions of other urban cultures, including tuberculosis. The researchers stress, however, that "their findings in no way mitigated the responsibility of Europeans as bearers of disease devastating to native societies."[6]
    2. While there are many estimates for civilian deaths, with some even going well over a million for the war, modern historians generally place the death toll between 200,000 and 250,000; see "Casualties".
    3. The Casement estimate is used by Ascherson in his book The King Incorporated, although he notes that it is "almost certainly an underestimate".[372]
    4. The Casement estimate is used by Ascherson in his book The King Incorporated, although he notes that it is "almost certainly an underestimate".[372]


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    445. Dai Qing (1998). The River Dragon Has Come!: The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China's Yangtze River and Its People. M.E. Sharpe. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7656-0206-0.
    446. 230,000 is the highest of a range of unofficial estimates, including also deaths of ensuing epidemics and famine, in Yi 1998
    447. Cocker, Mark (1998). Rivers of Blood, Rivers of Gold.
    448. Prescott, William (1843). History of the Conquest of Mexico.
    449. Ruben Mendoza (2007) pp. 407–08.
    450. Harner (1977) p. 122
    451. National Geographic, July 2003, cited by White
    452. Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Dardagan, Hamit; Bagnall, Peter M; Spagat, Michael; Sloboda, John A (September 3, 2011). "Casualties in civilians and coalition soldiers from suicide bombings in Iraq, 2003–10: a descriptive study". The Lancet. 378 (9794): 906–14. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61023-4. PMID 21890055.
    453. Sakuntala Narasimhan, Sati: widow burning in India, quoted by Matthew White, "Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th Century", pg. 2 (July 2005), Historical Atlas of the 20th Century (self-published, 1998–2005).
    454. This toll is only for the number of Japanese pilots killed in Kamikaze suicide missions. It does not include the number of enemy combatants killed by such missions, which is estimated to be around 4,000. Kamikaze pilots are estimated to have sunk or damaged beyond repair some 70 to 80 allied ships, representing about 80% of allied shipping losses in the final phase of the war in the Pacific (see Kamikaze).
    455. "Emad Baghi : English" (no). Retrieved August 2, 2018.
    456. Karatnycky, Adrian; Cavanaugh, Kathleen; Finn, James; Graybow, Charles; Payne, Douglas W.; Ryan, Joseph E.; Sussman, Leonard R.; Zarycky, George; Finn, James (1995). Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights & Civil Liberties, 1994–1995 (PDF). New York: Freedom House. p. 521. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 5, 2018. Retrieved October 5, 2018. During the first four months of 1994, the Human Rights Committee of South Africa reported that politically motivated killings occurred at a rate of nearly fourteen deaths per day.
    457. "An African Lysistrata in Togo – African Futures". September 23, 2012. Archived from the original on September 23, 2012. Retrieved December 25, 2018.
    458. "Death Toll in Kenya Exceeds 1,000, but Talks Reach Crucial Phase – The New York Times". October 5, 2018. Archived from the original on October 5, 2018.
    459. "500 killed in Togo electoral violence – UN". Independent Online. AFP. September 26, 2005. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
    460. August 29, 2005. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). "Conclusions.""La mission d'établissement des faits chargée de faire la lumière sur les violences et les allégations de violations des droits de l'homme survenues au Togo avant, pendant et après l'élection présidentielle du 24 avril 2005" Archived December 17, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
    461. News, VOA. "Death Toll in Nicaraguan Protests Hits 317, OAS Says".
    462. "Sudan protest death toll hits 90: doctors committee". News24. May 6, 2019. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
    463. Walsh, Declan (July 4, 2019). "Sudan Power-Sharing Deal Reached by Military and Civilian Leaders". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
    464. "Sudan protests: Death toll reaches 11 after anti-military rallies". Retrieved August 12, 2019.
    465. Harding, Luke (September 29, 2006). "How one of the biggest rows of modern times helped Danish exports to prosper". the Guardian.
    466. Wellers, Georges. "Essai de determination du nombre de morts au camp d'Auschwitz (attempt to determine the number of dead at the Auschwitz camp)", Le Monde Juif, Oct–Dec 1983, pp. 127–59.
    467. Brian Harmon, John Drobnicki, Historical sources and the Auschwitz death toll estimates, Retrieved August 2, 2018.
    468. "Operation Reinhard: Treblinka Deportations". Retrieved August 23, 2013.
    469. Encyclopedia Americana
    470. Peter Witte and Stephen Tyas, A New Document on the Deportation and Murder of Jews during "Einsatz Reinhardt" 1942, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, vol 15, No. 3, Winter 2001; ISBN 0-19-922506-0
    471. Raul Hilberg (2003). The Destruction of the European Jews: Third Edition. ISBN 978-0-300-09557-9.
    472. Yitzhak Arad, Bełżec, Sobibor, Treblinka. The Operation Reinhard Death Camps, Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1987; NCR 0-253-34293-7
    473. "Library". Retrieved August 23, 2013.
    474. "Croatian holocaust still stirs controversy". BBC News. November 29, 2001. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
    475. "Balkan 'Auschwitz' haunts Croatia". BBC News. April 25, 2005. Retrieved September 29, 2010. No one really knows how many died here. Serbs talk of 700,000. Most estimates put the figure nearer 100,000.
    476. Ludwik Kowalski: Alaska notes on Stalinism. Retrieved January 18, 2007. Case Study: Stalin's Purges from Genderside Watch. Retrieved January 19, 2007. George Bien, Gulag Survivor in the Boston Globe, June 22, 2005, Kolyma.
    477. Jelka Smreka. "STARA GRADIŠKA Ustaški koncentracijski logor". Spomen područja Jasenovac. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved August 25, 2010.
    478. Davor Kovačić (2004). "Iskapanja na prostoru koncentracijskog logora Stara Gradiška i procjena broj žrtava". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
    479. A History of Democratic Kampuchea (1975–1979). Documentation Center of Cambodia. p. 74. ISBN 99950-60-04-3.
    480. The Andersonville Prison Trial: The Trial of Captain Henry Wirz, by General N.P. Chipman, 1911.
    481. "On the killing of Roma in World War II". March 13, 2013. Archived from the original on October 6, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
    482. Horigan, Michael (2002). Death Camp of the North: The Elmira Civil War Prison Camp. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1432-2.
    483. Erichsen 2005, p. 133.
    484. Fenby, J (2008). Modern China: The Fall and Rise of a Great Power, 1850 to the Present. Ecco Press. pg. 351; ISBN 0-06-166116-3. "Mao's responsibility for the extinction of anywhere from 40 to 70 million lives brands him as a mass killer greater than Hitler or Stalin, his indifference to the suffering and the loss of humans breathtaking"
    485. Patnaik, Utsa. "On Famine and Measuring 'Famine Deaths'". Internet Archive. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
    486. Gruson, Sidney. "Mao Text Shows Reds 'Liquidated' 800,000 Since '49". New York Times.
    487. "Twentieth Century Atlas – Historical Body Count". Retrieved April 27, 2019.
    488. m, Angus (1998). Development Centre studies Chinese economic performance in the long run. Development Centre studies Chinese economic performance in the long run.
    489. HO, Ping-ti (1970). An Estimate of the Total Population of Sung-Chin China", in Études Song Series 1, No 1. pp. 33 53.
    490. Reitlinger, Gerald (1953). The Final Solution. The Attempt to Exterminate the Jews of Europe, 1939–1945. New York City: Beechhurst Press.
    491. Early efforts by scholars to determine the number of Jews murdered by the Nazis were limited by a lack of access to pertinent records. The genocide seldom entered Western discourse, both due to ignorance and to the Cold-War politics which made West Germany a new ally of the United States.The first significant work on the subject published in English was Gerald Reitlinger's Final Solution (1953), which, relying almost exclusively on German documentation, estimated 4.9 million dead. This figure is now considered extremely conservative. Raul Hilberg's 1961 The Destruction of the European Jews became a classic in the field of Holocaust literature and made the genocide of the Jews known to the wider public, Hilberg estimated its victims to be 5.1 million lives, or 4.9 – 5.4 million broadly construed. The trial of Adolph Eichmann further raised awareness of the genocide, Eichmann also provided documentation and testimony which revised the number of the dead.The first work to arrive at a figure comparable to modern estimates was Lucy Dawidowicz's The War Against the Jews, published in 1975, the book provided detailed listings by country of the number of Jews killed in the Holocaust which are still used as a reference in modern Holocaust studies. Dawidowicz researched birth and death records in many cities of prewar Europe to come up with a death toll of 5,933,900 Jews. After the opening of Soviet records, scholarship arrived at a death toll of about 6 million Jews. Gutman and Rozett's Encyclopedia of the Holocaust was published in 1990 and estimated slightly over 5.9 million Jews were murdered.Wolfgang Benz's The Holocaust: A German Historian Examines the Genocide, published 1995, gave a toll of 6.2 million.
    492. Davies, Norman (2012). God's Playground [Boze igrzysko]. Otwarte (publishing). p. 956. ISBN 8324015566. Polish edition, second volume. "To, co robili Sowieci, bylo szczególnie mylace. Same liczby bylSacramentsie wiarygodne, ale pozbawione komentarza, sprytnie ukrywaly fakt, ze ofiary w przewazajacej liczbie nie byly Rosjanami, ze owe miliony obejmowaly ofiary nie tylko Hitlera, ale i Stalina, oraz ze wsród ludnosci cywilnej najwieksze grupy stanowili Ukraincy, Polacy, Bialorusini i Zydzi. Translation: The Soviet methods were particularly misleading. The numbers were correct, but the victims were overwhelmingly not Russian, and came from either one of the two regimes."
    493. Zemskov, Viktor N. (2012). "О масштабах людских потерь CCCР в Великой Отечественной Войне" [The extent of human losses USSR in the Great Patriotic War]. Military Historical Archive (Военно-исторический архив) (in Russian). 9: 59–71 – via Demoskop Weehly vol. 559–560 (2013)
      • Excludes the 2,500,000 million Jewish civilians killed in Soviet Territories-(see: Gilbert, Martin. Atlas of the Holocaust. 1988. ISBN 978-0-688-12364-2)
      • 30,000 to 35,000 Roma killed in Porajmos-(see: Niewyk, Donald L. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. p. 422. ISBN 0-231-11200-9. "European Romani (Gypsy) Population". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Holocaust Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 8, 2016..
    494. Includes:
      • Deaths caused by the result of direct, intentional actions of violence 7,420,379-(see: ????????? 1995, pp. 124–131 The Russian Academy of Science article by M.V. Philimoshin based this figure on sources published in the Soviet era.)
      • Deaths of forced laborers in Germany 2,164,313-(see: Евдокимов 1995, pp. 124–131.)
      • Deaths due to famine and disease in the occupied regions 4,100,000-(see: Евдокимов 1995, pp. 124–131 The Russian Academy of Science article by M.V. Philimoshin estimated 6% of the population in the occupied regions died due to war related famine and disease.)
      • Excludes the 2,500,000 million Jewish civilians killed in Soviet Territories-(see: Gilbert, Martin. Atlas of the Holocaust. 1988. ISBN 978-0-688-12364-2)
      • 30,000 to 35,000 Roma killed in Porajmos-(see: Niewyk, Donald L. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. p. 422. ISBN 0-231-11200-9. "European Romani (Gypsy) Population". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Holocaust Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 8, 2016.
    495. Richard Overy, Russia's War (1997): "an estimated 500,000 Soviet citizens died from German bomb attacks."
    496. "Imperial War Museum - Invasion of the Soviet Union display". Retrieved July 29, 2019.
    497. "Polish Victims". Retrieved July 29, 2019.
    498. Tomasz Szarota; Wojciech Materski, eds. (2009). Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami [Poland 1939–1945. Human Losses and Victims of Repression under two Occupations]. Warsaw: Institute of National Remembrance (IPN). Archived from the original on March 23, 2012. – Janusz Kurtyka; Zbigniew Gluza. Preface.: "ze pod okupacja sowiecka zginelo w latach 1939–1941, a nastepnie 1944–1945 co najmniej 150 tys [...] Laczne straty smiertelne ludnosci polskiej pod okupacja niemiecka oblicza sie obecnie na ok. 2 770 000. [...] Do tych strat nalezy doliczyc ponad 100 tys. Polaków pomordowanych w latach 1942–1945 przez nacjonalistów ukrainskich (w tym na samym Wolyniu ok. 60 tys. osób [...] Liczba Zydów i Polaków zydowskiego pochodzenia, obywateli II Rzeczypospolitej, zamordowanych przez Niemców siega 2,7– 2,9 mln osób." Translation: "It must be assumed losses of at least 150.000 people during the Soviet occupation from 1939 to 1941 and again from 1944 to 1945 [...] The total fatalities of the Polish population under the German occupation are now estimated at 2,770,000. [...] To these losses should be added more than 100,000 Poles murdered in the years 1942–1945 by Ukrainian nationalists (including about 60,000 in Volhynia [...] The number of Jews and Poles of Jewish ethnicity, citizens of the Second Polish Republic, murdered by the Germans amounts to 2.7–2.9 million people." – Waldemar Grabowski. German and Soviet occupation. Fundamental issues.: "Straty ludnosci panstwa polskiego narodowosci ukrainskiej sa trudne do wyliczenia," Translation: "The losses of ethnic Poles of Ukrainian nationality are difficult to calculate." Note: Polish losses amount to 11.3% of the 24.4 million ethnic Poles in prewar Poland and about 90 percent of the 3.3 million Jews of prewar times. The IPN figures do not include losses among Polish citizens of Ukrainian and Belarusian ethnicity.
    499. Niewyk, Donald L. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. p. 422. ISBN 0-231-11200-9.
    500. "Genocide of European Roma (Gypsies), 1939–1945". Retrieved July 29, 2019.
    501. "Croatia" (PDF). Shoah Resource Center, The International School for Holocaust Studies. Yad Vashem. Glišic, Venceslav (January 12, 2006). "Žrtve licitiranja – Sahrana jednog mita, Bogoljub Kocovic". NIN (in Serbian). Archived from the original on August 1, 2013.
    502. Voglis, Polymeris (2006). "Surviving Hunger: Life in the Cities and the Countryside during the Occupation". In Gildea, Robert; Wievorka, Olivier; Warring, Anette. Surviving Hitler and Mussolini: Daily Life in Occupied Europe. Oxford: Berg. pp. 16–41. ISBN 978-1-84520-181-4.
    503. Baranowski, Shelley (2010). Nazi empire : German colonialism and imperialism from Bismarck to Hitler. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-521-67408-9.
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    505. Hodapp, Christopher (2013). Freemasonry for Dummies, 2. Edition. Wiley Publishing Inc. ISBN 1118412087.
    506. Peter Hoffmann "The History of the German Resistance, 1933–1945"p.xiii
    507. The number of Slovenes estimated to have died as a result of the Nazi occupation (not including those killed by Slovene collaboration forces and other Nazi allies) is estimated between 20,000 and 25,000 people. This number only includes civilians: Slovene partisan POWs who died and resistance fighters killed in action are not included (their number is estimated at 27,000). These numbers however include only Slovenes from present-day Slovenia: it does not include Carinthian Slovene victims, nor Slovene victims from areas in present-day Italy and Croatia. These numbers are result of a 10-year-long research by the Institute for Contemporary History (Inštitut za novejšo zgodovino) from Ljubljana, Slovenia. The partial results of the research have been released in 2008 in the volume Žrtve vojne in revolucije v Sloveniji (Ljubljana: Institute for Contemporary History, 2008), and officially presented at the Slovenian National Council
    508. van der Zee, Henri A (1998), The Hunger Winter: Occupied Holland 1944–1945, University of Nebraska Press, pp. 304–5.
    509. Barnouw, David (1999). De hongerwinter. ISBN 978-9065504463.
    510. Pike, David Wingeate. Spaniards in the Holocaust: Mauthausen, the horror on the Danube; Editorial: Routledge Chapman & Hall ISBN 978-0-415-22780-3. London, 2000.
    511. The Holocaust Chronicle, Publications International Ltd., p. 108.
    512. Shulman, William L. A State of Terror: Germany 1933–1939. Bayside, New York: Holocaust Resource Center and Archives.
    513. R.J.Rummel. "CHINA'S BLOODY CENTURY".
    514. Getty G.T. V.N., J.A. Rittersporn Zemskov (1993). "Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-war Years". American Historical Review (During 1921–53, the number of sentences was (political convictions): sentences, 4,060,306; death penalties, 799,473; camps and prisons, 2,634397; exile, 413,512; other, 215,942. In addition, during 1937–52 there were 14,269,753 non-political sentences, among them 34,228 death penalties, 2,066,637 sentences for 0–1 year, 4,362,973 for 2–5 years, 1,611,293 for 6–10 years, and 286,795 for more than 10 years. Other sentences were non-custodial). 98: 315–345. Archived from the original on June 11, 2008.
    515. Wheatcroft, Stephen (1996). "The Scale and Nature of German and Soviet Repression and Mass Killings 1930-1945" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. p. 1334.
    516. Wheatcroft, Stephen. "More light on the scale of repression and excess mortality in the Soviet Union in the" (PDF). JSTOR Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
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    518. Conquest, Robert (2008). The Great Terror: A Reassessment. Oxford University Press. pp. xvi. ISBN 9780195316995.
    519. Snyder, Timothy. (2010). Bloodlands : [Europe between Hitler and Stalin]. Blackstone Audio, Inc. p. 384. ISBN 9781441761507. OCLC 1014318956.
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    521. Snyder, Timothy (January 27, 2011). "Hitler vs. Stalin: Who Was Worse?" [The total number of noncombatants killed by the Germans—about 11 million—is roughly what we had thought. The total number of civilians killed by the Soviets, however, is considerably less than we had believed. We know now that the Germans killed more people than the Soviets did . . . All in all, the Germans deliberately killed about 11 million noncombatants, a figure that rises to more than 12 million if foreseeable deaths from deportation, hunger, and sentences in concentration camps are included. For the Soviets during the Stalin period, the analogous figures are approximately six million and nine million. These figures are of course subject to revision, but it is very unlikely that the consensus will change again as radically as it has since the opening of Eastern European archives in the 1990s.]. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
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    526. de Waal, Alex. Evil Days: Thirty Years of War and Famine in Ethiopia. London: Africa Watch / Human Rights Watch, 1991., page 110.
    527. White 2011, pp. 455–456: "For those who prefer totals broken down by country, here are reasonable estimates for the number of people who died under Communist regimes from execution, labor camps, famine, ethnic cleansing, and desperate flight in leaky boats: China: 40,000,000 Soviet Union: 20,000,000 North Korea: 3,000,000 Ethiopia: 2,000,000 Cambodia: 1,700,000 Vietnam: 365,000 (after 1975) Yugoslavia: 175,000 East Germany: 100,000 Romania: 100,000 North Vietnam: 50,000 (internally, 1954–75) Cuba: 50,000 Mongolia: 35,000 Poland: 30,000 Bulgaria: 20,000 Czechoslovakia: 11,000 Albania: 5,000 Hungary: 5,000 Rough Total: 70 million (This rough total doesn't include the 20 million killed in the civil wars that brought Communists into power, or the 11 million who died in the proxy wars of the Cold War. Both sides probably share the blame for these to a certain extent. These two categories overlap somewhat, so once the duplicates are weeded out, it seems that some 26 million people died in Communist-inspired wars.)"
    528. A January 26, 2003 The New York Times article by John F. Burns similarly states "the number of those 'disappeared' into the hands of the secret police, never to be heard from again, could be 200,000." Noting that the Iran–Iraq War cost approximately 800,000 lives on both sides and that—while "surely a gross exaggeration"—Iraq estimated there were 100,000 deaths resulting from U.S. bombing in the Gulf War, Burns concludes: "A million dead Iraqis, in war and through terror, may not be far from the mark." See Burns, John F. (January 26, 2003). "How Many People Has Hussein Killed?". The New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 2016. Also writing in The New York Times, Dexter Filkins appeared to echo but misrepresent Burns's remark on October 7, 2007: "[Saddam] murdered as many as a million of his people, many with poison gas. ... His unprovoked invasion of Iran is estimated to have left another million people dead." See Filkins, Dexter (October 7, 2007). "Regrets Only?". The New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 2016. In turn, Arthur L. Herman accused Saddam of "kill[ing] as many as two million of his own people" in Commentary on July 1, 2008. See Herman, Arthur L. (July 1, 2008). "Why Iraq Was Inevitable". Commentary. Retrieved December 4, 2016.
    529. "Croatia should apologize for World War II genocide before joining the EU". Christian Science Monitor. April 2, 2010.
    530. Rummel, R.J. "Yugoslavian Democide: Estimates, Sources, and Calculations". View Line 245.
    531. Duggan, Christopher (2007). The Force of Destiny: A History of Italy Since 1796. New York: Houghton Mifflin. p. 497.
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    534. Doxiadis, Sacrifices of Greece, Claims and Reparations, no.19, p.75-77
    535. Rudolph J. Rummel. "Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900." LIT Verlag, 1998. Page 168.
    536. "Toledo Blade – Google News Archive Search".
    537. Ullman, Richard H. (April 1978). "Human Rights and Economic Power: The United States Versus Idi Amin". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on October 4, 2015. Retrieved November 14, 2019. The most conservative estimates by informed observers hold that President Idi Amin Dada and the terror squads operating under his loose direction have killed 100,000 Ugandans in the seven years he has held power.
    538. Keatley, Patrick (August 18, 2003). "Obituary: Idi Amin". The Guardian. London. Retrieved March 18, 2008.
    539. Mazower, Mark (1999). Dark Continent. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-14-024159-4.
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    558. Greene, Anne (2001). "Haiti: Historical Setting § François Duvalier, 1957–71". In Metz, Helen Chapin (ed.). Dominican Republic and Haiti. Country Studies. Research completed December 1999 (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. pp. 288–289. ISBN 978-0-8444-1044-9. ISSN 1057-5294. LCCN 2001023524. OCLC 46321054. President Duvalier reigned supreme for fourteen years. Even in Haiti, where dictators had been the norm, François Duvalier gave new meaning to the term. Duvalier and his henchmen killed between 30,000 and 60,000 Haitians. The victims were not only political opponents, but women, whole families, whole towns. . . . In April 1963, when an army officer suspected of trying to kidnap two of Duvalier's children took refuge in the Dominican chancery, Duvalier ordered the Presidential Guard to occupy the building. The Dominicans were incensed; President Juan Bosch Gaviño ordered troops to the border and threatened to invade. However, the Dominican commanders were reluctant to enter Haiti, and Bosch was obliged to turn to the [Organization of American States] to settle the matter.
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      Cuba Archive President Maria Werlau says the total number of victims could be higher by a factor of 10."
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