List of rulers of Tuscany

The rulers of Tuscany have varied over time, sometimes being margraves, the rulers of handfuls of border counties and sometimes the heads of the most important family of the region.

Grand Duke of Tuscany
StyleHis/her Imperial and Royal Highness
First monarchCosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Last monarchLeopold II (de jure)
Ferdinand IV (de facto/titular)
Formation27 August 1569
Abolition16 August 1859
Pretender(s)Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke of Tuscany

Margraves of Tuscany, 812–1197

House of Boniface

These were originally counts of Lucca who extended their power over the neighbouring counties.

House of Boso

These were the (mostly illegitimate) relatives of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy, whom he appointed to their post after removing the dynasty of Boniface

House of Hucpold


House of Canossa

These were the descendants of the Counts of Canossa.


In 1197 Philip was elected King of Germany and the majority of the Tuscan nobility, cities and bishops formed the Tuscan League with Papal backing.

After this, Tuscany was splintered between the competing republics of Florence, Pisa, Siena, Arezzo, Pistoia and Lucca. Since the 14th century, Florence gained dominance over Pistoia (1306, officially annexed 1530), Arezzo (1384), Pisa (1406), and Siena (1559). Lucca was an independent republic until the Napoleonic period in the 19th century.

Rulers of Florence, 1434–1569

De facto rulers of the House of Medici, 1434–1494

Cosimo de' Medici14341464First de facto Lord of Florence
Piero I the Gouty14641469Son of Cosimo
Lorenzo I the Magnificent14691492Son of Piero
Giuliano I de' Medici14691478Brother of Lorenzo and also Co-Ruler, was assassinated.
Piero II the Unfortunate14921494Son of Lorenzo, was deposed and exiled

Republic of Florence (1494-1512)

Girolamo Savonarola14941498Inspired reform around Florence, was condemned a heretic and hanged and simultaneously burned at the stake in the middle of the piazza.
Piero Soderini15021512was declared Standard Bearer for life, fled Florence after the Medici conquest.

Rulers of the House of Medici (1512-1532)

Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici15121513Son of Lorenzo, later became Pope Leo X
Giuliano II, Duke of Nemours15131516Son of Lorenzo
Lorenzo II de Medici15161519Son of Piero the Unfortunate
Cardinal Giulio de' Medici15191523son of Giuliano de Medici, later became Pope Clement VII
Ippolito de' Medici15231527Son of Giuliano de Medici
Alessandro de' Medici15271530son of Lorenzo II de Medici, ruled in exile, returned and became Duke of Florence, was Assassinated.

After the Sack of Rome, Florence overthrew the Medicis once more and became a republic until Pope Clement VII signed a peace treaty with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor who then invaded Florence and restored the Medicis.

Alessandro de' Medici15311532son of Lorenzo II de Medici, ruled in exile, returned and became Duke of Florence, was Assassinated.

Medici dukes of Florence, 1532–1569

Alessandro de' Medici15321537son of Lorenzo II de Medici, ruled in exile, returned and became Duke of Florence, was Assassinated.
Cosimo II de' Medici15371569son of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, later became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Medici grand dukes of Tuscany, 1569–1737

Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany15691574son of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere.
Francesco I de' Medici15741587son of Cosimo II
Ferdinando I de' Medici15871609son of Cosimo II
Cosimo II de' Medici16091621son of Ferdinando I
Ferdinando II de' Medici16211670son of Cosimo III
Cosimo III de' Medici16701723son of Ferdinando II
Gian Gastone de' Medici17231737son of Cosimo III, was the last Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Habsburg-Lorraine grand dukes of Tuscany, 1737–1801

Francesco II Stefano17371765a great-great-great-grandson of Francesco I, later became Holy Roman Emperor.
Pietro Leopoldo I17651790second son of Francis I, also became Holy Roman Emperor.
Ferdinando III17901801second son of Leopold I

Bourbon-Parma kings of Etruria, 1801–1807

NamePortraitStartedEndedRelationship with predecessor(s)
Lodovico I 3 Aug 1801 27 May 1803 Grandson of Francisco II Stefano
Lodovico II 27 May 1803 10 Dec 1807 son of Lodovico I

Tuscany was annexed by France, 1807–1814. Napoleon's sister Elisa Bonaparte was given the honorary title of Grand Duchess of Tuscany, but did not actually rule over the region.

Habsburg-Lorraine grand dukes of Tuscany, 1814–1860

Ferdinando III18141824Restored
Leopoldo II18241859son of Ferdinando III
Ferdinando IV18591860son of Leopoldo II

Leopoldo II was driven from Tuscany by revolution from 21 February to 12 April 1849, and again on 27 April 1859. He abdicated in favor of his son, Ferdinando IV, on 21 July 1859, but Ferdinando IV was never recognized in Tuscany, and was deposed by the provisional government on 16 August. Tuscany was annexed by Piedmont-Sardinia, on 22 March 1860.

Titular Habsburg-Lorraine claimants, 1860–present

See also

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