List of transport megaprojects

This is a list of transport megaprojects. Care should be taken in comparing the cost of projects from different times, even a few years apart due to inflation; comparing nominal costs without taking this into account can be highly misleading.

According to the Oxford Handbook of Megaproject Management, "Megaprojects are large-scale, complex ventures that typically cost $1 billion or more, take many years to develop and build, involve multiple public and private stakeholders, are transformational, and impact millions of people".[1]

Completed projects

Project Description Location Approximate cost (in billions USD) Start of construction Year of completion Image Notes
Alaskan Way Viaduct replacement tunnel Road Tunnel Seattle, Washington, United States 3.1[2] 2013 2019
Santiago Metro Line 3 Rapid Transit Line Santiago, Chile 1.7 2012 2019
Crimean Bridge Rail/road bridge Russia (one end is recognized internationally as being owned by Ukraine, but is de facto controlled by Russia) 3.7[3] 2015 2018 (road bridge)
2019 (rail bridge)
Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge Bridge–tunnel Hong Kong , Zhuhai and Macau 17 2009 2018
New Tappan Zee Bridge Bridge Replacement South Nyack to Tarrytown New York, USA 3.9 2013 2018
Ionia Odos Freeway Western Greece 1.8[4] 2007 2017 (€1.4bn)
German Unification Transport Project (Verkehrsprojekt Deutsche Einheit) Transport project to achieve the German Unity Germany 42[5] 1991 2016 – continues expansion until 2020
AVE - Spain's high-speed railway network High-speed railway Spain 44[6] 1992 2016 - continues expansion 40[6] billion euros
Evergreen Point Floating Bridge (2016) Road Bridge Seattle and Medina, Washington, United States 4.56[7] 2012 2016
Gotthard Base Tunnel Railway tunnel Swiss Alps, Switzerland 10.6[8] 1996 2016 (CHF 9.74 billion)
World Trade Center Transportation Hub Transit center and retail New York City, New York, USA 3.9[9] 2006 2016
Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge Bridge Istanbul, Turkey 2[10] 2013 2016
Blanka tunnel complex Road tunnel Prague, Czech Republic 1.75[11] 2006 2015
AdlerKrasnaya Polyana road and railway Freeway and railway Russia 9.4[12] 2014
Budapest Metro Line 4 Rapid Transit line Budapest, Hungary 2.1[13][14] 2004 2014 (HUF 452bn)
Marina Coastal Expressway Highway Singapore 3.4[15][16] 2008 2013[17] (S$4.3 bn)
Marmaray Tunnel Subsea railway tunnel Istanbul, Turkey 3 2004 2013
Eastern span replacement of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge Road bridge San Francisco, California 6.4 2002 2013
Russky Bridge Road Bridge Vladivostok (Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula) and Russky Island, Russia 1.1[18] 2008 2012
Freeway Durango-Mazatlán and Baluarte Bridge Freeway and road bridge Durango-Sinaloa, Mexico 1.46[19][20] 2008 2012
Jiaozhou Bay Bridge Bridge Shandong, China 1.5[21] 2007 2011
Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway High-speed rail Eastern China, PRC (Beijing to Shanghai, via Tianjin and Nanjing) 33.1[22] 2008 2011 (RMB 220.9bn)
Clem Jones Tunnel Road tunnel Brisbane, Queensland, Australia 3.4[23] 2006 2010 (AUD3.2bn)
Wuhan–Guangzhou high-speed railway High-speed rail China 18.5[24] 2005 2009 (RMB 116.6bn)
Egnatia Odos Freeway Northern Greece 8.4[25] 1994 2009 (€5.9bn)
Incheon Bridge Bridge South Korea 1.4 2005 2009 (KRW 1.25tn)
Bologna–Florence high-speed railway High-speed rail Italy 6.9 1996 2009 (€5.2 billion)
Milan–Bologna high-speed railway High-speed rail Italy 9.1 1993 2008 (€6.9 billion)
Beijing–Tianjin intercity railway High-speed rail Beijing and Tianjin, China[26] 3.2 2005 2008 (RMB 20.42bn)
High Speed 1 High-speed rail Southeast England, UK 8.4[27] 1998 2007 (GBP5.2bn)
Lötschberg Base Tunnel Railway tunnel Swiss Alps, Switzerland 4.6 1999 2007 (CHF 4.3 billion)
Copenhagen Metro phase 1-3 Metro system Copenhagen, Denmark 1.47[28] 1996 2007 11,400,000,000 DKK
"Big Dig" Central Artery/Tunnel Project Road tunnel Boston, Massachusetts, United States 22[29] 1991 2007 14.6 billion USD
Colorado T-REX Project (TRansportation EXpansion) Highway & light rail upgrade Denver, Colorado 1.7[30] 2001 2006
Shanghai Maglev Train Maglev Shanghai, China 1.33 2001 2004 (RMB 10bn)
Red Line (Los Angeles Metro) Subway line Los Angeles, United States 4.5[31] 1986 2000
Toei Ōedo Line Rapid Transit Tokyo, Japan 18.4[32] 1988 2000 (¥1.400 billion)
Jubilee Line Extension Metro line London, United Kingdom 6.83 (2010USD)[33] 1993 1999 3.5 billion GBP
Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Project 17 bridges connecting the islands of Honshū and Shikoku Japan 48[34] 1978 1999 4 trillion Yen
Øresund Bridge Rail/road bridge/tunnel Denmark-Sweden 5.7[35] 1995 1999 (DKK30.1bn)
Great Belt Fixed Link Rail/road bridge/tunnel Denmark 3.5 1988 1998 (DKK21.4bn)
Vasco da Gama Bridge Road bridge Lisbon, Portugal 1.3[36] 1995 1998 (€897m / 180bn PTE)
Akashi-Kaikyō Bridge Road bridge Kobe, Japan 5[37] 1988 1998
Channel Tunnel Continental railway tunnel Strait of Dover, English Channel 15.4[38] 1988 1994 (GBP9.5bn)
Interstate Highway System Network of limited-access roadways United States 114[39] 1956 1992[40][41] 425 billion in 2006 dollars[42]
Baikal–Amur Mainline Railway (Sovetskaya Gavan, Khabarovsk Krai) to (Tayshet Irkutsk Oblast), Russia 15[43] 1974 1984
Bay Area Rapid Transit Rapid transit system San Francisco Bay Area 1.586[44] 1964 1976 - continues expansion $9.5 billion adjusted for inflation
Saint Lawrence Seaway Canal system St Lawrence River and North American Great Lakes 0.470[45] 1954 1959
Caracas-La Guaira highway Highway Greater Caracas, Venezuela 0.06[46][47] 1950 1953
Trans-Siberian Railway Railroad Moscow to Russian Far East(Vladivostok) 0.770[48] 1891 1916
Panama Canal Canal Panama 0.375[49] 1881 1914
First Transcontinental Railroad Railroad Omaha, Nebraska to Sacramento, California 0.1[50] 1863 1869 $2.6bn today
Suez Canal Canal Sinai Peninsula, Egypt 0.082[51] 1859 1869

Under construction

Project Description Location Approximate cost (in billions USD) Start of construction Year of completion Image Notes
Crossrail 1 Railway, Commuter rail, Rapid transit Greater London, United Kingdom 17.6[52] 2007 2019[53] A new 73m (117km) railway line in England, serving London, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire & Essex.
Crossrail 2 Railway, Commuter rail, Rapid transit Greater London, United Kingdom 31.2[54] 2020 2030s[55] A new railway line in England, serving London, Surrey & Hertfordshire to interlink with Crossrail (above).
Sha Tin to Central Link Railway Hong Kong, From Tai Wai, New Territories to Admiralty, Hong Kong Island 12 2012 2019-2021 (expected)
Lagos-Kano Standard Gauge Railway (under construction, phase 1 completed) Railway From Lagos, Lagos to Kano, Kano State in Nigeria 8.3[56] 2011 2018 (phase 2)
Lagos-Calabar Railway Railway From Lagos, Lagos to Calabar, Cross River 11.9[57] 2018 (expected) TBA
Abuja Light Rail (phase 1 nearing completion)[58] Light Rail, Commuter Rail Abuja, FCT, Nigeria 2.7[58][59] 2007 2018 (phase 1)[60]
Lagos Rail Mass Transit Rapid Transit, Commuter Rail Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria 3.6[61][62] 2009 2018 (blue line)
Badagry Deep Sea Port Seaport Badagry, Lagos State, Nigeria 2.3[63] 2016 2018 (phase 1)[64]
Fourth Mainland Bridge Bridge Across the lagoon to connect Ikorodu and Lekki cities of Lagos State 4.2[65] 2018 (expected) TBA
Lekki Port Seaport Lekki, Lagos State, Nigeria 1.6[66] 2015 2018 (phase 1)
Honolulu Rail Transit Railway Oahu, Hawaii 10 2011 2022
California High-Speed Rail High-speed railway California 64.2[67] 2015 2030
Locations of planned California High-Speed Rail route and stations. Phase I: blue; Phase II: gold. (The separate XpressWest system is shown in cyan.) Route is approximate in some places.
China Pakistan Economic Corridor Economic corridor Gwadar, Pakistan to Kashgar, China 46 2015 2020 (expected)
Barcelona Metro line 9

(under construction)

Rapid transit line Barcelona, Spain 26.3[68][69] 2009 2020 (expected) (€19bn)
Santiago Metro Line 7 Rapid transit line Santiago, Chile 2.9 2017 2025 (expected)
Cross River Rail (under construction) Rapid transit Brisbane, Queensland, Australia 4.3[70][71] 2017 2024[70] AUD $5.4 billion
Second Avenue Subway Phase 2

(under construction)

Rapid transit line New York City, New York, United States 6[72] TBA 2026 Phase 2 (expected)
Klang Valley MRT Line 1 (Under Construction) Rapid Transit Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 11.7[73] 2012 2017 (MYR36B)
Orange Line (Lahore Metro) (Under Construction) Rapid Transit Lahore, Pakistan 1.6 2015 2018
Karachi-Lahore Motorway Motorway Pakistan 11.5 2015 2019
Thameslink Programme Commuter rail upgrade Southeast England, UK 8.9-9.7[74] 2009 2019 (GBP5.5-6.0bn)
NHDP Highway upgrade India 71[75] 2000 2018 (INR 4.5 trillion).This project will be completed by early 2018 and will be supersized by Bharatmala project.
Highway Vespucio Oriente Road tunnel Santiago, Chile 1.1 2017 2022
Highway Costanera Central Road tunnel Santiago, Chile 1.2 2017 2024
Tel Aviv–Jerusalem railway Railway Jerusalem, Israel 2 2001 2018
Tunnel Agua Negra Pass Road tunnel San Juan, Argentina, Coquimbo Region, Chile 1.5 2018 2025 (expected)
WestConnex Road tunnel Sydney, Australia 11.3 ($15 billion AUD) 2015 Stage 1 & 2- 2019 (expected)

Stage 3- 2023 (expected)

Fastracks Light Rail, Commuter Rail Denver, Colorado 6.5[76] 2006 2044 (expected)
City Rail Link Commuter rail Auckland, New Zealand 2.4[77] 2015 2020-21

(expected)

(NZD$3.5bn)
Eglinton Crosstown Light rail Toronto, Ontario, Canada 5.230[78] 2010 2020-23 (expected)
Noord/Zuidlijn Rapid transit line Amsterdam, Netherlands 4.4[79] 2002 2017 (expected) (€3.1bn)
Bar-Boljare highway Highway Montenegro 3.7[80][81] 2015[82] 2019 (2.77 billion €)
Grand Paris Express Automated rapid transit Paris, Ile de France, France 27 2014 from 2020 to 2030 4 new lines, 200 km, 72 new stations
Scarborough Subway Extension Rapid transit Toronto, Ontario, Canada 2.6 2018 (expected) 2023 (expected) CA$3.4 billion[83]
Ohio River Bridges Project Road bridges and interchange reconfiguration Louisville metropolitan area, Kentucky and Indiana, United States 2.3[84] 2014 2024 (expected)
Confederation Line (stages 1 and 2) Rapid transit Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 3.9 2013[85] 2018[86] (stage 1) 2023[87] (stage 2) $2.1 billion + $3.0 billion CA$)[88]
Tehran-Shomal Freeway, 121 km Freeway Tehran and Mazandaran Province, Iran 1.7[89] 2017 (HUF 452bn)
Stuttgart 21 Railway & Urban Development Stuttgart, Germany 7.4 2010 2023 estimates up to 6.8 bn €
Birmingham Northern Beltline (I-422) Highway Birmingham, Alabama, United States 5.445 2014 2054 (expected)
Brenner Base Tunnel Railway tunnel Innsbruck, Austria to Franzensfeste, Italy 10.7 2008 2026 (€8.7 bn)
Koralm Tunnel Railway tunnel Styria / Carinthia, Austria 6.6 2009 2022-26 (€5.4 bn, est. 10+ bn[90])
Semmering Base Tunnel Railway tunnel Lower Austria / Styria, Austria 4.0 2012 2024 (€3.3 bn)
Mumbai–Ahmedabad high-speed rail corridor High Speed Railway From Ahmedabad, Gujarat to Mumbai, Maharashtra 16 2019 2022
Bharatmala Highway building and upgradation All over India 100 2017 2022
Sagarmala Port Coastal areas of India 120 2017 2025
CBD and South East Light Rail Light Rail Sydney, New South Wales, Australia 1.58 2020
Réseau express Métropolitain (REM) Light Metro Montreal, Quebec, Canada 4.8 2018 2023 67km of rails, 26 stations, automated light metro at $CDN 6.4bn
Tyne and Wear Metro Modernisation & Expansion Rapid transit Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom 1.3 2010[91] 2011
High Speed 2 High Speed Railway United Kingdom 56.7[92] 2017[93] 2033 330m/530km of High Speed track[94], 5 stations and West Coast Mainline integration
Northern Powerhouse Rail Railway & Urban renewal United Kingdom 39[95] 2018[96] 2026[97] Links Liverpool, Sheffield, Kingston-upon-Hull & Newcastle-upon-Tyne to High Speed 2.

Proposed

Project Description Location Approximate cost (in billions USD) Proposed start of construction Proposed year of completion Notes
Arctic Railway Railway Finland, Norway 3.42[98] TBD TBD A connecting line between Kirkenes port and the Finnish railway network.
Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link Undersea tunnel Denmark, Germany 8.57[99] 2019[100] 2028[101]
Helsinki City Rail Loop Railway tunnel Finland 1.77[102] TBD TBD An underground rail loop in Helsinki.
Helsinki–Tallinn Tunnel Railway, Undersea tunnel Finland, Estonia 17.7[103] 2020 2024[104]
Irish Sea Bridge Bridge United Kingdom 20[105] TBD TBD A proposed bridge between Scotland and Northern Ireland, supported by the Johnson ministry.[106]
Lentorata Railway tunnel Finland 6.49[107] TBD TBD An airport rail link for Helsinki Airport.
Malacca Strait Bridge Bridge Indonesia, Malaysia 14[108] TBD TBD A proposed 48 kilometer bridge over the Strait of Malacca.
Sunda Strait Bridge Bridge Indonesia 18.87[109] TBD TBD The project has been indefinitely postponed.[110]
Singapore Strait crossing Undersea tunnel Singapore, Indonesia TBD TBD TBD A proposed tunnel between Singapore and Indonesia.
Suburban Rail Loop Mass transit Australia 38.46-76.92[111] 2022 2050 A proposed extension of the Melbourne rail system.

Airport projects

AirportLocationIATA CodePassengers (total)Year completedCost (in US Dollars)
Abu Dhabi International AirportAbu Dhabi, United Arab EmiratesAUH20,000,0001982 6.8 billion
Adolfo Suarez Madrid-Barajas International Airport Terminals 4 and 4SMadrid, SpainMAD57,891,3402006 8.7 billion
Al Maktoum International AirportJebel Ali, UAEDWC410,278 (expected: 260 million)2010 32 billion
Athens International AirportAthens, GreeceATH16,225,8852001 3 billion
Bandung Majalengka International AirportMajalengka Regency, West Java, IndonesiaKJT29,000,000 (expected)2018 15 billion
Barcelona–El Prat AirportBarcelona, SpainBCN50,172,457 4 billion
Berlin-Brandenburg International AirportBerlin, GermanyBER28,000,000 (expected)[112] 2020 (expected) 10 billion (as of 2018)[113]
Changi Airport Terminal 3SingaporeSIN22,000,0002008 1.4 billion[114]
Changi Airport Terminal 4SingaporeSIN65,628,0002017 1 billion[115]
Ciudad Real Central AirportCiudad Real, SpainCQM Ceased operations in 2012 (expected: 10 million)2009 1.41 billion
Clark International AirportAngeles City, PhilippinesCRK2,664,378 10 billion
Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International AirportSantiago, ChileSCL30,000,000 2021 (expected) 1 billion
Denver International AirportDenver, Colorado, United StatesDEN50,167,4851995 4.8 billion
Guangzhou Baiyun International AirportGuangzhou, ChinaCAN59,732,1472004 3 billion
Hong Kong International AirportChek Lap Kok, Hong KongHKG70,502,0001998 20 billion[116]
Incheon International AirportIncheon, South KoreaICN28,677,1612001 5 billion (Phase 1)

2.6 billion (Phase 2)

Istanbul New AirportIstanbul, TurkeyIST200,000,000 (expected)[117]2018 29 billion[118]
Kansai International AirportGreater Osaka Area, JapanKIX27,987,5641994 20 billion
King Abdulaziz International AirportJeddah, Saudi ArabiaJED18,000,0001981 7.2 billion[119]
King Shaka International AirportDurban, South AfricaDUR7,500,0002010 1 billion
Kuala Lumpur International AirportKuala Lumpur, MalaysiaKUL52,643,5111998 3.5 billion
Kuala Namu International AirportMedan, IndonesiaKNO12,245,1162013 4.4 billion[120]
Long Thanh International AirportHo Chi Minh City, VietnamN/A100,000,000 (expected) 2020 (expected) 10 billion
Navi Mumbai International AirportMumbai, IndiaNMU60,000,000 (expected) 2023 (expected) 2 billion
New Chennai International AirportChennai, IndiaN/A35,000,000 (expected) 2021 (expected) 1 billion
Newark Liberty International Airport Terminal CNewark, New Jersey, United StatesEWR33,399,2072003 1.2 billion
New Islamabad International AirportIslamabad, PakistanIBD25,000,000 (expected)2018 3.91 billion
New Lisbon AirportLisbon, PortugalN/A50,000,000 (expected) 2022 (expected) 4.5 billion
New Mexico City International AirportMexico City, MexicoMEX Ceased operations in 2018 (expected: 125 million)2018 13 billion
Suvarnabhumi AirportBangkok, ThailandBKK55,892,4282006 3.8 billion
Central Transport HubBaranów, PolandN/A ~ 45,000,000 (expected) 2027 (expected) 4.2-5.0 billion (expected, without rail component and road component)

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