List of video game developers

This is a list of notable video game companies that have made games for either computers (like PC or Mac), video game consoles, handheld or mobile devices, and includes companies that currently exist as well as now-defunct companies.

See the list of video games for other lists relating to video games, and defunct video game companies for a more specific list of companies that no longer exist. Many of the developers publish their own games.

List of notable developers

Active independently
Active as subsidiary
Defunct and no longer active
Developer City Autonomous area Country Est. Notable games Notes
0verflow Tokyo Japan 1997 School Days
Summer Days
Cross Days
Visual Novel Developer/Publisher
11 bit studios Warsaw Poland 2010 Frostpunk
1C Company Moscow Russia 1991 King's Bounty: Warriors of the North Game localization. The game development subsidiary, Snowball Studios, was dissolved and former employees of the studios formed Snowbird Game Studios.
1-Up Studio Tokyo Japan 2000 Mother 3 Subsidiary of Nintendo
2K Czech Brno Czech Republic 1997 Mafia
Mafia II
Former subsidiary of 2K Games; previously known as Illusion Softworks; closed in 2017 after merged into Hangar 13
2K Games Novato California US 2005 Developer/publisher/distributor/marketer; owned by Take-Two Interactive
2K Sports Novato California US 2005 NBA 2K series
NHL 2K series
WWE 2K series
Developer/publisher and subsidiary of 2K Games
343 Industries Redmond Washington US 2009 Halo series Subsidiary of Microsoft Studios, took over development for the Halo franchise from Bungie
38 Studios Providence Rhode Island US 2006 Kingdoms of Amalur: Reckoning Defunct in 2012; their assets were acquired by THQ Nordic
3D Realms Garland Texas US 1987 Duke Nukem
42 Entertainment Pasadena California US 1993 I Love Bees
4A Games Kiev
Metro series They moved its headquarters from Ukraine to Malta
5th Cell Bellevue Washington US 2003 Scribblenauts series
989 Studios Foster City California US 1995 Division of Sony Computer Entertainment America
Acclaim Entertainment Glen Cove New York US 1987 Developer/Publisher; declared Bankruptcy August 2004
Acclaim Studios Austin Santa Clara California US 1991 Turok series
All-Star Baseball series
South Park series
Acquired by Acclaim Entertainment in 1995
Accolade San Jose California US 1984 HardBall! series
Star Control series
Test Drive series
Former publisher and developer. Acquired by Atari, SA née Infogrames in 1999, name retired.
Access Games Osaka Japan 2002 Deadly Premonition Subsidiary of Digital Media Lab
Access Software Salt Lake City Utah US 1982 Under a Killing Moon
The Pandora Directive
Acquired by Microsoft
ACE Team Santiago de Chile Chile 2007 Zeno Clash series
Aces Studio Redmond Washington US Microsoft Flight Simulator Acquired by Microsoft
Acheron Design Melbourne Australia 2004 Brian Lara 2007 Pressure Play Voluntary deregistered in 2013.[1]
Action Forms Kiev Ukraine 1995 Carnivores series Their main employees moved to Tatem Games
Active Gaming Media Osaka Japan 2006 Game localization, debugging/testing, international indie game distribution, publishing
Activision Santa Monica California US 1979 Call of Duty series
Crash Bandicoot series
Spyro the Dragon series
Tony Hawk's Pro Skater series
Guitar Hero series
Skylanders series
Also video game publisher; acquired several other developers; merged with Vivendi to form Activision Blizzard in 2008
Adventure Soft Birmingham England 1992 Simon the Sorcerer series The development company is now defunct but the publishing company, Adventure Soft Publishing, is still active.
Akella Moscow Russia 1995 Age of Sail II
Age of Pirates series
Sea Dogs
Defunct in 2012
Alfa System Kumamoto City Japan 1988 Tales of the World series
Oreshika series
AlphaDream Tokyo Japan 2000 Mario & Luigi series Defunct in 2019
Amazon Game Studios Seattle Washington US 2012 Subsidiary of
Amazon Game Studios, Orange County (formerly Double Helix Games) Irvine California US 2007 Silent Hill: Homecoming
Killer Instinct
acquired by Amazon and incorporated in Amazon Game Studios
Ambrella Tokyo Japan 1996 Hey You, Pikachu!
Pokémon Rumble series
Amusement Vision Tokyo Japan 2000 Super Monkey Ball series
F-Zero GX
Subsidiary of Sega
Ancient Hino Japan 1990
Anino Manila Philippines 2001 Despicable Me: Minion Mania
Ankama Games Roubaix France 2001 Wakfu
Appy Entertainment Carlsbad California United States 2008
AQ Interactive Tokyo Japan 2005 Merged into Marvelous Entertainment in 2011
Arc System Works Yokohama Japan 1988 Guilty Gear series
BlazBlue series
Dragon Ball FighterZ
Arcane Kids Los Angeles California United States 2010 Bubsy 3D: Bubsy Visits the James Turrell Retrospective Sonic Dreams Collection
Arkane Studios Lyon France 1999 Arx Fatalis
Dishonored series
Subsidiary of ZeniMax Media
Arkedo Studio Paris France 2006 Hell Yeah! Wrath of the Dead Rabbit Defunct in 2013
ArenaNet Bellevue Washington US 2000 Guild Wars

Guild Wars 2

Subsidiary of NCSoft
Arika Tokyo Japan 1995 Endless Ocean series
Street Fighter EX series
Tetris: The Grand Master series
Tetris 99
Art Co., Ltd Tokyo Japan 1995
Artdink Tsukishima Japan 1986 A-Train series
ArtePiazza Tokyo Japan 1989
Artificial Studios Gainesville Florida US 2001 Subsumed by Ignition Entertainment
Artoon Yokohama Japan 1999 Yoshi's Island DS Subsidiary of AQ Interactive; defunct in 2010
Arzest Yokohama Japan 2010 Wii Play: Motion
Yoshi's New Island
Formed by former employees of Artoon
Ascaron Gütersloh Germany 1989 Sacred series Developer/publisher
Asobo Studio Bordeaux France 2002 Kinect Rush: A Disney–Pixar Adventure
A Plague Tale: Innocence
Atari, SA Paris France 1983 Publisher
Atari Interactive (formerly Hasbro Interactive) Pawtucket Rhode Island US 1995 Acquired by Infogrames in 2001
Atlus Tokyo Japan 1986 Megami Tensei franchise

Etrian Odyssey series
Trauma Center series

Developer/publisher; acquired by Sega in 2013
Atomic Planet Entertainment Middlesbrough England 2000 Taito Legends series Defunct in 2009
Attic Entertainment Software Albstadt Germany 1990 Realms of Arkania: Blade of Destiny Developer/publisher; defunct in 2001
Avalanche Studios Stockholm Sweden 2003 Just Cause series
theHunter series
Acquired by Nordisk Film in 2018
Aventurine SA Athens Greece 2002 Darkfall
Babaroga Chicago Illinois US 2001
Backflip Studios Boulder Colorado US 2009 DragonVale Subsidiary of Hasbro; defunct in 2019[2]
Bandai Tokyo Japan 1950 Digimon franchise
Tamagotch franchise
Subsidiary of Bandai Namco Holdings; the console game division was merged into Namco Bandai Games in 2006
Bandai Namco Entertainment
Bandai Namco Studios
Tokyo Japan 1955
Pac-Man franchise
Tekken franchise

Soul Calibur series
Tales series
Katamari series
Ace Combat series
The Idolmaster series
Taiko no Tatsujin series
Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS and Wii U
Pokkén Tournament
Mojipittan series

Bandai Namco Entertainment is a subsidiary of Bandai Namco Holdings; Bandai Namco Studios was split off from Bandai Namco Entertainment in 2012
Banpresto Tokyo Japan 1977 Super Robot Wars series Acquired by Namco Bandai Holdings in 2006; The video game division was merged into BEC (currently B.B. Studio) in 2011
Bauhaus Entertainment Tokyo Japan 2006 Division of Imagica DigitalScape
B.B. Studio Tokyo Japan 1994 Digimon World series
Super Robot Wars series
Subsidiary of Bandai Namco Entertainment
Beenox Quebec City Quebec Canada 2000 Spider-Man game series Subsidiary of Activision on May 25, 2005
Behaviour Interactive Montreal Quebec Canada 1992 Dead by Daylight
Behaviour Santiago Santiago de Chile Chile 2002 Assault Heroes series Subsidiary of Behaviour Interactive; closed in 2017
Bethesda Game Studios Rockville Maryland US 2001 The Elder Scrolls series
Fallout series
In-house development team of Bethesda Softworks LLC
Big Finish Games Salt Lake City Utah United States 2007 Tesla Effect: A Tex Murphy Adventure
Big Huge Games Baltimore Maryland US 2000 Rise of Nations
Kingdoms of Amalur: Reckoning
Subsidiary of Nexon
BioWare Edmonton Alberta Canada 1995 Baldur's Gate series
Mass Effect series
Dragon Age series
Neverwinter Nights
Star Wars: The Old Republic
Subsidiary of Electronic Arts
The Bitmap Brothers London England 1987 Xenon series Dissolved.[3][4] Their portfolio was acquired by Rebellion Developments in 2019.[5]
Best Way Luhansk Ukraine 1991 Men of War series
Bits Studios London England 1991 Spider-Man: Return of the Sinister Six Acquired by PlayWize in 2008
Bizarre Creations Liverpool England 1994 Project Gotham Racing series
Geometry Wars series
Defunct in 2011
Black Forest Games Offenburg Germany 2012 Giana Sisters: Twisted Dreams Subsidiary of THQ Nordic
Black Isle Studios Orange County California US 1996 Fallout 2
Planescape: Torment
Icewind Dale
Subsidiary of Interplay Entertainment; closed in 2003
Black Rock Studio Brighton England 1998 MotoGP 2
ATV Offroad Fury 3
Defunct in 2011
Black Wing Foundation Dnipro Ukraine 2006 Stalin vs. Martians
Speed Kills
Blitz Games Studios Leamington Spa England 1990 Karaoke Revolution Liquidated[6]
Blizzard Entertainment Irvine California US 1991 Diablo series
StarCraft series
Warcraft series
Heroes of the Storm
Developer/publisher; acquired by Vivendi and became part of Vivendi Games group in 1998; merged into Activision Blizzard in 2008
Blueside Seoul South Korea 2003 Kingdom Under Fire series Founded by former employees of Phantagram
Blue Fang Games Waltham Massachusetts US 1998 Zoo Tycoon series Shut down in 2011
Blue Tongue Entertainment Melbourne Victoria Australia 1995 Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis
de Blob
Marvel Super Hero Squad
Shut down in 2011; subsidiary of THQ
Bluehole Seongnam South Korea 2007 TERA
PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds
Bohemia Interactive Prague Czech Republic 1999 Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis
Arma series
Take On Helicopters
Carrier Command: Gaea Mission
Boss Fight Entertainment McKinney Texas US 2013
Boss Key Productions Raleigh North Carolina US 2014 LawBreakers Founded by Cliff Bleszinski and Arjan Brussee
BreakAway Games Hunt Valley Maryland US 1998
Brøderbund Eugene Oregon US 1980 Prince of Persia series Defunct in 1998
Bugbear Entertainment Helsinki Finland 2000 FlatOut series
Acquired by THQ Nordic in 2018
Bullfrog Productions Guildford England 1987 Theme Park
Magic Carpet
Dungeon Keeper series
Acquired by Electronic Arts in 1995 and closed in 2001
Bungie Bellevue Washington US 1991 Halo series
Pathways into Darkness
Minotaur: The Labyrinths of Crete
Operation: Desert Storm
Destiny series
Formerly a subsidiary of Microsoft Game Studios
Camelot Software Planning Tokyo Japan 1990 Shining series
Mario Golf series
Mario Tennis series
Golden Sun series
Capcom Osaka Japan 1979 Mega Man franchise

Ghost 'n Goblins series
Final Fight series
Street Fighter franchise
Resident Evil franchise
Devil May Cry franchise
Monster Hunter franchise
Ace Attorney franchise
Marvel vs. Capcom series
Dragon's Dogma series

Capcom Vancouver Burnaby British Columbia Canada 2005 Dead Rising series Founded as Blue Castle Games; acquired by Capcom in 2010
Carbine Studios Aliso Viejo California US 2005 WildStar Subsidiary of NCSoft
Cauldron Bratislava Slovakia 1996 Chaser Their assets were acquired by Bohemia Interactive[7]
Cave Shinjuku Japan 1994 DoDonPachi
Cavia Tokyo Japan 2000 Drakengard series


CCP Games Reykjavík Iceland 1997 Eve Online Their Newcastle studio was acquired by Sumo Digital. CCP Games itself was acquired by Pearl Abyss.
CD Projekt Red Warsaw Poland 2002 The Witcher series
Cyberpunk 2077
Game development studio of CD Projekt
Certain Affinity Austin Texas US 2006 Halo series Co-developed the Halo series
Chair Entertainment Salt Lake City Utah US 2005 Undertow
Shadow Complex
Infinity Blade series
Subsidiary of Epic Games
Chunsoft Shinjuku Japan 1984 Mystery Dungeon series
Dragon Quest I–V
Merged with Spike to become Spike Chunsoft in 2012
Cing Fukuoka Japan 1999 Little King's Story
Clap Hanz Yokohama Japan 1998 Everybody's Golf series
Everybody's Tennis series
Climax Entertainment Tokyo Japan 1990 Runabout series
Climax Studios Portsmouth England 1988 Silent Hill: Origins
Assassin's Creed Chronicles series
Clover Studio Osaka Japan 2004 Viewtiful Joe series
Subsidiary of Capcom; became defunct in 2007
Coded Illusions Rotterdam Netherlands 2005
Codemasters Southam England 1985 F1 series
Colin McRae Rally series
Operation Flashpoint series
Grid series
Former subsidiary of Reliance Entertainment; developer/publisher
Coffee Stain Studios Skövde Sweden 2010 Goat Simulator


Acquired by THQ Nordic in 2018
Cohort Studios Cardiff Wales 2006 Buzz! Junior series
Coktel Vision Paris France 1985 Inca series Former publisher
Colossal Order Tampere Finland 2009 Cities in Motion
Cities: Skylines
Developer for Paradox Interactive
Compile Heart Tokyo Japan 2006 Hyperdimension Neptunia series
Record of Agarest War
Developer/publisher; subsidiary of Idea Factory
Compulsion Games Montreal Quebec Canada 2009 Contrast
We Happy Few
Subsidiary of Microsoft Studios
Core Design Derby England 1988 Tomb Raider series Subsidiary of Eidos Interactive; closed down in 2006
Crafts & Meister Osaka Japan 2004 Gundam Breaker series
Crawfish Interactive Croydon England 1997 Defunct in 2002
Creat Studios Canton Massachusetts US 1990 American Chopper 2: Full Throttle
Creative Assembly Horsham England 1987 Total War series
Alien: Isolation
Subsidiary of Sega since 2005
Creatures Tokyo Japan 1995 Pokémon Ranger series
Detective Pikachu
Criterion Games Guildford England 1993 Burnout series Subsidiary of Electronic Arts
Croteam Zagreb Croatia 1993 Serious Sam series
The Talos Principle
Cryo Interactive Paris France 1992 Dune
Egypt series
Bankrupt in 2002
Culture Brain Excel Tokyo Japan 1980 Hiryū no Ken series
Super Chinese series
Cryptic Studios Los Gatos California US 2000 City of Heroes
Champions Online
Star Trek Online
Subsidiary of Perfect World
Crystal Dynamics Redwood City California US 1992 Legacy Of Kain series
Tomb Raider series (second era)
Subsidiary of Square Enix
Crytek Frankfurt Germany 1999 Far Cry
Crysis series
Ryse: Son of Rome
Crytek UK Nottingham England 1999 TimeSplitters series Founded as Free Radical Design; acquired by Crytek in 2009; defunct in 2014
Cyan Worlds Mead Washington US 1987 Myst series
Cyanide Nanterre France 2000 Pro Cycling Manager series Acquired by Bigben Interactive in 2018
Cyberdreams Liverpool England 2007 Developer/publisher; successor of Ultrasoft
CyberConnect2 Fukuoka Japan 1996 .hack franchise

Naruto: Ultimate Ninja series

Cyberlore Studios (Blueline Simulations[8]) Northampton Massachusetts US 1992 Majesty: The Fantasy Kingdom Sim Developer of computer games
CyberStep Tokyo Japan 2000 Cosmic Break
Developer and publisher of global online games
Cygames Tokyo Japan 2011 The Idolmaster Cinderella Girls series
Granblue Fantasy series
Princess Connect! series
Dragalia Lost
Subsidiary of CyberAgent
Dambuster Studios Nottingham England 2014 Homefront: The Revolution Formed by former employees of Crytek UK; acquired by Koch Media in 2014 and managed by its Deep Silver division
Day 1 Studios Chicago Illinois US 2001 Axis & Allies series
MechAssault series
Merged with WarGaming[9]
Daybreak Game Company San Diego California US 1997 EverQuest series
Deadline Games Copenhagen Denmark 1996 Total Overdose
Watchmen: The End Is Nigh
Faith and a .45
Deck13 Frankfurt Germany 2001 Ankh series
The Surge series
Deck13 Hamburg Hamburg Germany 1997 The Guild series
Deep Silver Volition Champaign Illinois USA 1996 Saints Row series
Red Faction series
Acquired by Koch Media in 2013 and managed by its Deep Silver division
Demiurge Studios Cambridge Massachusetts US 2002 acquired by Sega in 2015
DeNA Tokyo Japan 1999 Final Fantasy Record Keeper
Pokémon Masters
Mario Kart Tour
devCAT Studios (Nexon development 3rd division) Seoul South Korea 2001 Mabinogi
Division of Nexon Korea
Dhruva Interactive Bangalore India 1997 Acquired by Starbreeze Studios in 2016 and then they were acquired by Rockstar Games in 2019
Die Gute Fabrik Copenhagen Denmark 2006 Where is my Heart?
Digital Extremes London Ontario Canada 1993 Warframe Subsidiary of Leyou; Founded by James Schmalz, co-creator of Unreal series.
Digital Eclipse Emeryville California US 1992 Division of Other Ocean Group[10]
Digitalmindsoft Ulm Germany 2006 Men of War series
Digital Reality Budapest Hungary 1991 Imperium Galactica series Defunct in 2013; their assets were acquired by Nordic Games[11]
Dimps Osaka Japan 2000 Street Fighter IV
Dragon Ball Xenoverse series
Disney Interactive Studios Glendale California US 1988 Publisher and subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company; closed in 2016
Dontnod Entertainment Paris France 2008 Life Is Strange
DotEmu Paris France 2007 Streets of Rage 4
Double Fine Productions San Francisco California US 2000 Psychonauts
Broken Age
Gang Beasts
Founded by former employees of LucasArts; acquired by Microsoft in 2019
Dynamix Eugene Oregon US 1984 Red Baron
Front Page Sports series
Betrayal at Krondor
Tribes series
Closed in 2001
Dovetail Games Chatham England 2008 Train Simulator franchise
The Dovetail Group United States c. 1984 Early developer of music video games
EA Black Box British Columbia Canada 1998 Skate series Subsidiary of Electronic Arts; closed in 2013
EA Digital Illusions CE (EA DICE) Stockholm Sweden 1992 Battlefield series
Mirror's Edge
Acquired by Electronic Arts in 2004
Egosoft Würselen Germany 1988 X series
Eighting Tokyo Japan 1993 Kururin series
Kamen Rider: Climax series
Kamen Rider: Battride War series
Marvel vs. Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds
Acquired by COLOPL
Electronic Arts Redwood City California US 1982 FIFA series
Need For Speed series
Plants vs. Zombies series
Elemental Games Vladivostok Russia 1999 Space Rangers Defunct in 2015
Engine Software Doetinchem Netherlands 1995 Also middleware developer
Ensemble Studios Dallas Texas US 1995 Age of Empires series
Age of Mythology
Halo Wars
Former subsidiary of Microsoft Studios
Epic Games Cary North Carolina US 1991 Unreal series
Gears of War series
Shadow Complex
Infinity Blade series
Epicenter Studios Sherman Oaks California US 2007 Real Heroes: Firefighter
Epyx San Francisco California US 1978 California Games series
Impossible Mission series
Jumpman series
Pitstop series
Summer Games series
Developer/publisher, defunct 1993
ESA (formerly Softmax) Seoul South Korea 1994 TalesWeaver ESA left from game business. The former employees formed Studio 4Leaf and the studio was acquired by NextFloor.[12]
Étranges Libellules Lyon France 1994 Asterix & Obelix XXL
Eugen Systems Paris France 2000 Act of War series
Wargame series
Steel Division series
Eurocom Derby England 1988 GoldenEye 007
Evolution Studios Runcorn England 1999 World Rally Championship series
MotorStorm series
Division of SIE Worldwide Studios and subsidiary of Sony Computer Entertainment; defunct in 2016
Examu Tokyo Japan 1999 Arcana Heart series
Eyedentity Games Seoul South Korea 2007 Dragon Nest Acquired by Shanda Games (currently Shengqu Games) in 2010
F4 Paris France 2002 Empire of Sports
Facepunch Studios Walsall England 2009 Garry's Mod
FarSight Studios Big Bear Lake California US 1989 The Pinball Arcade
Fatshark Stockholm Sweden 2008 War of the Roses Subsidiary of Tencent
feelplus Tokyo Japan 1992 No More Heroes: Heroes' Paradise Merged into AQ Interactive
Firaxis Games Sparks Maryland US 1996 Civilization series (part 3 and later)
XCOM (Reboot) series
Subsidiary of 2K Games; founded by former employees of MicroProse.
Firefly Studios London England 1999 Stronghold series
Firesprite Liverpool England 2012 Formed by former employees of SCE Studio Liverpool
First Star Software Chappaqua New York US 1982 Their name and assets were acquired by BBG Entertainment
Flagship Studios San Francisco California US 2003 Hellgate:London
Closed down in 2008
Flying Wild Hog Warsaw Poland 2009 Hard Reset
Shadow Warrior
Foundation 9 Entertainment Emeryville California US 1992 Dissolved in 2016
Fox Digital Entertainment US 2002 Subsidiary of 20th Century Fox
FoxNext US 2017 Marvel Strike Force Division of 20th Century Fox
Frictional Games Helsingborg Sweden 2001 Penumbra series
Amnesia: The Dark Descent
Frogwares Kiev Ukraine 2000 Adventures of Sherlock Holmes series
FromSoftware Tokyo Japan 1986 Souls series


Subsidiary of Kadokawa Corporation
Frontier Developments Cambridge England 1994 Elite series
RollerCoaster Tycoon 3
Planet Coaster
Frozenbyte Helsinki Finland 2001 Shadowgrounds series
Trine series
FTL Games San Diego California US 1982 Dungeon Master series
FUN Labs Bucharest Romania 1999 MIB: Alien Crisis
Cabela's series
Funcom Oslo Norway 1993 The Longest Journey series
Anarchy Online
Age of Conan
The Secret World
Conan Exiles
FuRyu Tokyo Japan 2007 Unchained Blades series
Beyblade Burst series
Futuremark Espoo Finland 1997 Shattered Horizon Their game development division was acquired by Rovio Entertainment. Futuremark itself was acquired by UL and was merged into them.
Gaijin Entertainment Moscow Russia 2002 War Thunder
IL-2 Sturmovik: Birds of Prey
Game Arts Tokyo Japan 1985 Thexder series
Lunar series
Grandia series
Subsidiary of GungHo Online Entertainment
Game Freak Setagaya-ku Japan 1989 Pokémon series
GameHouse Seattle Washington US 1998 Delicious series Casual game developer, publisher and portal; acquired by RealNetworks
Gameloft Paris France 1999 Modern Combat: Domination
Order & Chaos Online
Assassin's Creed (for mobile)
Subsidiary of Vivendi; developer/publisher of mobile games
Gearbox Software Plano Texas US 1999 Brothers In Arms series
Borderlands series
Half-Life: Opposing Force
Geewa Prague Czech Republic 2005
Genki Shinjuku Japan 1990 Shutokou Battle series Subsidiary of Daikoku Denki
Ghost Games Gothenburg Sweden 2011 Need for Speed Payback Subsidiary of Electronic Arts
Glu Mobile San Francisco California US 2001 Developer of mobile games
Gogii Games Moncton New Brunswick Canada 2006 Developer/publisher
Good-Feel Kobe Japan 2005 Kirby's Epic Yarn
Yoshi's Woolly World
Yoshi's Crafted World
Founded by former employees of Konami
Granzella Nonoichi Japan 2011 Disaster Report 4 Plus: Summer Memories Founded by former Irem employees
Grasshopper Manufacture Suginami Japan 1998 Killer7
No More Heroes
Lollipop Chainsaw
Killer Is Dead
Founded by Suda51, a subsidiary of GungHo Online Entertainment
Gravity Seoul South Korea 2000 Ragnarok Online Subsidiary of GungHo Online Entertainment
Gremlin Interactive Sheffield England 1984 Zool and Premier Manager Taken over by Infogrames in 1999 studio closed in 2003
Grezzo Shibuya Japan 2006 The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time 3D

The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask 3D

The Legend of Zelda: Tri Force Heroes

Ever Oasis

Second-party developer of Nintendo
Grinding Gear Games Auckland New Zealand 2006 Path of Exile Acquired by Tencent
Griptonite Games Kirkland Washington US 1994 Marvel Super Hero Squad: Comic Combat Acquired by Glu Mobile
GSC Game World Kiev Ukraine 1995 S.T.A.L.K.E.R Defunct in 2011, reopened in 2014
Guerrilla Cambridge Cambridge Cambridgeshire England 1997 (as SCE Cambridge Studio), 2013 MediEvil series Branch of Guerrilla Games and division of SIE Worldwide Studios; closed in 2017
Guerrilla Games Amsterdam Netherlands 2000 Killzone series
Horizon Zero Dawn
Division of SIE Worldwide Studios since 2004
Gunfire Games Austin Texas US 2014 Darksiders III Formed by former employees of Vigil Games; acquired by THQ Nordic in 2019
GungHo Online Entertainment Tokyo Japan 1998 Puzzle & Dragons
Gust Nagano Japan 1993 Atelier series Became a division of Koei Tecmo Games in 2014
Haemimont Games Sofia Bulgaria 1997 Tropico 5
HAL Laboratory Chiyoda Japan 1980 Kirby series
Earthbound/Mother series
First-party developer of Nintendo
Halfbrick Brisbane Queensland Australia 2001 Fruit Ninja series
Jetpack Joyride
Mobile game developer
Hanaho Cerritos California US 1992
h.a.n.d. Sapporo Japan 1993 Aikatsu! series
Kingdom Hearts 358/2 Days
Disney Magical World series
Hangar 13 Novato California US 2014 Mafia III Subsidiary of 2K Games
Harebrained Schemes Seattle Washington US 2011 Shadowrun Returns
Shadowrun: Dragonfall
Shadowrun: Hong Kong
acquired by Paradox Interactive in 2018
Harmonix Music Systems Cambridge Massachusetts US 1995 Guitar Hero series
Rock Band series
Dance Central series
Former subsidiary of Viacom
Headstrong Games London England 2000 Battalion Wars series
Art Academy series
Subsidiary of Kuju Entertainment; defunct in 2017
Heartbeat Tokyo Japan 1992 Dragon Quest VI–VII
HB Studios Lunenburg Nova Scotia Canada 2000 The Golf Club series
HeroCraft Kaliningrad Russia 2001 Warhammer 40,000: Space Wolf
High Moon Studios San Diego California US 2005 Transformers: War for Cybertron series
Subsidiary of Activision
High Voltage Software Hoffman Estates Illinois US 1993 The Conduit series
Hoplon Infotainment Florianópolis Santa Catarina Brazil 2004 Taikodom
Hothead Games Vancouver British Columbia Canada 2006 DeathSpank
Founded by former employees of Radical Entertainment
Housemarque Helsinki Finland 1995 Super Stardust
Hudson Soft Tokyo Japan 1973 Bomberman series
Adventure Island series
Far East of Eden series
Momotaro Dentetsu series
Mario Party series
Developer/publisher; acquired and dissolved by Konami
Human Entertainment Tokyo Japan 1983 Fire Pro Wrestling series
Formation Soccer series
Twilight Syndrome series
Human Head Studios Madison Wisconsin US 1997 Rune
Humongous Entertainment Bothell Washington US 1992 Fatty Bear's Birthday Surprise
Putt-Putt series
Freddi Fish series
Pajama Sam series
Spy Fox series
Backyard Sports series
Former subsidiary of Infogrames; closed in 2006; their assets and brand were acquired by Tommo and relaunched in 2013
Hyperion Entertainment Brussels Belgium 1999
Ice-Pick Lodge Moscow Russia 2002 Pathologic series
id Software Mesquite Texas US 1991 Wolfenstein series
Doom series
Quake series
Acquired by ZeniMax Media in June 24, 2009
Idea Factory Shibuya-ku, Tokyo Japan 1994
Idol Minds Westminster Colorado US 1997 Cool Boarders series
Neopets: Darkest Faerie
Rally Cross
Imageepoch Tokyo Japan 2005 Luminous Arc series
Fate/Extra series
Defunct in 2016
Image & Form Gothenburg Sweden 1997 SteamWorld series Subsidiary of Thunderful
Imagineer Tokyo Japan 1986 Shape Boxing series
Infinity Ward Woodland Hills California US 2002 Call of Duty series Acquired by Activision in 2003.
Infocom Cambridge Massachusetts US 1979 Zork series
Planetfall series
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
Leather Goddesses of Phobos
Closed in 1989.
Incredible Technologies Arlington Heights Illinois US 1985 Defunct in 2016; arcade game designer, arcade game manufacturer
indieszero Musashino Japan 1997 Cooking Guide: Can't Decide What to Eat?
Innerloop Studios Oslo Norway 1996 Project I.G.I. series Defunct in 2003
Insomniac Games Burbank California US 1994 Spyro the Dragon series
Ratchet & Clank series
Resistance series
Sunset Overdrive
Spider-Man (2018)
Acquired by Sony Interactive Entertainment in 2019
Intelligent Systems Tokyo Japan 1986 Fire Emblem franchise
Advance Wars series
Paper Mario series
Puzzle League series
Developer closely associated with Nintendo
Interplay Entertainment Beverly Hills California US 1983 Earthworm Jim series
ClayFighter series
Fallout series
The Bard's Tale series
Introversion Software London England 2002 Darwinia
inXile Entertainment Newport Beach California US 2002 Wasteland 2
The Bard's Tale IV: Barrows Deep
Founded by one of Interplay Entertainment founders. In 2018 it is currently a Subsidiary by Microsoft Studios
IO Interactive Copenhagen Denmark 1998 Hitman series
Kane & Lynch series
Subsidiary of Square Enix until 2017 when they dropped IO, they then became independent
Ion Storm Dallas Texas US 1996 Daikatana
Shut down in 2001; subsidiary of Eidos Interactive
Ion Storm Austin Austin Texas US 1997 Deus Ex
Thief: Deadly Shadows
Shut down in 2005; subsidiary of Eidos Interactive
Irem Hakusan Japan 1974 R-Type series
Disaster Report series
Subsidiary of Eizo
Iron Galaxy Studios Chicago Illinois US 2008 Divekick
Borderlands 2 (PSVita)
Iron Lore Entertainment Maynard Massachusetts US 2000 Titan Quest series
Warhammer 40,000: Dawn of War – Soulstorm
Defunct in 2008
Irrational Games Quincy Massachusetts US 1996 System Shock 2
Freedom Force series
BioShock series
Subsidiary of 2K Games; defunct in 2017. Their main employees moved to Ghost Story Games.
Ivory Tower Lyon France 2007 The Crew series Subsidiary of Ubisoft;[13] founded by former employees of Eden Games
Jadestone Group Stockholm Sweden 2000 Subsidiary of WMS Industries; Online game developer, mobile game developer
Jagex Cambridge England 2001 RuneScape Subsidiary of Shanghai Fukong Interactive Entertainment (formerly Zhongji Holding); online game developer
Jaleco Tokyo Japan 1974 Idol Janshi Suchie-Pai series Acquired by Game Yarou in 2009 and defunct in 2014
Jam City Los Angeles California US 2007 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery Subsidiary of Netmarble;[14] mobile game developer
Javaground Irvine Massachusetts US 2001 God of War: Betrayal Mobile game developer
Jupiter Kyoto Japan 1996 Picross series
Pokémon Pinball series
JV Games Las Vegas Nevada US 1999
Kairosoft Tokyo Japan 1996 Game Dev Story
Kalypso Media Worms Germany 2006 Tropico series Developer/publisher
Kaos Studios New York City New York US 2006 Frontlines: Fuel of War
Subsidiary of THQ
Keen Software House Prague Czech Republic 2010 Space Engineers
Kesmai Charlottesville Virginia US 1981 Island of Kesmai Subsidiary of Electronic Arts; closed in 2001
Kiloo Games Aarhus Denmark 2000 Subway Surfers
Frisbee Forever
Mobile game developer
King Stockholm Sweden 2003 Candy Crush series Subsidiary of Activision Blizzard; Mobile game developer
Koei Tecmo Games (formerly Koei) Ashikaga Japan 1978 Dynasty Warriors series
Samurai Warriors series
Trilogy of Histories franchise

Fire Emblem: Three Houses

Developer/publisher; subsidiary of Koei Tecmo Holdings
KOG Studios Seoul South Korea 2000 Elsword
Kojima Productions Tokyo Japan 2005 Death Stranding
Konami Tokyo Midtown
Japan 1969 Gradius series
Contra series
Metal Gear series
Castlevania series
Pro Evolution Soccer series
Silent Hill series
TwinBee series
Bemani series
Power Pros series
Professional Baseball Spirits series
Mystical Ninja series
Tokimeki Memorial series
LovePlus series
Kongzhong Beijing China 2002
Krome Studios Brisbane Queensland Australia 1999 The Legend of Spyro: A New Beginning Defunct
Krome Studios Melbourne Melbourne Victoria Australia 1988 Horace series Defunct
Kuju Entertainment Shalford England 1998 Microsoft Train Simulator Subsidiary of Catalis SE
Kunos Simulazioni Rome Italy 2005 Assetto Corsa series Subsidiary of Digital Bros
Kush Games Camarillo California US 1998
Kuma Reality Games New York City New York US 2003
Kylotonn Paris France 2002 WRC 5–
V-Rally 4
Acquired by Bigben Interactive in 2018[15]
Larian Studios Oudenaarde Belgium 1996 Divinity series
Legacy Interactive Los Angeles California US 1998 Emergency Room series Publisher
Legend Entertainment Chantilly Virginia US 1989 Spellcasting series
Superhero League of Hoboken
The Wheel of Time
Unreal II
Closed in 2004.
Legendo Entertainment Gothenburg Sweden 2004 Developer/publisher
Level-5 Fukuoka Japan 1998 Dark Cloud series
Rogue Galaxy
Professor Layton series
Inazuma Eleven series
Ni No Kuni series
Yo-Kai Watch series
Fantasy Life series
Dragon Quest VIII–IX
Lift London London England 2012 videogame developer for Microsoft Hololens Subsidiary by Microsoft Studios in 2018
Limbic Entertainment Langen Germany 2002 Might & Magic X: Legacy
Might & Magic Heroes VII
Tropico 6
Lionhead Studios Guildford England 1997 Black & White series
Fable series
Closed by Microsoft Studios in 2016
Liquid Entertainment Pasadena California US 1999 Battle Realms Dissolved in 2018[16]
Little Green Men Games Zagreb Croatia 2006 Starpoint Gemini
LK Avalon Świlcza, Rzeszów Poland 1989 Hans Kloss
Schizm: Mysterious Journey
Llamasoft Reading England 1982
Linden Lab San Francisco California US 1999 Second Life
Looking Glass Studios Cambridge Massachusetts US 1990 Ultima Underworld series
System Shock series
Thief series
LucasArts San Francisco California US 1982 Maniac Mansion
Sam & Max Hit the Road
Day of the Tentacle
Monkey Island series
The Dig
Full Throttle
Grim Fandango
Star Wars: The Force Unleashed series
Star Wars: Battlefront series
Publisher and former developer; closed as developer of April 3, 2013 by Disney
Luma Arcade Johannesburg South Africa 2006 Division of Luma Animation
Luxoflux Santa Monica California US 1998 True Crime series
MachineGames Uppsala Sweden 2009 Wolfenstein: The New Order Founded by former employees of Starbreeze Studios; acquired by ZeniMax Media in 2010
Magenta Software Liverpool England 1994 Buzz! Junior series
MAGES. Shibuya, Tokyo Japan 2005 Science Adventure franchise Subsidiary of Dwango until 2019
Majesco Entertainment Edison New Jersey US 1986 Defunct December 8, 2016
Marvelous Shibuya Japan 1997 Senran Kagura series
Soul Sacrifice series
Story of Seasons franchise
Super Monkey Ball: Banana Splitz
Massive Entertainment Malmö Sweden 1997 Ground Control
World In Conflict
Tom Clancy's The Division
Founded in 1997; former subsidiary of Activision and acquired by Ubisoft in 2008
Masthead Studios Sofia Bulgaria 2005 Earthrise
Maxis Emeryville California US 1987 The Sims series
SimCity series
Became a subsidiary of Electronic Arts in 1997
Mean Hamster Software Deer Park Washington US 1985
Media Molecule Guildford England 2006 LittleBigPlanet series
Subsidiary of SIE Worldwide Studios; founded by former employees of Lionhead Studios
Mediatonic London England 2005 Robot Unicorn Attack
MegaZebra Munich Germany 2009
Mercury Steam Madrid Spain 2002 Castlevania: Lords of Shadow series
Metropolis Software Warsaw Poland 1992 Teenagent
Gorky 17
Studio was bought by CD Projekt in 2008 and closed in 2009.
MicroProse Software Hunt Valley Maryland US 1982 Silent Service
Railroad Tycoon
Civilization series
MTO Yokohama Japan 1996 GT Advance series
Microsoft Casual Games Redmond Washington US 2013 Solitaire
Subsidiary by Microsoft Studios
Midway Games Chicago Illinois US 1988 Mortal Kombat series As of 2012, Midway is a corporation existing under Delaware law subject to a Chapter 11 bankruptcy liquidation plan
Milestone Suginami Japan 2003 Chaos Field series
Milestone srl Milan Italy 1996 Superbike series
MotoGP series
WRC 1–4
MXGP series
Ride series
Acquired by Koch Media in 2019
Mimimi Productions Munich Germany 2011 Desperados III
Mistwalker Tokyo Japan 2004 Blue Dragon
Mitchell Corporation Tokyo Japan 1960 Polarium
Puzz Loop series
MLB Advanced Media New York City New York US 2000 R.B.I. Baseball 18
Mojang AB Stockholm Sweden 2009 Minecraft
Former Indie developer and publisher; acquired by Microsoft on September 15, 2014
Monolith Productions Kirkland Washington US 1994 F.E.A.R. series
Middle-earth: Shadow of Mordor

Middle-earth: Shadow of War

Subsidiary of Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment
Monolith Soft Tokyo Japan 1999 Xeno series
Project X Zone series
First-party developer and subsidiary of Nintendo
Monster Games Northfield Minnesota US 1996 NASCAR Heat series
Mythic Entertainment Fairfax Virginia US 1995 Dark Age of Camelot Acquired by Electronic Arts in 2006 and closed in 2014
Nadeo Paris France 2000 TrackMania Acquired by Ubisoft
Namco Tales Studio Tokyo Japan 1986 Tales series Originally it was division or subsidiary of Telenet Japan but it became a jointly-owned company of Namco and Telenet Japan
Nanobit Zagreb Croatia 2008
NAPS team Messina Italy 1993 Gekido series NAPS team is the oldest Italian development studio
Natsume Shinjuku Japan 1987 Harvest Moon series
Metabots series
NaturalMotion London England 2001 Backbreaker series Acquired by Zynga
Naughty Dog Santa Monica California US 1986 Crash Bandicoot series
Jak and Daxter series
Uncharted series
The Last of Us series
Division of SIE Worldwide Studios since 2001
NCSoft Seoul South Korea 1997 Aion
Lineage series
Blade & Soul
Online game developer
NDcube Tokyo Japan 2000 Wii Party series
Mario Party series
Subsidiary of Nintendo
NDOORS Corporation Seoul South Korea 1999 Atlantica Online Developer/publisher; subsidiary of Nexon; merged into Nexon Red in 2017[17]
Neowiz Seoul South Korea 1997 Bless Online
Nerve Software Richardson Texas US 1999
NetDevil Louisville Colorado US 1997 LEGO Universe
NetDragon Websoft Fuzhou China 1999 Disney Fantasy Online
NetEase Guangzhou China 1997 Fantasy Westward Journey Developer, publisher, and online services company
NetherRealm Studios Chicago Illinois US 2010 Mortal Kombat series
Injustice: Gods Among Us

Injustice 2

Successor to Midway Games; Subsidiary of Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment
Neverland Tokyo Japan 1993 Rune Factory series
Neversoft Woodland Hills California US 1994 Guitar Hero series
Tony Hawk series
Acquired by Activision in 1999; merged into Infinity Ward in 2014
Nevosoft St. Petersburg Russia 2002
New World Computing Agoura Hills California USA 1984 Might and Magic franchise
Nexon Korea
South Korea
Atlantica Online
They moved its headquarters from Korea to Japan.
Next Level Games Vancouver British Columbia Canada 2002 Super Mario Strikers
NGD Studios Buenos Aires Argentina 2002 Regnum Online
Master of Orion: Conquer the Stars
Niantic San Francisco California US 2010 Ingress
Pokémon Go
Nibris Kraków Poland 2000
Nihon Falcom Tokyo Japan 1981 Ys series
Dragon Slayer series

The Legend of Heroes series

Vantage Master
Gurumin: A Monstrous Adventure

Nikita Online St. Petersburg Russia 1991
Ninjabee Orem Utah USA 2005 Division of Wahoo Studios
Ninja Theory Cambridge England 2000 Heavenly Sword
Enslaved: Odyssey to the West

DmC: Devil May Cry
Hellblade: Senua's Sacrifice

Purchased by Microsoft Studios in 2018
Nintendo Kyoto Japan 1889 Mario franchise
The Legend of Zelda franchise
Metroid franchise
Pikmin series
Animal Crossing series
Pokémon franchise
F-Zero series
Star Fox series
Kirby franchise
Mother series
Super Smash Bros. series
Splatoon series
Brain Age series
Tomodachi Life
First-party developer/publisher/console manufacturer
Nippon Ichi Software Gifu Prefecture Japan 1991 Rhapsody: A Musical Adventure
La Pucelle: Tactics
Disgaea series
Phantom Brave
Hotaru no Nikki
Nival St. Petersburg Russia 1996 Etherlords series
Blitzkrieg series
Heroes of Might and Magic V
Nordeus Belgrade Serbia 2009 Top Eleven Football Manager Developer/publisher
NovaLogic Agoura Hills California US 1985 Delta Force series
Joint Operations series
Their assets were acquired by THQ Nordic
Novarama Barcelona Spain 2003 Invizimals series
Now Production Osaka Japan 1986 Mario Super Sluggers
Sonic Riders
n-Space Orlando Florida USA 1994 Heroes of Ruin
Port for various video games, include Call of Duty series
Obsidian Entertainment Irvine California USA 2004 Fallout New Vegas
Neverwinter Nights 2
Dungeon Siege III
South Park: The Stick of Truth
Pillars of Eternity
Subsidiary by Microsoft Studios
Oddworld Inhabitants San Luis Obispo California USA 1994 Oddworld series
Omega Force Ashikaga Japan 1997 Dynasty Warriors series
Samurai Warriors series
Warriors Orochi series
Dragon Quest Heroes series
Dragon Quest Builders 2
Division of Koei Tecmo Games
Origin Systems Austin Texas US 1983 Ultima series
Ultima Online
Wing Commander series
Acquired by Electronic Arts in 1992 and closed in 2004
OtherSide Entertainment Boston Massachusetts USA 2013 Underworld Ascendant
System Shock 3
Founded by one of Looking Glass Studios founders.
Outrage Entertainment Ann Arbor Michigan US 1996 Descent 3 Closed in 2004
Overkill Software Stockholm Sweden 2009 Payday series Acquired by Starbreeze Studios in 2012
Oxygen Studios Croydon England 2006 King of Clubs
Page 44 Studios San Francisco California USA 1998 Freekstyle
High School Musical 3: Senior Year Dance
Madden NFL 11 iOS
uDraw Pictionary
World of Goo iOS
Subsidiary of Zynga; closed in 2011.
Pangea Software Austin Texas USA 1987
People Can Fly Warsaw Poland 2002 Bulletstorm
Project Sora Tokyo Japan 2009 Kid Icarus: Uprising Subsidiary of Nintendo; became defunct in 2012
Papaya Studio Irvine California USA 1999
Project Soul Tokyo Japan 1996 Soul series Division of Bandai Namco Studios
Panther Games Pty Ltd Canberra Australia 1985 Fire-Brigade
Command Ops: Battles from the Bulge
Paradox Development Studio Stockholm Sweden 1995 Europa Universalis series
Hearts of Iron series
Crusader Kings series
Subsidiary of Paradox Interactive
Parallax Software Ann Arbor Michigan USA 1993 Descent series Split into Volition and Outrage Entertainment
Pandemic Studios Los Angeles California USA 1998 Star Wars: Battlefront
Destroy All Humans! series
Full Spectrum Warrior
Mercenaries: Playground of Destruction
The Saboteur
Acquired by Electronic Arts in 2007 and closed in 2009.
Pendulab Private Singapore Singapore 2001
Pendulo Studios Madrid Spain 1993 Runaway series
Penguin Software Geneva Illinois USA 1978 Transylvania series
Perfect World Beijing China 2004 Perfect World series Developer/publisher
Petroglyph Las Vegas Nevada USA 2003 Star Wars: Empire at War
Universe at War: Earth Assault
Grey Goo
Phantagram Seoul South Korea 1994 Kingdom Under Fire series Acquired by Blueside in 2010[18]
Phenomic Game Development Ingelheim am Rhein Germany 1997 SpellForce series
Lord of Ultima
Command and Conquer: Tiberium Alliances
Acquired by Electronic Arts in 2006
Pipeworks Studios Eugene Oregon USA 1999 Godzilla: Destroy All Monsters Melee
Deadliest Warrior
Zumba Fitness
Subsidiary of Northern Pacific Group
Piranha Bytes Essen Germany 1997 Gothic 1–3
Risen series
Acquired by THQ Nordic in 2019
Piranha Games Vancouver British Columbia Canada 2000 MechWarrior 5: Mercenaries
MechWarrior Online
Duke Nukem Forever
Bass Pro Shops: The Strike
EA Playground
Medal of Honor: Heroes 2
Need For Speed: Undercover
Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen
Die Hard: Nakatomi Plaza
Pi Studios Houston Texas US 2002 Bomberman Live: Battlefest
Pivotal Games Bath England 2000 Conflict series
The Great Escape
Pixel Press St. Louis Missouri US 2013
Pixel Federation Bratislava Slovakia 2007 Galactic Junk League Developer/Publisher
Playdom San Francisco California US 2009 Facebook, Myspace game developer Subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company; closed in 2016
Playfish London England 2007 The Sims Social Facebook, Myspace game developer Subsidiary of Electronic Arts; closed in 2013
PlayFirst San Francisco US 2004 Acquired by Glu Mobile in 2014; Casual game developer, publisher and portal
Playground Games Royal Leamington Spa England 2009 Forza Horizon series Acquired by Microsoft
PlatinumGames Osaka Japan 2006 MadWorld
Bayonetta series
Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance
The Wonderful 101
Star Fox Zero
Nier: Automata
Astral Chain
Successor to Clover Studio, and founded by Shinji Mikami, Atsushi Inaba, and Hideki Kamiya.
Polyphony Digital Tokyo Japan 1998 Gran Turismo series
Tourist Trophy
Division of SIE Worldwide Studios
PopCap Games Seattle Washington USA 2000 Bejeweled series
Plants vs. Zombies series
Peggle series
Casual game developer, publisher and portal; subsidiary of Electronic Arts since 2011
Press Play Copenhagen Denmark 2006 Max & the Magic Marker
Max: The Curse of Brotherhood
Former subsidiary of Microsoft Studios; defunct in March 2016
Psyonix San Diego California USA 2001 Rocket League
XCOM: Enemy Unknown
Acquired by Epic Games in 2019
Punch Entertainment Hanoi Vietnam 2005 Subsidiary of Evolable Asia; Casual games, social games developer
Pyro Mobile Madrid Spain 1996 Commandos series Subsidiary of Zed Group; their assets were acquired by Kalypso Media[19]
Q Entertainment Tokyo Japan 2003 Lumines series
Q-Games Nakagyō-ku Japan 2001 Star Fox Command
PixelJunk series
Quantic Dream Paris France 1997 Fahrenheit
Heavy Rain
Beyond: Two Souls
Detroit: Become Human
Radical Entertainment Vancouver Canada 1991 Prototype series Shut down by Activision and dissolved in 2013[20]
Rage Games Liverpool England 1992 Incoming series Defunct in 2003
Rainbow Studios Phoenix Arizona USA 1996 MX vs. ATV series Acquired by THQ, later closed by THQ
Rare Twycross England 1985 Battletoads series
Donkey Kong Country series
Killer Instinct series
Banjo-Kazooie series
Donkey Kong 64
GoldenEye 007
Conker's Bad Fur Day
Perfect Dark series
Sea of Thieves
Successor to Ultimate Play the Game; second-party developer for Nintendo; turned; Acquired by Microsoft Studios in 2002 as a first-party developer
Raven Software Middleton Wisconsin USA 1990 Heretic
Call of Duty series
Star Wars Jedi Knight II: Jedi Outcast
Soldier of Fortune II: Double Helix
Marvel: Ultimate Alliance
Acquired by Activision in 1997
Ready at Dawn Irvine California US 2003 Daxter
Red Entertainment Tokyo Japan 1976 (as the Red Company), 2000 (as Red Entertainment) Sakura Wars series Acquired by Oizumi Corporation in 2014
Reality Pump Studios Kraków Poland 1995 Two Worlds series Division of TopWare Interactive
Realtime Associates Los Angeles California US 1986
Realtime Worlds Dundee Scotland 2002 Crackdown
Rebellion Developments Oxford England 1992 Aliens vs. Predator series
Sniper Elite series
Rebellion Warwick Leamington Spa England 2013 SkySaga: Infinite Isles Formed by former employees of Blitz Games Studios; acquired by Rebellion Developments in 2018
RedLynx Helsinki Finland 2000 Trials series Subsidiary of Ubisoft
Red Thread Games Oslo Norway 2012 Dreamfall Chapters: The Longest Journey Founded by former employees of Funcom
Red Storm Entertainment Cary North Carolina US 1996 Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon
Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six
Acquired by Ubisoft
RedTribe (Tribalant) Melbourne Victoria Australia 2003
Reflexive Entertainment Lake Forest California US 1997 Airport Mania series Subsidiary of
Relic Entertainment Vancouver British Columbia Canada 1997 Company of Heroes series
Warhammer 40000: Dawn of War series
Homeworld series
Subsidiary of Sega
Remedy Entertainment Espoo Finland 1995 Max Payne series
Alan Wake series
Respawn Entertainment Sherman Oaks, Los Angeles California US 2010 Titanfall
Apex Legends
Acquired by Electronic Arts in 2017.
Reto-Moto Copenhagen Denmark 2008 Heroes & Generals
Retro Studios Austin Texas US 1998 Metroid Prime series
Donkey Kong Country series
Subsidiary of Nintendo
Revolution Software York England 1990 Broken Sword series
Beneath a Steel Sky
Riot Games Santa Monica California US 2006 League of Legends Subsidiary of Tencent
Rising Star Games Luton England 2004 Acquired by Thunderful in 2018
Robot Entertainment Plano Texas US 2009 Orcs Must Die! series
Hero Academy series
Age of Empires Online
Rockstar Games
Rockstar India
Rockstar Leeds
Rockstar Lincoln
Rockstar London
Rockstar New England
Rockstar North
Rockstar San Diego
Rockstar Toronto
New York City
New York
Grand Theft Auto franchise
Manhunt series
Midnight Club series
Red Dead series
Developer/publisher; owned by Take-Two Interactive
Rocksteady Studios London England 2005 Batman: Arkham series Subsidiary of Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment
Robinson Technologies Hiroshima Japan Dink Smallwood
Rovio Entertainment Espoo Finland 2003 Angry Birds franchise Publisher, developer and distributor
Ruffian Games Dundee Scotland 2008 Crackdown 2
Runic Games Seattle Washington USA 2008 Torchlight Subsidiary of Perfect World; closed in 2017
Running with Scissors Tucson Arizona USA 1997 Postal series
Saber Interactive Millburn New Jersey USA 2001 World War Z
Sand Grain Studios Bucharest Romania 2002 Cabela's Big Game Hunter: 2004 Season Dissolved in 2009[21]
Sir-Tech United States
1979 Wizardry series
Jagged Alliance series
Schell Games Pittsburgh Pennsylvania United States 2002 I Expect You To Die Developer and publisher
SCS Software Prague Czech Republic 1997 18 Wheels of Steel series
Euro Truck Simulator series
Sega Ota,
San Francisco
California Japan,
1960 Golden Axe series
Streets of Rage
The House of the Dead series
Phantasy Star series
Sakura Wars series
Yakuza series
Valkyria Chronicles series
Mushiking series
Hatsune Miku: Project DIVA series
Third-party (Formerly first-party) developer, publisher, former console manufacturer; subsidiary of Sega Sammy Holdings
SEGA Interactive R&D Division 1 (Sega AM1) Tokyo Japan 1984 World Club Champion Football series Division of SEGA Interactive
SEGA Interactive R&D Division 2 (Sega AM2) Ota Japan 1985 Virtua Fighter series
Shenmue series
Border Break series
Division of SEGA Interactive, founded by Yu Suzuki
Sega AM3 Tokyo Japan 1991 Crazy Taxi series
Virtua Tennis series
Division of Sega
Sega CS Research and Development No. 2 (Sonic Team) Tokyo Japan 1996 Sonic The Hedgehog series
Puyo Puyo series
Project Sakura Wars
Division of SEGA Games
Sega Sports R&D Tokyo Japan 1994 Panzer Dragoon series
Jet Set Radio series
Let's Make a Soccer Team! series
Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games series
Division of Sega
Sensible Software Cambridge England 1986 Sensible Soccer series
Cannon Fodder series
Mega Lo Mania
Microprose Soccer
Shoot-'Em-Up Construction Kit
Sensible Golf
Developer, studio closed and company acquired by Codemasters in 1999
Shift Kanagawa Japan 1996 Ape Escape Academy series
God Eater series
SIE Bend Studio Bend Oregon USA 1993 (Founded as Blank, Berlyn and Co., later Eidetic) Syphon Filter series
Days Gone
Founded by Blank, Berlyn and Co. and Eidetic, acquired by Sony Interactive Entertainment as a part of SIE Worldwide Studios in 2000.
SIE San Mateo Studio (formerly SIE Foster City Studio) San Mateo California USA 1998 Division of SIE Worldwide Studios; relocated from Foster City to San Mateo
SIE Japan Studio Tokyo Japan 1993 Ape Escape series
Shadow of the Colossus
Siren series
Patapon series
Loco Roco series
Gravity Rush series
Knack series
The Last Guardian
Division of SIE Worldwide Studios
SIE London Studio London England 2002 SingStar series Division of SIE Worldwide Studios
SIE San Diego Studio San Diego California USA 2001 MLB: The Show series Division of SIE Worldwide Studios
SIE Santa Monica Studio Los Angeles California USA 1999 God of War series Division of SIE Worldwide Studios
SCE Studio Liverpool Liverpool England 1984 Wipeout series
Formula One series
Colony Wars series
Former Division of SIE Worldwide Studios; shut down by Sony on August 22, 2012
SIE Worldwide Studios Tokyo, Fukuoka, Santa Monica, Los Angeles, San Diego, Bend, Amsterdam, London, Guildford, Cambridge California, Washington, Oregon Japan, United States, Netherlands, United Kingdom 2005 A group of first-party development studios and subsidiaries owned by Sony Interactive Entertainment
Shengqu Games Shanghai China 1999 Acquired by Zhejiang Century Huatong in 2017
Sherman3D Petaling Jaya Malaysia 2003 Alpha Kimori
Shin'en Multimedia Munich Germany 1999 Fast Racing League series
Sierra Entertainment Oakhurst California USA 1979 Mystery House
King's Quest series
Space Quest series
Police Quest series
Leisure Suit Larry series
Quest for Glory series
Gabriel Knight series
Subsidiary of Activision; internal development ceased in 1999; closed in 2004
Silicon Knights St. Catharines Ontario Canada 1992 Blood Omen: Legacy of Kain
Eternal Darkness: Sanity's Requiem
Too Human
Silicon Studio Tokyo Japan 2000 Bravely Default series
Simtex Austin Texas USA 1988 Master of Orion series
Master of Magic
Sledgehammer Games Foster City California USA 2009 Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare
co-developer of Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3
Subsidiary of Activision
Snail Suzhou China 2000 Voyage Century Online
Slightly Mad Studios London England 2008 Project CARS series Acquired by Codemasters in 2019[22]
Slipgate Ironworks Aars Denmark 2017 Rad Rodgers Formed by former employees of Interceptor Entertainment
Slitherine Software Epsom England 2000 Horrible Histories: Ruthless Romans
Smilegate Seoul South Korea 2002 CrossFire
SNK Osaka Japan 2001 Fatal Fury series
The King of Fighters series
Metal Slug series
Samurai Showdown series
The Last Blade series
World Heroes series
Acquired by 37Games in 2015; game hardware and software developer
Sobee Studios Istanbul Turkey 2000 I Can Football
Merged into TTNET
Snowblind Studios Seattle Washington USA 1997 Top Gear Overdrive
Champions of Norrath
Subsidiary of Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment; defunct in 2012
Software 2000 Eutin Germany 1987 Pizza Tycoon series Publisher
Sony Interactive Entertainment San Mateo California USA 1994 First-party developer, publisher and console manufacturer
Sora Ltd. Tokyo Japan 2005 Kid Icarus: Uprising
Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS and Wii U
Super Smash Bros. Ultimate
Spectrum HoloByte Alameda California USA 1983 Star Trek: The Next Generation Publisher
Spellbound Entertainment Offenburg Germany 1994 Desperados series
Arcania: Gothic 4
Spiders Paris France 2008 The Technomancer Acquired by Bigben Interactive in 2019[23]
Spike Tokyo Japan 1991 Dragon Ball Z: Budokai Tenkaichi series Merged with Chunsoft to become Spike Chunsoft in 2012
Spike Chunsoft Tokyo Japan 2012 Zero Escape series
Danganronpa franchise
The result of a merger between Spike and Chunsoft and is owned by Dwango
Spil Games Hilversum Netherlands 2001 Web game developer/publisher. The mobile game division was acquired by Azerion.[24]
Splash Damage London England 2001 Enemy Territory: Quake Wars
Dirty Bomb
Subsidiary of Leyou
Sproing Interactive Media Vienna Austria 2001 Cursed Mountain Defunct in 2017; their assets were acquired by Purple Lamp
Square Enix Tokyo Japan 1975 Final Fantasy series
Kingdom Hearts series
Dragon Quest franchise

Mana series
Chrono series
Drakengard series

Developer/publisher; previously known as Square Co. and Enix
Squad Mexico City Mexico 2009 Kerbal Space Program series
Stainless Games Newport England 1993 Magic: The Gathering – Duels of the Planeswalkers series
Stainless Steel Studios Cambridge Massachusetts USA 1998 Empire Earth
Starbreeze Studios Uppsala Sweden 1998 Enclave
Brothers: A Tale of Two Sons
Stardock Plymouth Michigan USA 1991 Galactic Civilizations series Developer/publisher
Sting Entertainment Tokyo Japan 1989 Baroque series
Dungeon Travelers series
Strategic Simulations Sunnyvale California USA 1979 Gold Box series
Panzer General series
Stoic Studio Austin Texas USA 2011 The Banner Saga series Founded by former employees of BioWare
Strawdog Studios Derby England 2003 Geon series
Straylight Studios Dunedin New Zealand 2004
Streamline Studios Kuala Lumpur Malaysia 2001
Success Tokyo Japan 1978 Touch Detective series
Sucker Punch Productions Bellevue Washington USA 1997 Rocket: Robot on Wheels
Sly Cooper series
Infamous series
Division of SIE Worldwide Studios since 2011
Sumo Digital Sheffield England 2003 LittleBigPlanet 3
Crackdown 3
Supercell Helsinki Finland 2010 Clash of Clans
Hay Day
Boom Beach
Clash Royale
Subsidiary of Tencent
Supermassive Games Guildford England 2008 Until Dawn
SuperVillain Studios Orange County California USA 2004 Order Up! acquired by Nicalis in 2017
Survios Los Angeles California USA 2013
Studio Wildcard Kirkland Washington US 2014 Ark: Survival Evolved
Swingin' Ape Studios Aliso Viejo California USA 2000 Metal Arms: Glitch in the System Acquired by Blizzard Entertainment
StormRegion Budapest Hungary 2001 S.W.I.N.E.
Codename: Panzers series
Acquired by 10tacle Studios AG in 2007 and then defunct in 2008
Syn Sophia Tokyo Japan 1995 WCW/nWo Revenge
SimCity DS series
Style Savvy series
Pretty Series franchise
Taito Tokyo Japan 1953 Space Invaders
Bubble Bobble series
Developer/publisher; acquired by Square Enix
Tango Gameworks Tokyo Japan 2010 The Evil Within series Subsidiary of ZeniMax Media
Tag Games Dundee Scotland 2006
TaleWorlds Entertainment Ankara Turkey 2005 Mount & Blade series
Tamsoft Asakusa Japan 1992 OneeChanbara series
Senran Kagura series
Tantrumedia Wirral England 2003
Tantalus Media Melbourne Victoria Australia 1994
Tarsier Studios Malmö Sweden 2004 Little Nightmares
Tate Multimedia Warsaw Poland 2002 Urban Trial Freestyle
Team17 Ossett England 1990 Alien Breed series
Worms series
The Escapists series
Team Bondi Sydney New South Wales Australia 2003 L.A. Noire Closed in 2011
Team Ico Tokyo Japan 1997 Ico
Shadow of the Colossus
Division of SIE Japan Studio; Their staffs moved to genDESIGN
Team Ninja Tokyo Japan 1995 Ninja Gaiden series
Dead or Alive series
Nioh series
Marvel Ultimate Alliance 3
Division of Koei Tecmo Games; formerly a division of Tecmo
Techland Ostrów Wielkopolski Poland 1991 Chrome series
Call Of Juarez series
Dead Island series
Dying Light
Tecmo Tokyo Japan 1967 Monster Rancher series
Gallop Racer series
Fatal Frame series
Tecmo and Koei co-founded Koei Tecmo Holdings in 2009 and Tecmo was merged into Koei Tecmo Games in 2010
Telltale Games San Rafael California USA 2004 Sam & Max episodic series
The Walking Dead series
The Wolf Among Us
Tales from the Borderlands
Game of Thrones
Minecraft: Story Mode
Founded by former employees of LucasArts
Tencent Shenzhen China 1998 Developer, publisher, online services company
Tencent Games Shenzhen China 2003 Ring of Elysium Division of Tencent Interactive Entertainment
Tequila Works Madrid Spain 2009 Deadlight
Terminal Reality Lewisville Texas USA 1994 Monster Truck Madness series
Tetris Online Honolulu Hawaii USA 2006 Tetris Friends
Teyon Kraków Poland 2006 Heavy Fire series
The Chinese Room Brighton England 2007 Amnesia: A Machine For Pigs Subsidiary of Sumo Digital
The Coalition Vancouver Canada 2010 Gears of War series Subsidiary of Microsoft Studios
The Farm 51 Gliwice Poland 2005 Get Even
The Initiative Santa Monica US 2018 Subsidiary of Microsoft Studios
THQ Agoura Hills California US 1989 Developer/publisher; defunct in 2013; their assets were acquired by Nordic Games, 505 Games, or Gearbox Software[25]
THQ Nordic Vienna




2011 SpellForce 3 Developer/publisher
Three Fields Entertainment Petersfield England 2014 Danger Zone series Founded by the founders of Criterion Games
Three Rings Design San Francisco California US 2001 Doctor Who: Worlds in Time
TimeGate Studios Sugar Land Texas USA 1998 Kohan series
Section 8 series
Toaplan Tokyo Japan 1984 Snow Bros. Developer of arcade games; went bankrupt and closed in 1994
ToeJam & Earl Productions San Francisco US 1989 (as Johnson Voorsanger Productions) ToeJam & Earl series Founded by Mark Voorsanger and Greg Johnson; became defunct in 2003
TopWare Interactive Karlsruhe Germany 1995 Publisher
Torpex Games Bellevue Washington USA 2005 Schizoid
Torus Games Bayswater Victoria Australia 1994 Scooby-Doo! First Frights
Scooby-Doo! and the Spooky Swamp
Shrek Smash n' Crash Racing
Monster Jam
Tose Kyoto Japan 1979 The Legendary Starfy series
Dragon Quest Monsters series
Slime series
World of Final Fantasy
Toys for Bob Novato California USA 1989 Skylanders series Subsidiary of Activision
Trapdoor Montreal Quebec Canada 2010 Warp
Transmission Games Melbourne Victoria Australia 1996 Heroes of the Pacific
Heroes Over Europe
Closed in 2009
Traveller's Tales Knutsford England 1990 Lego series Subsidiary of TT Games
Treyarch Santa Monica California USA 1996 Call of Duty series Acquired by Activision in 2001.
Treasure Tokyo Japan 1992 Gunstar Heroes
Dynamite Headdy
Guardian Heroes
Alien Soldier
Sin and Punishment
Sin & Punishment: Star Successor
Gaist Crusher
tri-Ace Tokyo Japan 1995 Star Ocean series
Valkyrie Profile series
Acquired by Nepro Japan (currently NJ Holdings) in 2015
tri-Crescendo Tokyo Japan 1999 Digimon World Re:Digitize series
Trion Worlds Redwood City California US 2006 Rift Defunct in 2018; their assets were acquired by Gamigo[26]
Tripwire Interactive Roswell Georgia USA 2005 Killing Floor series
Red Orchestra: Ostfront 41-45
Triumph Studios Delft Netherlands 1997 Age of Wonders series

Overlord series

Acquired by Paradox Interactive
Turn 10 Studios Redmond Washington USA 2001 Forza Motorsport series Subsidiary of Microsoft Studios
Turtle Rock Studios Lake Forest California USA 2002 Left 4 Dead series
Two Point Studios Surrey England 2016 Two Point Hospital Formed by former employees of Lionhead Studios; acquired by Sega in 2019
Two Tribes Amersfoort Netherlands 2000 Toki Tori
Typhoon Games (HK) Hong Kong SAR China 2001 Subsidiary of Typhoon Entertainment (Asia)
Ubisoft Montreuil-sous-Bois France 1986 Rayman series
Assassin's Creed series
Just Dance series
Prince of Persia series
Far Cry series
Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon series
Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six series
Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell series
Beyond Good & Evil series
Ubisoft Blue Byte Düsseldorf Germany 1988 Battle Isle series
The Settlers series
Anno series
Acquired by Ubisoft
Ubisoft Reflections Newcastle upon Tyne England 1984 Driver series
Destruction Derby series
Acquired by Ubisoft
Ultimate Play the Game Ashby-de-la-Zouch England 1982 Jetpac
Lunar Jetman
Atic Atac
Sabreman series
Alien 8
Predecessor to Rare; Defunct in 1988
Undead Labs Seattle US 2009 State of Decay Subsidiary of Microsoft Studios
United Front Games Vancouver British Columbia Canada 2006 ModNation Racers
Sleeping Dogs
LittleBigPlanet Karting
Defunct in 2016
United Game Artists Tokyo Japan 1996 Space Channel 5 series
Subsidiary of Sega
Universomo Tampere Finland 2002 Defunct in 2010
Valve Kirkland Washington USA 1996 Half-Life series
Portal series
Left 4 Dead series
Team Fortress 2
Dota 2
Counter-Strike series
Developer, publisher and distributor
Vanillaware Chūō-ku, Osaka Japan 2002 Odin Sphere
Muramasa: The Demon Blade
Dragon's Crown
Venan Entertainment Cromwell Connecticut USA 2002 Ninjatown Their assets were acquired by Megaspace Industries.
Vicarious Visions Albany (Menands) New York USA 1990 Guitar Hero series
Tony Hawk series
Crash Bandicoot N. Sane Trilogy
Marvel: Ultimate Alliance 2
Acquired by Activision in 2004.
Vigil Games Austin Texas USA 2005 Darksiders series Subsidiary of THQ; defunct in 2013
Virtual Heroes Raleigh North Carolina USA 2004 Moonbase Alpha
Virtuos Singapore 2004 Monster Jam: Path of Destruction
Ghost Recon Predator
Visceral Games Redwood City California USA 1998 Dead Space series Formerly known as EA Redwood Shores, former subsidiary of Electronic Arts, closed in 2017.
Visual Concepts Novato California USA 1988 NFL 2K
NBA 2K series
MLB 2K series
Subsidiary of 2K Sports
Vostok Games Kiev Ukraine 2012 Survarium Vostok Games was founded in March 2012 by former employees of GSC Game World, following that firm's closing
VoxelStorm Manchester England 2012 AdvertCity
Wahoo Studios Orem Utah USA 2001
Warhorse Studios Prague Czech Republic 2011 Kingdom Come: Deliverance Acquired by Koch Media in 2019
Wargaming Nicosia
1998 World of Tanks Developer/publisher
Wargaming Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg Russia 1991 World of Warships Subsidiary of Wargaming
Wargaming Seattle Redmond, Washington United States 1998 Supreme Commander Subsidiary of Wargaming
Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment Chicago Illinois US 1988 Batman: Arkham series
Lego series
F.E.A.R. series
Mortal Kombat series
Division of Warner Bros. Entertainment which is a subsidiary of WarnerMedia
WB Games Boston (formerly Turbine) Needham Massachusetts USA 1994 Asheron's Call series
Dungeons & Dragons Online
The Lord of the Rings Online
Subsidiary of Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment
WB Games | Avalanche (formerly Avalanche Software) Salt Lake City US 1995 Disney Infinity series Subsidiary of Disney Interactive Studios; defunct in 2016
Relaunched by Warner Bros. in 2017.
Webfoot Technologies Chicago Illinois US 1993 Dragon Ball Z: The Legacy of Goku
You Don't Know Jack! series
Deadly Rooms of Death
Creators of many Dragon Ball Z games for Atari; specializes in Nintendo platforms
WeMade Seoul South Korea 2000 The Legend of Mir series
Westone Bit Entertainment Tokyo Japan 1986 Wonder Boy series
Monster World series
Bankrupt and became defunct in 2014
Westwood Studios Las Vegas Nevada US 1985 Eye of the Beholder
Dune II
The Legend of Kyrandia series
Lands of Lore series
Command & Conquer series
Acquired by Electronic Arts in 1998 and closed in 2003.
Wideload Games Chicago Illinois USA 2003 Stubbs the Zombie in Rebel Without a Pulse Subsidiary of Disney Interactive Studios; closed in 2014
Wildfire Studios Brisbane Queensland Australia 1995
Wizet studio (Nexon development 1st division) Seoul South Korea 1999 MapleStory Acquired by Nexon and became to its division
Wolfire Games Berkeley California USA 2003
World Forge Voronezh Russia 2004 Ancient Wars: Sparta Founded by Burut Creative Team employees.
Xbox Game Studios Redmond Washington US 2002 Age of Empires series
Crackdown series
Fable series
Forza Motorsport series
Gears of War series
Halo series
Microsoft Flight Simulator series
Zoo Tycoon series
First-party developer, publisher, and console manufacturer; established as Microsoft Game Studios
XPEC Entertainment Taipei Taiwan 2000 Bounty Hounds Developer/publisher
Yager Development Berlin Germany 1999 Spec Ops: The Line
Yuke's Osaka Japan 1993 WWE SmackDown! vs Raw
ZeniMax Online Studios Hunt Valley Maryland USA 2007 The Elder Scrolls Online Subsidiary of ZeniMax Media Inc
Zipper Interactive Redmond Washington USA 1995 SOCOM U.S. Navy SEALs series Shut down in 2012 by Sony Computer Entertainment
Zombie Studios Seattle Washington USA 1994 Spec Ops: Rangers Lead the Way
Blacklight: Retribution
ZootFly Ljubljana Slovenia 2002 Marlow Briggs and the Mask of Death Acquired by Elektroncek
Zynga San Francisco California USA 2007 FarmVille Social network game developer.
This video game-related list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

See also


  1. ACHERON DESIGN PTY LTD ACN 121 588 412, Australian Securities & Investments Commission
  2. Backflip Studios shutting down. October 24, 2019.
  5. Rebellion acquires The Bitmap Brothers' classic games portfolio,, 25 November 2019
  7. DayZ developer acquires new studio to work on standalone version - Update: Everything but the name, PC Gamer, March 28, 2014
  8. Его краснодарское Величество (in Russian),, April 21, 2008
  9. "Day 1 Studios". Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  10. Digital Eclipse is back with a new mission: preserve classic games Gamasutra 2015年6月8日
  11. Nordic acquires Digital Reality IP Imperium Galactica, Sine Mora, others, VG247, 2 February 2016
  12. Next Floor Invests on Studio 4LEAF. Tech for Korea. October 24, 2017.
  13. Makuch, Eddie (2015-10-05). "The Crew Reaches 3 Million Players, Ubisoft Acquires Developer". GameSpot. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  14. Harry Potter Hot, Marvel Avengers Not in Jam City Game Plans, Bloomberg, June 29, 2018
  15. Bigben spending spree continues with Kylotonn acquisition,, October 3, 2018
  16. DISSOLUTION, California Secretary of State
  17. Nexon merges NDoors and Nexon Red,, January 2, 2018
  18. 김세정 블루사이드 대표 "7년간 800억원 투자한 '킹덤언더파이어2'...전 세계 흥행 자신감" (in Korean), ChosunBiz, November 28, 2016
  19. Tropico publisher Kalypso acquires rights to Commandos series, Gamasutra, July 13, 2018
  20. Federal Corporation Information - 428888-2, Government of Canada
  21. Company SC SAND GRAIN STUDIOS SRL Sectorul 4 CUI 10853 (in Russian),
  22. Codemasters buys Slightly Mad Studios for $30m,, 28 November 2019
  23. Bigben Interactive acquires Spiders Games. Gematsu. July 25, 2019.
  24. Azerion buys Spil Games’ mobile game division. VentureBeat. June 20, 2019.
  25. THQ auction results: Nordic Games takes Darksiders, Red Faction; 505 Games is Drawn to Life, Engadget, April 22, 2013
  26. DGAP-Adhoc: gamigo AG: Übernahme des Spiele Unternehmens Trion Worlds zur weiteren Stärkung ihrer Marktposition im Spielemarkt. (in German),, October 22, 2018
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