List of rulers of Baden

Baden was a state of the Holy Roman Empire and later one of the German states along the frontier with France, primarily consisting of territory along the right bank of the Rhine, opposite Alsace and the Palatinate.

Monarchy of Baden
Provincial/State
Frederick II
Details
StyleHis Royal Highness (for Grand Dukes)
First monarchBerthold I (as Count)
Last monarchFrederick II (as Grand Duke)
Formation962
Abolition22 November 1918
AppointerHereditary
Pretender(s)Maximilian (as Margrave)

History

The territory evolved out of the Breisgau, an early medieval county in the Duchy of Swabia. A continuous sequence of counts is known since 962; the counts belong to the House of Zähringen. In 1061, the counts first acquired the additional title of Margrave of Verona. Even though they lost the March of Verona soon thereafter, they kept the title of margrave. In 1112, the title of Margrave of Baden was first used.

For most of the early modern period, the Margraviate of Baden was divided into two parts, one ruled by the Catholic Margraves of Baden-Baden, and the other by the Protestant Margraves of Baden-Durlach. In 1771, the main Baden-Baden line became extinct, and all of the Baden lands came under the rule of the Baden-Durlach line. The reunited margraviate existed until 1803.

During the Napoleonic era, in the imperial reorganisation of 1803, Baden gained a great deal of additional territory, and its rulers were made one of the few prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire. However, this pre-eminent dignity lasted only for three years until the end of the empire in August 1806, eight months after the crushing Battle of Austerlitz, when the Electorate of Baden ceased to exist.

Consequently, in 1806, the ruler of Baden took on the title of Grand Duke of Baden and gained additional territory. The Grand Duchy of Baden, within approximately the borders of 1806, continued to exist until the fall of the German monarchies in 1918 when it became the Republic of Baden.

Counts in Breisgau

  • Berthold I, before 962–982
  • Berthold II, 982–1005/06
  • Berthold III, 1005/06–1024
  • Berthold IV, 1024–1073

The Margraviate of Baden

During the 11th century, the Duchy of Swabia lacked a powerful central authority and was under the control of various comital dynasties, the strongest of them being the House of Hohenstaufen, the House of Welf, the Habsburgs and the House of Zähringen. Emperor Henry III had promised the ducal throne to the Zähringen scion Berthold, however, upon Henry's death in 1056, his widow Agnes of Poitou appointed Rudolf of Rheinfelden as Duke of Swabia. Berthold renounced his rights and was compensated with the Duchy of Carinthia and the March of Verona in Italy. Not able to establish himself, he finally lost both territories, when he was deposed by King Henry IV of Germany during the Investiture Controversy in 1077. Berthold retired to his Swabian home territory, where he died the next year. The Veronese margravial title was nevertheless retained by his eldest son, Herman I.

Herman II, son of Herman I and grandson of Berthold, had concluded an agreement with the rival Hohenstaufen dynasty, and about 1098 was enfeoffed with immediate territory by Emperor Henry IV. He chose to establish his residence in Germany, as he had been born and raised there. His lordship of choice was Baden (present-day Baden-Baden), where his father had gained the right to rule by marrying the heiress, Judit von Backnang-Sulichgau, Countess of Eberstein-Calw. In Baden, Herman II had Hohenbaden Castle built. Construction began about 1100, and when it was completed in 1112, he marked the occasion by adopting the title of Margrave of Baden.

House of Zähringen

Partitions of Baden under Zähringen rule

Margraviate of Baden
(1161–1190)
Baden-Baden
(1st creation)
(1190–1335)
Baden-Hachberg
(1190–1415)
       Baden-Pforzheim
(1290–1348)
Baden-Eberstein
(1290–1353)
       Baden-Hachberg-Sausenberg
(1290–1503)
      
Baden-Baden
(2nd creation)
(1348–1503)
      
      
Margraviate of Baden
(from Baden-Baden line)
(1503–1515)
Baden-Baden
(3rd creation)
(1515–1588)
Baden-Sponheim
(1515–1533)
Margraviate of Baden-Durlach
(1st creation)
(1515–1604)
      
       Baden-Rodemachern
(1536–1666)
Baden-Durlach-Sausenberg
(1577–1604)
       Baden-Durlach-Hachberg
(1577–1591)
Baden-Baden
(4th creation, from Rodemachern line)
(1588–1771)
      
Baden-Durlach
(2nd creation, from Sausenberg line)
(1604–1771)
      
Margraviate of Baden
(from Baden-Durlach-Sausenberg line)
(1771–1803)

Table of rulers[1]

(Note: Here the numbering of the margraves is the same for all principalities, as all were titled Margraves of Baden, despite of the different parts of land and its particular numbering of the rulers. The princes are numbered by the year of their succession.)

RulerBornReignDeathRuling partConsortNotes
Berthold Ic.10001061–10736 November 1078Baden Richwara of Swabia
1043
five children

Beatrice of Montbéliard
1056
no children
Founder of the House of Zähringen. From 1061 until 1077, he was the Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Verona.
Herman Ic.10401073–107425 April 1074Baden Judith of Backnang-Sulichgau
Before 1073
(annulled 1073)
two children
Common ancestor of the Baden branch of the House of Zähringen. As the eldest son of Berthold I, he was the titular Margrave of Verona, but he predeceased his father in 1074.
Herman IIc.10601074–11307 October 1130Baden Judith of Hohenberg
c.1105
two children
He was the first to use the title of "Margrave of Baden" (in 1112).
Herman III the Greatc.11051130–116016 January 1160Baden Bertha of Lorraine
1134
one child

Maria of Bohemia
After 1141
one child
In 1151, the margraviate of Verona was taken from Ottokar III of Styria and conferred on Herman III. Took part in the Second Crusade.
Herman IVc.11351160–119013 September 1190Baden Bertha of Tübingen
1162
seven children
Took part in various battles at the side of the German Emperor, and also joined on the Third Crusade.
Herman Vc.11801190–124316 January 1243Baden-BadenIrmengard of the Palatinate-Rhine
1217
four children
Henry Ic.1180?1190–12312 July 1231Baden-HachbergAgnes of Urach
Before 1231
three children
Henry IIBefore 12311231–12891297 or 1298Baden-HachbergAnne of Üsingen-Ketzingen
Before 1289
eight children
Abdicated in 1289, and joined the Teutonic Knights.
Herman VIc.12261243–12504 October 1250Baden-BadenGertrude of Austria
1248
two children
Fought in the Austrian War of Succession in 1246, claiming the title "Duke of Austria" from 1248.
Frederick Ic.12491250–126829 October 1268Baden-BadenUnmarriedRuled jointly with his uncle, Rudolf. Accompanied King Conradin in his battles and was beheaded with him in 1268.
Rudolph Ic.12301250–128819 November 1288Baden-BadenKunigunde of Eberstein
20 May 1257
eight children
Brother of Herman VI, ruled jointly with his nephew, and then alone.
Herman VII the Rouserc.12661288–129112 July 1291Baden-BadenAgnes of Truhendingen
Before 6 October 1278
four children
Son of Rudolf I, divided Baden-Baden with his sons from 1290 onwards. Also ruled his part with his brothers until his death.
Rudolph II the Elderc.1266?1288–129514 February 1295Baden-BadenAdelaide of Ochsenstein
2 May 1285
three children
Son of Rudolf I, ruled jointly with his with his brothers. From 1290 ruled a smaller territory.
Rudolph III the Youngerc.1266?1288–13322 February 1332Baden-BadenJutta of Strassberg
1306
no children
Son of Rudolf I, ruled jointly with his with his brothers. From 1290 ruled a smaller territory.
Hesso Ic.12681288–129713 February 1297Baden-BadenClara of Klingen
Before 1291
one child?

Irmengard of Württemberg
Before 1295
no children

Adelaide of Rieneck
Before 1299
one child
Son of Rudolf I, ruled jointly with his with his brothers. From 1290 ruled a smaller territory.
Henry IIIBefore 12891289–13301330Baden-HachbergAgnes of Hohenberg
Before 1310
three children
Rudolph IVBefore 12891290–13131313Baden-Hachberg-SausenbergAgnes of Rötteln
1298 or 1299
three children
Son of Henry II, founded the Baden-Hachberg-Sausenberg Branch.
Frederick IIBefore 12781291–133322 June 1333Baden-Baden-EbersteinAgnes of Weinsberg
before 16 October 1312
one child

Margaret of Vaihingen
Before 1333
four children
Son of Herman VII, founded the Baden-Baden-Eberstein Branch
Herman VIIIBefore 12781291–13001300Baden-Baden-PforzheimUnmarried Sons of Herman VII, ruled jointly. Rudolph inherited Baden-Baden in 1335, after the death of his cousin Rudolph Hesso. In the period 1335–1348, Baden-Baden-Pforzheim became in personal union with Baden-Baden.
Rudolph VBefore 12781291–134825 June 1348Baden-Baden-PforzheimLiutgard of Bolanden
28 February 1318
no children

Maria of Oettingen
18 February 1326
two children
Rudolph Hessoc.12901297–133517 August 1335Baden-BadenJoanna of Burgundy
Before 1335
two children
With no male heirs, Baden-Baden was inherited after his death by his cousin, Rudolf IV, Margrave of Baden-Pforzheim.
Henry IV13001313–13181318Baden-Hachberg-SausenbergUnmarried Sons of Rudolph IV, ruled jointly.
Rudolph VI13011313–13521352Baden-Hachberg-SausenbergCatherine of Thierstein
c.1343
two children
Otto I13021318–13841384Baden-Hachberg-SausenbergCatherine of Grandson
no children

Elisabeth of Strasbourg
Before 1352
no children
Henry VBefore 13101330–13691369Baden-HachbergAnna of Usenberg
Before 1369
four children
Herman IXBefore 13331333–135313 April 1353Baden-Baden-EbersteinMatilda of Vaihingen
c.3 June 1341
one child
Son of Frederick II, he had a son, who predeceased him. At his death Baden-Baden-Eberstein returned to Baden-Baden.
Rudolph VIIBefore 12781335–134825 June 1348Baden-BadenLiutgard of Bolanden
28 February 1318
no children

Maria of Oettingen
18 February 1326
two children
From Baden-Baden-Pforzheim line, inherited Baden-Baden after the death of his cousin Rudolf Hesso without male heirs. In the period 1335–1348, Baden-Baden-Pforzheim became in personal union with Baden-Baden. On his death divided the land between his children: Frederick III took Baden-Baden and Rudolph VIII Pforzheim.
Rudolph VIIIBefore 13481348–136128 August 1361Baden-Baden-PforzheimAdelaide of Belfort
26 August 1347
no children
After his death without children, Pforzheim returned again to Baden-Baden, to the hands of his nephew Rudolf VI.
Frederick III13271348–13532 September 1353Baden-BadenMargaret of Baden-Baden
1345
two children
Sons of Rudolph VII, ruled jointly. Frederick married his cousin Margaret, daughter of Rudolph Hesso, and Rudolph IX inherited (after his nrtoher and uncle's death) Pforzheim, reuniting it with Baden-Baden.
Rudolph IXc.13451353–137221 March 1372Baden-BadenMatilda of Sponheim
1356
three children
Inherited Pforzheim from his uncle, Rudolf VIII, in 1361, reuniting it with Baden-Baden.
Otto IBefore 13691369–13869 July 1386Baden-HachbergUnmarriedDied at the Battle of Sempach, against the Habsburgs.
Rudolph XAfter 1356?1372–13911391Baden-BadenUnmarried Sons of Rudolph IX, ruled jointly. In 1415 Bernard annexed the lands of Baden-Hachberg.
Bernard I13641372–14315 April 1431Baden-BadenMargaret of Hohenberg
1 September 1384
(annulled 1391)
no children

Anna of Oettingen
27 March 1398
ten children
Rudolph XI13431384–14288 February 1428Baden-Hachberg-SausenbergAdelaide of Lichtenberg
1373
no children

Anna of Freiburg
1387
thirteen children
John IBefore 13691386–14091409Baden-HachbergUnmarried Brothers of Otto I, ruled jointly.
Hesso IIBefore 13691386–14101410Baden-HachbergAnna of Geroldseck
Before 1381
three children

Margaret of Tübingen
1381
one child
Otto IIBefore 13811410–14151418Baden-HachbergUnmarriedIn 1415, possibly in debt, sold Hachberg to his cousin Bernard I of Baden-Baden.
William I11 July 14061428–144115 August 1482Baden-Hachberg-SausenbergElisabeth of Montfort-Bregenz
1425
(annulled 1436)
three children
Abdicated in 1441 for his sons.
James I15 March 14071431–145313 October 1453Baden-BadenCatherine of Lorraine
25 July 1422
seven children
Bernard II1428 or 14291453–145815 July 1458Baden-BadenUnmarriedCo-ruled with his brother Charles I. He spent most of his income assisting the poor and those in need.
Charles I14271453–147524 February 1475Baden-BadenCatherine of Austria
1 July 1447
six children
Co-ruled with his brother until 1458. then ruled alone.
Hugo IAfter 14271441–14441444Baden-Hachberg-SausenbergUnmarried Sons of Wiliam I, ruled jointly. In 1458, Rudolph inherited the Swiss county of Neuchâtel.
Rudolph XII1426 or 14271441–148712 April 1487Baden-Hachberg-SausenbergMargaret of Vienne
c.1450
two children
Christopher I13 November 14531475–150319 April 1527Baden-BadenOttilie of Katzenelnbogen
30 January 1469
fifteen children
In 1503 annexed Baden-Hachberg-Sausenberg, and unified all Baden.
Philip I14541487–15039 September 1503Baden-Hachberg-SausenbergMaria of Savoy
October 1478
one child
Also count of Neuchâtel. Didn't have male heirs and Baden-Hachberg Sausenberg was incorporated in Baden-Baden. However, his possessions in Neuchâtel passed to his daughter Joanna.
Christopher I13 November 14531503–151519 April 1527BadenOttilie of Katzenelnbogen
30 January 1469
fifteen children
Ruled an unified Baden, but abdicated for his sons, who divided Baden again.
Bernard III7 October 14741515–153629 June 1536Baden-BadenFranziska of Luxembourg-Ligny
1535
two children
First margrave of the recreated Baden-Baden. After his death his lands were divided between his sons: Christopher II received Baden-Baden-Rodemachern, and Philibert I, the remaining Baden-Baden. However, as his heirs were minors, the lands remained united under the regency of his widow Franziska.
Ernest I7 October 14821515–15526 February 1553Baden-DurlachElisabeth of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach
29 September 1510
seven children

Ursula of Rosenfeld
1518
(morganatic)
three children

Anna Bombast of Hohenheim
1 March 1544
(morganatic)
no children
First margrave of Baden-Durlach. Abdicated for his son.
Philip II6 November 14791515–153317 September 1533Baden-SponheimElisabeth of the Palatinate
3 January 1503
Heidelberg
six children
Received Baden-Sponheim from his father, Christopher I. Died with no surviving sons, and his lands reverted to Baden-Baden.
Franziska of Luxembourg-Ligny
(regent)
Before 15351536–155417 June 1566Baden-BadenBernard III
1535
two children
Regent on behalf of her offspring.
Philibert I22 January 15361554–15693 October 1569Baden-BadenMatilda of Bavaria
17 January 1557
four children
Christopher II26 February 15371554–15752 August 1575Baden-Baden-RodemachernCecilia of Sweden
11 November 1564
six children
Bernard IV15171552–155320 January 1553Baden-DurlachUnmarriedLeft no heirs. The land goes to his brother, Charles II.
Charles II24 July 15291553–157723 March 1577Baden-DurlachKunigunde of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
10 March 1551
two children

Anna of the Palatinate-Veldenz
1 August 1558
Heidelberg
six children
After his death Baden-Durlach was divided between his three sons: Baden-Durlach-Hachberg went to Jacob III, second son of Charles; Baden-Durlach-Sausenberg to George Frederick, third son of Charles; the remaining Baden-Durlach went to the oldest son, Ernest Frederick. But as the heirs were minors, until 1584 Baden-Durlach remained united under regents.
Albert V, Duke of Bavaria
(regent)
29 February 15281569-c.157724 October 1579Baden-BadenAnna of Austria
4 July 1546
Regensburg
seven children
Regent on behalf of his nephew. The Catholic rite was reintroduced on Baden.
Philip III19 February 1559c.1577–15887 June 1588Baden-BadenUnmarriedLeft no descendants. Baden-Baden is inherited by his cousin Edward Fortunatus, of the branch of Baden-Baden-Rodemachern.
Edward Fortunatus17 September 15651575–15888 June 1600Baden-Baden-RodemachernMaria van Eicken
13 March 1591
Brussels
four children
Son of Christopher II, inherited Baden-Baden in 1588 from his cousin Philip III. In the same year he abdicated of Baden-Baden-Rodemachern to his younger brother Philip IV.
Anna of the Palatinate-Veldenz (regent)12 November 1540 1577–158430 March 1586 Baden-DurlachCharles II
1 August 1558
Heidelberg
six children
Regents during the minority of the heirs of Charles II. In 1584 the land was de facto divided.
Louis III, Duke of Württemberg (regent)1 January 155418 August 1593Dorothea Ursula of Baden-Durlach
7 November 1575
no children

Ursula of the Palatinate-Veldenz-Lützelstein
1585
no children
Louis VI, Elector Palatine (regent)4 July 15391577–158322 October 1583Elisabeth of Hesse
8 July 1560
twelve children

Anne of Ostfriesland
12 July 1583
Heidelberg
no children
Ernest Frederick17 October 15601584–160414 April 1604Baden-DurlachAnne of Ostfriesland
21 December 1585
no children
Oldest son of Charles II, received the remaining Baden-Durlach. Left no descendants and his lands were inherited by George Frederick, his brother from Baden-Durlach-Sausenberg.
James II26 May 15621584–159017 August 1590Baden-Durlach-HachbergElisabeth of Culemborg-Pallandt
6 September 1584
four children
Second son of Charles II, received Baden-Durlach-Hachberg.
George Frederick30 January 15731584–160424 September 1638Baden-Durlach-SausenbergJuliane Ursula of Salm-Neufville
2 July 1592
fifteen children

Agatha of Erbach-Breuberg
23 October 1614
three children

Elizabeth Stolz
29 July 1621
(morganatic)
no children
Third son of Charles II, received Baden-Durlach-Sausenberg. After the death of his older brothers without heirs, he united in 1604 Baden-Durlach under his rule.
Edward Fortunatus17 September 15651588–15948 June 1600Baden-BadenMaria van Eicken
13 March 1591
Brussels
four children
Inherited Baden-Baden in 1588 from Philip II. In the same year he abdicated of Baden-Baden-Rodemachern to Philip III. In 1594 Baden-Baden was occupied by Baden-Durlach.
Philip IV15 August 15671588–16206 November 1620Baden-Baden-RodemachernMaria van Eicken
13 March 1591
Brussels
four children
Inherited Baden-Baden-Rodemachern in 1588 from his older brother Edward Fortunatus, who abdicated on him. After his death Rodemachern passed to his nephew and second son of Edward Fortunatus, Herman.
Ernest Frederick (regent)17 October 1560 1590–159114 April 1604 Baden-Durlach-HachbergAnne of Ostfriesland
21 December 1585
no children
Took the government illegally. After his nephew's death, he inherited Baden-Durlach-Hachberg.
Ernest James24 August 159029 May 1591UnmarriedPosthumous son of James II, died in infancy.
Ernest Frederick17 October 15601594–160414 April 1604Baden-BadenAnne of Ostfriesland
21 December 1585
no children
Occupied Baden-Baden and passed it to his brother after his death.
George Frederick 30 January 1573 1604–1621 24 September 1638 Baden-Baden Juliane Ursula of Salm-Neufville
2 July 1592
fifteen children

Agatha of Erbach-Breuberg
23 October 1614
three children

Elizabeth Stolz
29 July 1621
(morganatic)
no children
Retained, until 1621, Baden-Baden, but was defeated by his kinsman William II, son of Edward Fortunatus. Reunited, in 1604, Baden-Durlach.
1604–1638Baden-Durlach
Herman Fortunatus23 January 15951620–16654 January 1665Baden-Baden-RodemachernAntonia Elisabeth of Criechingen
18 April 1627
three children

Maria Sidonia of Daun-Falkenstein
After 1635
two children
Second son of Edward Fortunatus, inherited from his uncle Baden-Baden-Rodemachern.
William II30 July 15931621–167722 May 1677Baden-BadenCatherine Ursula of Hohenzollern-Hechingen
13 October 1624
fourteen children

Maria Magdalena of Oettingen-Baldern
1650
Vienna
five children
Oldest son of Edward Fortunatus, recovered his inheritance in 1621.
Frederick V the Kinsman6 July 15941638–16598 September 1659Baden-DurlachBarbara of Württemberg
21 December 1616
seven children

Eleonore of Solms-Laubach
8 October 1627
three children

Maria Elisabeth of Waldeck-Eisenberg
21 January 1634
no children

Anna Maria von Hohen-Geroldseck
13 February 1644
no children

Eusebia Elisabeth of Fürstenberg
20 May 1650
no children
Frederick VI the Turkish16 November 16171659–167731 January 1677Baden-DurlachChristina Magdalena of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Kleeburg
30 November 1642
Stockholm
eight children

Johanna Bayer of Sendau
After 1662
(morganatic)
two children
Charles William16271665–16661666Baden-Baden-RodemachernUnmarriedDied without descendants and his lands reverted to Baden-Baden.
Louis William the Turkish8 April 16551677–17074 January 1707Baden-BadenSibylle of Saxe-Lauenburg
27 March 1690
Ostrov
ten children
Grandson of William I. Made war with France.
Frederick VII Magnus23 September 16471677–170925 June 1709Baden-DurlachAugusta Marie of Holstein-Gottorp
15 May 1670
Husum
eleven children
Sibylle of Saxe-Lauenburg (regent)8 April 16551707–17274 January 1707Baden-BadenLouis William
27 March 1690
Ostrov
ten children
Regent in name of her son, Louis George. She has been credited with the reconstruction of Baden-Baden, which had been ravaged greatly by the French during their various wars.
Louis George the Hunter7 June 17021727–176122 October 1761Baden-BadenMaria Anna of Schwarzenberg
8 April 1721
Český Krumlov
four children

Maria Anna Josepha of Bavaria
20 July 1755
Ettlingen
no children
Charles III William27 January 16791709–173812 May 1738Baden-DurlachMagdalena Wilhelmine of Württemberg
27 June 1697
(separated 1715)
three children
Magdalena Wilhelmine of Württemberg (regent)7 November 16771738–174230 October 1742 Baden-DurlachCharles III William
27 June 1697
(separated 1715)
three children
Took the regency in name of the minor Charles Frederick.
Charles August of Baden-Durlach (regent)14 August 17121738–174630 September 1786Julianna Schmid
c.1773
(morganatic)
seven children
Charles Frederick22 November 17281746–177110 June 1811Baden-DurlachCaroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt
28 January 1751
five children

Louise Caroline of Hochberg
24 November 1787
(morganatic)
five children
In 1746 attained majority. In 1771 inherited the Baden-Baden lands and reunified the margraviate of Baden.
August George14 January 17061761–177121 October 1771Baden-BadenMaria Victoria of Arenberg
7 December 1735
Rastatt
no children
Last male member of the Baden-Baden line, after his death without heirs Baden-Baden fell to the Baden-Durlach line, who reunited all Baden.
Charles Frederick22 November 17281771–180310 June 1811BadenCaroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt
28 January 1751
five children

Louise Caroline of Hochberg
24 November 1787
(morganatic)
five children
Reunited all Baden. In 1803 became Elector.

Elector of Baden, 1803–1806

Elector of Baden
Baden Dynasty
Image Name
(Birth–Death)
Began Ended Notes
Charles Frederick
Karl Friedrich
(1728–1811)
27 April 1803 25 July 1806 The first and only Elector of Baden. Became Grand Duke of Baden.

Grand Dukes of Baden, 1806–1918[2]

Grand Dukes of Baden
Baden Dynasty
Image Name
(Birth–Death)
Began Ended Notes
Charles Frederick
Karl Friedrich
(1728–1811)
25 July 1806 10 June 1811
Charles I
Karl I
(1786–1818)
10 June 1811 8 December 1818 Grandson of Charles Frederick.
Louis I
Ludwig I
(1763–1830)
8 December 1818 30 March 1830 Uncle of Charles.
Leopold I
Leopold I
(1790–1852)
30 March 1830 24 April 1852 Half-brother of Louis I.
Louis II
Ludwig II
(1824–1858)
24 April 1852 22 January 1858 Son of Leopold I. Ruled under the regency of his brother Frederick.
Frederick I
Friedrich I
(1826–1907)
22 January 1858 28 September 1907 Brother of Louis II. Served as regent 1852–1858. Took the title of Grand Duke in 1856. Became a subordinate ruler in the German Empire after the Unification of Germany in 1871.
Frederick II
Friedrich II
(1857–1928)
28 September 1907 22 November 1918 Son of Frederick I. The last Grand Duke of Baden. Abdicated in the German Revolution of 1918–19.

Heads of the Grand Ducal House of Baden since 1918

  • Leopold I, Grand Duke (1790–1852)
    • Friedrich I, Grand Duke (1826–1907)
    • Prince William of Baden (1829–1897)
      • Maximilian, titular Grand Duke 1928–1929 (1867–1929)
        • Berthold, Margrave 1929–1963 (1906–1963)
          • Maximilian, Margrave 1963–present (born 1933)
            • Bernhard, Hereditary Prince of Baden (born 1970)
              • Prince Leopold (born 2002)
              • Prince Friedrich (born 2004)
              • Prince Karl-Wilhelm (born 2006)
            • Prince Leopold (born 1971)
            • Prince Michael (born 1976)
          • Prince Ludwig of Baden (born 1937)
            • Prince Berthold of Baden (born 1976)

Presidents of the Republic of Baden, 1918–1945

See also

References

  1. Marek, Miroslav. "baden/baden1.html". genealogy.euweb.cz.
  2. Marek, Miroslav. "baden/baden4.html". genealogy.euweb.cz.
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