List of sultans of Sulu

This is a list of the rulers of the Sultanate of Sulu. The Royal House of Sulu is a Muslim royal house of the Sulu Archipelago in the Philippines.

Sultan of Sulu
Sultan sin Sūg
سلطان سولو
First monarchRajah and Sharif ul-Hāshim
Last monarchMohammed Mahakuttah A. Kiram
(last recognised Sultan)
(Sultanate of Sulu was said to be founded in 1405)[2]
ResidenceDatu Sangahan, Sulu
Pretender(s)Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram

Pre-sultanate kings

Sulu was divided into three Kingdoms before the Sultanate arose.

King Details
1East King Paduka Pahala (Paduka Batara)
1Cave (Dong) King Paduka Patulapok
1West King Maharaja Kamalud Din (Mahalachii)

The descendants of Paduka Pahala, through his two sons, live in Dezhou in China have the surnames An and Wen.

The Hashemite Sharif ul-Hāshim of Sulu arrived in Sulu and married Princess Dayang-dayang Paramisuli from the previous royal family, founding the Sulu Sultanate.

Hashemite sultans

List of sultans from 1405 to 1936

The following list details the holders of the title of sultan between 1405 and 1936.[3]

Sultan Details
1Sultan Sharif ul-Hashim
The founder of the Sulu sultanate, whose proper name was Sayyid walShareef Abu Bakr ibn Abirin AlHashmi. He founded The Royal Sultanate of Sulu in 1457 and renamed himself Paduka Mahasari Maulana al-Sultan Sharif ul-Hashim, which roughly translates from Arabic as "The Master His Majesty, Protector and Sultan, Noble of the Banu Hashim Clan". The Sultan is reported to have lived about thirty years in Buansa, the first seat of the sultanate, and his tomb is located in one of the slopes of nearby Mount Tumantangis.
2Sultan Kamalud-Din
The son of Sharif ul-Hashim, whom he succeeded as sultan.
3Sultan Alaud-Din
Sulu genealogy suggests that he was a brother of Kamalud-Din, a son of Sultan Shariful-Hashim, but believed not to be proclaimed the "Sultan of Sulu".
4Sultan Amirul-Umara
His title is believed to be the Arabic translation of Maharajah-di-rajah, found as the fourth sultan in some tarsilas. Some Sulu genealogies do not mention him. Believed to be the Sultan Bolkiah.
5Sultan Muizzul-Mutawadi-in
He is the Maharajah Upo (grandchild) of Sharif ul-Hashim. Some genealogies states that he succeeded to the sultanate upon the death of Kamalud-Din.
6Sultan Nasirud-Din I
The son of Sultan Muizz ul-Mutawadi-in. His surname was Digunung or Habud, suggesting that he grew up in, or ruled from, the interior of Sulu.
7Sultan Muhammad ul-Halim
The son of Sultan Nasirud-Din I. His other name was Pangiran Buddiman, which was the name by which he was probably known.
8Sultan Batarah Shah Tengah
The son of Sultan Muhammad ul-Halim. "Batarah" was a title used by Sulu rulers as early as the beginning of the fifteenth century, and Brunei annals always referred to Sulu rulers by this term. Died without heir.
9Sultan Muwallil Wasit I
The nephew of Sultan Batara Shah Tengah (the son of his sister who married Sultan Hassan of Brunei). He was known to Spaniards as Raja Bongsu; his royal bloodline is that of Brunei. One of his daughters married Sultan Qudarat of Maguindanao, while another daughter married Balatamay (Baratamay), the ruler of Buayan in 1657. Around 1650, his son Bachtiar took over the sultanate. Moved Sulu Royal court to Dungun, Tawi-Tawi after the Capture of Jolo by the Spaniards in 1638.
10Sultan Nasir ud-Din II
Either Sultan Muwallil Wasit's son who ruled following his father's defeat at the hands of the Spaniards at Jolo, or believed to be the Sultan Qudarat who became sultan by virtue of his marriage to the previous sultan's Daughter, after which the throne reverted to Wasit once again, after a certain Sarikula died in 1648.[4]
11Sultan Salahud-Din Bakhtiar
Known to Spanish authorities as Pangiran Bactial and to Dutch officials as Pangiran Batticale. After his death, he was called Marhum Karamat. Due to his father's old age, as well as the number of his father's followers, he did not become sultan until around 1650, if not a year earlier. He installed the "3 Temporary Sultans of Sulu" to sit on the Sulu throne from 1680–1685 due to the very young age of his son.
12Sultan Ali ShahNot mentioned in the Sulu genealogy but produced an heir in Shahabud-Din (No. 15). His reign was short and peaceful.
13Sultan Nur ul-AzamDaughter of Sultan Nasirud-Din II, who was also known as Pangyan Ampay or Sitti Kabil (Arabic, meaning grand mistress), and ruled for four or five years.
14Sultan Al Haqunu Ibn Wali ul-AhadThe name "Ibn Wali ul-Ahad" is Arabic for "son of the rajah muda" (heir apparent). Is speculated to be the son of Sarikula and helped govern with his cousin Sultan Salah ud-Din.
15Sultan Shahabud-Din
The son of Salah ud-Din. It was he who killed Sultan Kahar ud-Din Kuda of Maguindanao in 1702 and "ceded" Palawan to the Spanish government in 1705.
16Sultan Mustafa Shafi ud-Din
The younger brother of Shahab ud-Din he was also known as Juhan Pahalawan. He abdicated the throne in favour of his younger brother Badar ud-Din to avoid future dynastic troubles.
17Sultan Badarud-Din I
The younger brother of the two previous sultans, he was known to different Spanish authors as "Bigotillos" or "Barbillas", or as "el Rey Viejo de Tawi-Tawi". His mother is a Tirun lady from the northeast coast of Borneo. In 1732, a nephew (or grand nephew) contested his rule which led to his retirement to Tawi-Tawi where he was then known as Sultan Dungun. He died around 1740 in Dungun during the reign of his son Azimud-Din I.
18Sultan Nasarud-Din
He was either a son or grandson (by a daughter) of Shahab ud-Din and was known to the Spaniards as Datu Sabdula (Arabic, Abdullah). In 1731, he challenged the rule of Badar ud-Din, forcing the latter to take leave and retire in 1732. The intrigues of Badar ud-Din led to the proclamation of Azim ud-Din (a son of Badar ud-Din) as sultan in 1735. After a series of desultory skirmishes between the factions of Nasar ud-Din and Azim ud-Din, the former left for Maimbung where he generally remained till he died around 1735. He was also referred to as Dipatuan.
19Sultan Alimud-Din I
Son of Badarud-Din. His royal families were then known as "The Sulu Sultanate First Heir-Apparents Families". His father proclaimed him ruler in Tawi-Tawi in 1735. In 1736, after a few intrigues had paved the way, a number of Datus asked Alimud-Din to transfer his court from Dungun to Bauang (Jolo). But a political struggle in 1748 forced him to leave Jolo for Basilan and then Zamboanga. His younger brother, Datu Bantilan, was then proclaimed sultan. In the meantime, he went to Manila where he remained for sometime, including a few years of imprisonment. He returned an old man to Jolo in 1764. In the same year, on 8 June, he was formally reinstated on the throne. In 1773, tired of affairs of state, he formally handed over the affairs of state to his son Muhammad Israil. He had two periods of reign; 1735–1748 and 1764–1773.
20Sultan Bantilan Muizzud-Din
Known to Spanish officials and priests as Datu or Pangiran Bantilan, he was a younger brother of Alimud-Din I. His families were then known as "The Sulu Sultanate Second Heir-Apparent" (The Maharajah Adinda Families), the second-line heirs to the Sulu Sultanate after the First Heir-Apparents lines.
21Sultan Mohammad Israel
One of the sons of Alimud-Din I, who abdicated his power to his son in November 1773. Mohammad Israel did not formally assume power until early the next year. He was believed to have been poisoned by either the partisans of his cousin or the cousin himself, Alimud-Din II (a son of Sultan Bantilan Muizzud-Din I), in 1778.
22Sultan Alimud-Din II
The son of Muizzud-Din I, he governed Sulu with his brother after the death of their father starting around the middle of 1763. By the end of that year, Alimud-Din II had become, for all practical purposes, the sultan. With the arrival of his uncle Alimud-Din I from Manila in 1764, whom he received well, Alimud-Din II left his followers for Parang. In 1778, he succeeded Muhammad Israel. He reigned until his death in 1789.
23Sultan Sharapud-Din
Another son of Alimud-Din I, he lived to a venerable old age. Ten years earlier the Spaniards were expecting him to die at any moment and were thus worried that a successor antagonistic to them might ascend the throne.
24Sultan Alimud-Din III
The son of Sharapud-Din, he died the same year as his father. According to a report, he reigned only for forty days. Most likely he died in a smallpox epidemic that raged through Jolo that year.
25Sultan Aliyud-Din I
The younger brother of Alimud-Din III.
26Sultan Shakirul-Lah
The brother of Aliyud-Din I.
27Sultan Jamalul-Kiram I
According to some sources his real name was Muwalil Wasit (cousin to Brunei Sultan Nasiruddin whose niece—Mohandun's husband—was Brunei's Maharaja Anddin). Muwalil Wasit was the son of Alimud-Din III.
28Sultan Moh. Pulalun Kiram
The son of Jamalul-Kiram I, whose cousin the Maharaja Adinda (son of Mohandun) in 1859 was made Crown Prince to Sultan Pulalun, due to the latter being childless.
29Sultan Jamal ul-Azam
The proxy of Mohammad Pulalun Kiram. On 22 January 1878, he signed a treaty under which the territory of the eastern part of northern Borneo (Sabah) was leased (pajakan) by a Malay contract to an Austro-Hungarian consul Baron von Overbeck.[5][6]
30Sultan Badarud-Din II
A descendant of Paduka Batara, eastern Sulu king who had died in Denzou-China, 19-year-old Sultan Badaruddin died in 1884 without leaving any male heir.
31Sultan Harun Ar-Rashid
A descendant of Alimud-Din I, through Datu Putong. Spanish intrigues led to his proclamation as sultan by a few Datus in 1881, until forced to abdicate in 1894 in favor of Jamalul-Kiram-II, a younger brother of Badarud-Din II, who had already been proclaimed as Sultan of Sulu, the abdication being a recognition by Spanish authorities of Jamalul-Kiram-II's legitimacy. Harun Ar-Rashid retired to Palawan, where he died in April 1899.
32Sultan Jamalul-Kiram II
The younger brother of Badarud-Din II. He was proclaimed Sultan of Sulu by his followers in 1884 as the son of Jamalul A'Lam. According to some sources, his real name was Amirul Kiram Awal-II. His proclamation as sultan was contested by Datu Aliud-Din, a grandson of Sultan Shakirul-Lah, but without any success. Aliud-Din was forced to flee to Basilan. It was Harun Ar-Rashid who tried to mediate between Jamalul-Kiram and Aliud-Din, until the Spaniards thought it expedient to have Harun Ar-Rashid himself proclaimed Sultan. The Spaniards were led eventually to deal with Jamalul-Kiram II as the Sultan of Sulu in spite of his repeated refusal to go to Manila on a state visit. In 1915, Jamalul-Kiram II virtually surrendered his political powers to the United States government under the 1915 Carpenter Agreement. Jamalul-Kiram II died on 7 June 1936, without leaving any son nor heir. Although he had seven daughters, no woman could be appointed as heir or successor according to Islamic law.[7]

List of Sultans from 1936 to 1950

The political sovereignty of the Sultanate was abolished in 1915.[7][8][9][10] However non-sovereign powers such as the right to confer titles—as well as cultural, proprietary, and religious authority—remained. The descendants of the royal family are still recognised and honoured as de facto royalty by the people in Sulu and by others..

After the death of Sultan Jamalul-Kiram II in 1936, the Philippine Government, the successors in sovereignty to the United States of America, decided not to recognise the continued existence of the Sulu sultanate, according to a letter to the Governor of North Borneo dated 28 July 1936, from His Britannic Majesty's Consul General in Manila. After that decision several legitimate claimants and pretenders to the throne of Sulu appeared. During World War II, Japanese and American forces exerted influence in Sultanates affairs, each recognising a pretender supportive of their agenda.

Sultan Details
1Sultan Bomid-Din I
The second younger brother of Sultan Badarud-Din II and Sultan Jamalul-Kiram II. He was proclaimed Sultan of Sulu by direct vote of the people during a Ruma Bichara held in Parang, Sulu, on 11 April 1936, while Sultan Jamalul-Kiram II was dying; but he was not widely recognised, and was eclipsed by his rivals during World War II. His claim was rejected by the Philippine government in 1962, in favour of Sultan Esmail E. Kiram I.
2Muwallil Wasit II
He was the younger brother of Sultan Badarud-Din II and Sultan Jamalul-Kiram II and was Raja Muda (crown prince) of the sultanate. He was lawfully elected by the Ruma Bichara, the Datus and Sharifs, as the new sultan. Six months later, before the formal coronation ceremony took place, he was murdered.[11] His legitimacy as the heir to the throne and his position as crown prince to Jamalul-Kiram II, was confirmed again by the Sessions Court of North Borneo's so-called McKaskie court, ruling in 1939, identifying his heirs as the rulers of the territory of North Borneo. Mohammed Esmail Kiram was the eldest son of Muwallil Wasit II and recognised successor of the Sultan of Sulu.
3Amirul Umara I
Recognised as Sultan of Sulu by the Japanese government. As Datu Ombra Amilbangsa, he was the husband of Dayang Dayang Piandao, who was the daughter of Sultan Badarud-Din II, after whose death she was adopted by Sultan Jamalul-Kiram II, after whose death the Sessions Court of North Borneo, on 16 August 1937, granted her administration and inheritance rights over his property and credits. She had him proclaimed Sultan Amirul Umara I, and he ruled from Maimbung. After the defeat of Japan and the death of Dayang Dayang Piandao, their heir, Sultan Shariful Hashim, also known as Sultan Eric, was accused of homicide and blackmail, which caused him to run away to Sandakan Sabah, to his uncle the cousin of sultan, Datu Bachtiyal, the son of Sultan Jainar Abirin, also known as Datu Tambuyong, where he now lives. After that Sultan Amirul Umara I abdicated.
4Jainal Abirin
Born Datu Tambuyong, he was a great-great-grandson of Sultan Shakirul-Lah and was supported by the American Forces. He ruled from Patikul but stepped down in 1950.

List of Sultans from 1950 to 1986

In 1962, the Philippine government of President Diosdado Macapagal officially recognised the continued existence of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu and, on 24 May 1974, officially recognised Sultan Mohammad Mahakuttah Kiram (reigned 1974–1986), under Memo Order 427, which was issued by Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos, and which stated that "The Government has always recognised the Sultanate of Sulu as the legitimate claimant to the historical territories of the Republic of Philippines" and that Mahakuttah A. Kiram is officially recognised as the Sultan of Sulu with the government being obligated to support his coronation on that date, his 8-year-old eldest son, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram, being crowned beside his father as Raja Muda (Crown Prince). On 16 February 1986, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram, succeeded his father to become the Head of the Royal House of Sulu. As the eldest son of the former Sultan Mahakuttah, he is the legitimate heir to the throne of the Sultanate of Sulu.[12]

The following list details the holders of the title Sultan between 1950 and 1986, who are officially recognised by the Philippine Government.

Sultan Details
1Sultan Mohammed Esmail Kiram I
(Esmail E. Kiram I)
He was the eldest son of Raja Muda Muwallil Wasit II and the legally recognised successor to the Sultan of Sulu. Sultan Mohammed Esmail Kiram granted authority to the Philippine government under the administrations of President Diosdado Macapagal, on 12 September 1962, and of President Ferdinand Marcos, in 1972, under which documents the Philippine government again officially "recognised" the continued existence of the Sulu sultanate and the office of Sultan of Sulu. His eldest son, Datu Mohammed Mahakuttah A. Kiram, was his Raja Muda (Crown Prince).[13]
2Sultan Mohammed Mahakuttah Abdullah Kiram
He was the eldest son of Sultan Mohammed Esmail E. Kiram I and the heir apparent to the throne. He was the last Sultan of Sulu officially recognised by the Ruma Bichara and by the Philippine government. In Memorandum Order 427 (1974), then-Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos declared that Mahakuttah A. Kiram was the legitimate heir and that the government was obligated to support his coronation as Sultan of Sulu,[14] which took place on 24 May 1974. At the same time, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram, the eldest son, being then 8 years old, was crowned beside his father as Raja Muda (Crown Prince) of Sulu.[15]

List of Self-proclaimed Sultans from 1980 to 2013, as recognised by the Provincial Government of Sulu[1]

After the death of Sultan Mahakuttah A. Kiram, the Philippine national government failed to formally recognise a new Sultan. Mahakutta's Crown Prince Muedzul Lail Kiram, the heir to the throne according to the line of succession as recognised by the Philippine governments from 1915 to 1986, was 20 years old upon his father's death.[16] Due to his young age, he failed to claim the throne at a time of political instability in the Philippines that led to peaceful revolution and the subsequent removal of President Marcos. The gap in the sultanate leadership was filled by crown claimants from rival branches. Therefore, the following Sultans were not crowned with the support of, nor received formal recognition from, the Philippine government as their predecessors had until 1986. However, the Philippine national government decided to deal with one or more of these claimants regarding issues concerning the sultanate's affairs.

Sultan Details
1Mohammed Punjungan Kiram
Younger brother of Sultan Esmail E. Kiram I. On 11 October 1939, the Sessions Court of North Borneo granted him administration rights over the property and credits of his deceased father, Raja Muda Muwallil Wasit II. Punjungan Kiram was made Crown Prince under Sultan Esmail E. Kiram I, on the condition that he transfer his rights of succession to the son of the Sultan when the son comes of legal age. (This condition was rarely used, as the law of succession would be complicated by such abnormal provisions. The primogeniture law of succession allows only for the title-holder's male heir, and the successor to Punjungan Kiram should be his own oldest son Jamalul Kiram III.) When the condition was met, instead of resigning from his position as Raja Muda, Punjungan Kiram exiled himself to Malaysia and later returned to contest the reign of his nephew Mahakuttah A. Kiram, who had lawfully replaced him as Crown Prince, and who was later recognised by President Ferdinand Marcos as Sultan, based on Mahakuttah A Kiram being Crown Prince and at Abraham Rasul's recommendation.[13] Punjungan Kiram was the father of Jamalul Kiram III and Esmail Kiram II.
2Aguimuddin Abirin
From the family of Jainal Abirin, he claimed the title for a short time.
3Jamal ul-Kiram III
Eldest son of Punjungan Kiram and elder brother of Esmail Kiram II.[17] He was the so-called "Interim Sultan of Sulu" from 1974–1981 during the absence of his father in Sabah (but not recognised by the Philippine government). In 1986, he proclaimed himself as the Sultan of Sulu; he later retired, replaced by Mohammad Akijal Atti, in 1990.[18] He was in violation of the sultanate's law of succession by leaving Sulu for Manila to enter politics. A decade-long dispute over succession rights within the family ended on 11 November 2012, when claimants met and Jamalul Kiram III was proclaimed sultan along with his brother Esmail Kiram II. He then proclaimed Agbimuddin Kiram as Raja Muda (heir apparent). In February 2013, he organised the intrusion into the eastern part of Sabah, which turned into a violent standoff; and he was labelled a "terrorist" by both the Malaysian and Sabah state governments, when his followers killed Malaysian security personnel and mutilated their bodies, and were intent on taking Sabahan residents as hostages.[19][20][21][22] Jamalul Kiram III died on 20 October 2013.
4Mohammad Akijal Atti
Succeeded Jamalul Kiram III in 1990 as regent, and was succeeded by Jamalul Kiram's brother Esmail Kiram II in 1999.
5Esmail Kiram II
Second son of Punjungan Kiram and younger brother of Jamalul Kiram III. Due to different regional spellings, as can be found at government and newspaper sites, his name appears as Esmail, Esmael, Ismail, or Ismael. He proclaimed himself as "Reigning Sultan". confirmed by the elders of Sulu, in 2001, when his older brother Jamalul Kiram III left Sulu, to Manila to enter showbusiness and politics. The November 2012 agreement allowed Jamalul Kiram III to once again be proclaimed Sultan alongside Esmail Kiram II, and their brother Agbimuddin Kiram was confirmed as Raja Muda (heir apparent) to both. Sultan Esmail Kiram II recognised Jamalul Kiram III, as the oldest brother, as the legitimate leader and organiser of the February 2013 "Sabah Homecoming of Raja Muda Agbimuddin Kiram", as agreed to by the family, and due to the illness of Jamalul Kiram, who styled himself as "Sultan Proper" (having abdicated). The homecoming led to a standoff, due to the unpopularity of Jamalul Kiram, for which both received criticism.[23] Abdulah Kiram was his son and possible heir, but his brother Agbimuddin Kiram was confirmed as Raja Muda (heir apparent) in 2012, led the Sabah standoff in 2013 and died on 13 January 2015 while still in hiding. Sultan Esmail Kiram II died on 19 September 2015.

The current legitimate claimant

These are the current claimants.

Sultan Details
1Fuad Abdullah Kiram IFuad Abdullah Kiram I is the younger brother of Sultan Mohammed Mahakuttah Abdullah Kiram, the last Sultan of Sulu officially recognised by the Philippine government. He is a claimant.
Sultan Details
2Muedzul Lail Tan KiramSultan Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram—the eldest son, legitimate heir, and successor to the late Sultan Mohammed Mahakuttah A. Kiram (sultan 1974–1986)—is the current head of the Royal House of Sulu, from 16 February 1986 to the present. As a child of eight, on 24 May 1974, he was crowned Raja Muda (Crown Prince, heir to the throne) of the Sultanate of Sulu, on the same day his father was crowned Sultan of Sulu.

These coronations—of the Sultan and the Raja Muda—were endorsed by Ferdinand Marcos in his capacity as President of the Philippines. Memorandum Order No. 427, issued at the time, affirms: "The Government has always recognised the Sultanate of Sulu as the legitimate claimant to the historical territories of the Republic of Philippines". In this document, Sultan Moh. Mahakuttah A. Kiram and (then) Crown Prince Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram were officially recognised by the Republic of the Philippines as the legitimate holder and the legitimate successor to the historic Sultanate of Sulu.

On 16 February 1986, after his late Majesty Sultan Mohammed Mahakuttah A. Kiram of Sulu and North Borneo passed away, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram became Head of the Royal House of Sulu and North Borneo (Kiram Dynasty).

During his time as Raja Muda, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram studied at the Universidad de Zamboanga (Zamboanga City, Philippines), and was awarded the degree of Bachelor of Arts. His Majesty pursued further studies in Lahore (Pakistan) during 1995 and 1996.

In 2011, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram exercised his head-of-house dynastic rights as a fons honorum (font of honour) to institute and establish the Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl of Sulu, becoming the first Grand Sayyid (Grand Master) of this Order.

Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram was crowned as the 35th legitimate Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo on 16 September 2012. The coronation events took place in Mainbung (Sulu), in the presence of dignitaries of the sultanate, local officials, foreign guests, other dignitaries, and a large number of the people of Sulu. Subsequent to the coronation, His Majesty, together with his sibling Nadya Sudjaja, reaffirmed, as de jure sultan, his earlier dynastic institution of the Royal Order of the Pearl, also reconfirming his position within the Order as Grand Sayyid.[24][25]

See also


  1. "Chronological Self Rule and Sultanate". Provincial Government of Sulu, Philippines. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  2. Usman, Edd (10 February 2010). "Heirs of Sulu Sultanate urged to attend general convention". Retrieved 21 December 2010.
  3. Adib Majul, Cesar (1999). Muslims in the Philippines. University of the Philippines Press. ISBN 971-542-188-1.
  4. Asian Studies. Philippine Center for Advanced Studies, University of the Philippines System. 1978. p. 15.
  5. International Court of Justice (2003). Summaries of Judgments, Advisory Opinions, and Orders of the International Court of Justice, 1997-2002. United Nations Publications. pp. 268–. ISBN 978-92-1-133541-5.
  6. {{cite Mohamed Ariff (1991). The Muslim Private Sector in Southeast Asia: Islam and the Economic Development of Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-981-3016-09-5. K.J . Allison (1979). "English Pilipino Sama Sibutu', BASIC VOCABULARY" (PDF). SUMMER INSTITUTE OF LINGUISTICS-Philippines, Inc., TRANSLATORS. p. 59. Retrieved 14 October 2012}}
  7. "Why 'Sultan' is dreaming". Daily Express. 27 March 2013. Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
  8. Graham Kemp; Douglas P. Fry (2004). Keeping the Peace: Conflict Resolution and Peaceful Societies Around the World. Psychology Press. pp. 124–. ISBN 978-0-415-94761-9.
  9. K. S. Nathan; Mohammad Hashim Kamali (January 2005). Islam in Southeast Asia: Political, Social and Strategic Challenges for the 21st Century. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 52–. ISBN 978-981-230-282-3.
  10. "Memorandum: Carpenter Agreement". Government of the Philippines. 22 March 1915. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  11. "THE PHILIPPINES: Wasit to Paradise". Time. 30 November 1936.
  12. "Line of succession of the Sultans of Sulu of the Modern Era". Retrieved 26 February 2013.
  13. Juanito Alli Bruno (1973). The Social World of the Tausug: A Study in Philippine Culture and Education. Centro Escolar University, Research and Development Center.
  14. "Memorandum Order No. 427, s. 1974". Official Gazette. Office of the President of the Philippines. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  15. "Structure of Sultanate". Royal House of Sulu. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  16. Karon David. "Datu Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram, iginiit na siya ang karapat-dapat na lider ng mga taga-Sulu". GMA News (in Tagalog). YouTube. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  17. Archived 13 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  18. "So, who's the real sultan?". The Star. 13 July 2008. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  19. "Heirs of Sultan of Sulu pursue Sabah claim on their own". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 16 February 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
  20. "Press Statement: Meeting with the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Philippines, H.E. Albert F. del Rosario on 4 March 2013". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. 5 March 2013. Archived from the original on 8 March 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
  21. "Semporna villagers beat to death ex-Moro commander". The Star. 3 March 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  22. "Sabahans will not forget Lahad Datu incident — Musa". Bernama. The Borneo Post. 30 June 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  23. Marlon Calleja Ramos. "Sabah pullout talks begin". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
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