List of regents

A regent is a person selected to act as head of state (ruling or not) because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated.[1] Currently there is only one ruling Regency in the world, sovereign Liechtenstein. The following is a list of regents.

Regents in various current monarchies

Those who held a regency briefly, for example during surgery, are not necessarily listed, particularly if they performed no official acts; this list is also not complete, presumably not even for all monarchies included. The list includes some figures who acted as regent, even if they did not themselves hold the title of regent.

Belgium

Cambodia

  • Prince Sisowath Monireth, Chairman of the Regency Council of Cambodia in 1960
  • Chea Sim, Acting Head of State of Cambodia from 1993 to 1994, and again from 1994 to 1995, and twice in 2004
  • Nhek Bun Chhay, Acting Head of State of Cambodia in 2004

Denmark

Japan

Jordan

  • Prince Naif bin Al-Abdullah from the 20 July to 5 September 1951, due to the schizophrenia of his brother King Talal, who was in a Swiss mental hospital.
  • A regency council (Ibrahim Hashem, Suleiman Toukan, Abdul Rahman Rusheidat and chairing Queen Mother Zein al-Sharaf Talal) took over during the king's ailment & continued after the king's forced abdication (on 11 August 1952), serving from 4 June 1952 to 2 May 1953, until King Hussein came of age.
  • Crown Prince Hassan, from 4 July 1998 to 19 January 1999 while his brother King Hussein was undergoing cancer treatments.

Lesotho

Liechtenstein

Luxembourg

Malaysia and its constitutive monarchies

Terengganu

  • Tengku Muhammad Ismail (eight-years of age at the time), co-reigned with the three-member Regency Advisory Council (Majlis Penasihat Pemangku Raja) from 2006 to 2011. His father, Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin the Sultan of Terengganu was elected as 13th King of Malaysia. The Malaysian constitution does not allow a simultaneous reign as both the King of Malaysia and as Monarch of the King's native state (deemed absent on the State throne). Sultan Mizan was crowned as King on 13 December 2006 and the prince as the Regent (Pemangku Raja) of Terengganu effective on the same date.

Monaco

Morocco

Nepal

Netherlands

Norway

Oman

  • for the minor Sa`id (II) ibn Sultan (b. 1790 – succeeded 20 November 1804 – d. 19 Oct 1856) : 20 November 1804 – 31 July 1806 Badr ibn Sayf (d. 1806)
  • for Sultan Turki ibn Sa`id (b. 1832 – succeeded 30 January 1871 – died 4 Jun 1888) : August – December 1875 Abdul-Aziz ibn Said – (b. 1850 – d. 1907)

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

  • 30 March 1964 – 2 November 1964 Crown Prince Faisal (b. 1906 – d. 1975) –Regent for his brother King Saud, and later his successor
  • 1 January 1996 – 21 February 1996 formally, but de facto until 1 August 2005 Crown Prince Abdullah (b. 1924 – d. 2015) –Regent for his brother King Fahd, and later his successor

Spain

Swaziland

Sweden

Thailand

United Kingdom and its predecessor realms

Kingdom of Great Britain

Kingdom of England

Kingdom of Scotland

Regents in various former Monarchies

The same notes apply; inclusion in this list reflects the political reality, regardless of claims to the throne.

Afghan monarchies

Before the 1881 unification, there were essentially four rulers' capitals: Kabul, Herat, Qandahar and Peshawar (the last now in Pakistan); all their rulers belonged to the Abdali tribal group, whose name was changed to Dorrani with Ahmad Shah Abdali. They belong either to the Saddozay segment of the Popalzay clan (typically styled padshah, king) or to the Mohammadzay segment of the Barakzay clan (typically with the style Amir, in full Amir al-Mo´menin "Leader of the Faithful"). The Mohammadzay also furnished the Saddozay kings frequently with top counselors, who served occasionally as (Minister-)regents, identified with the epithet Mohammadzay.

Austria

For most of the reign of the epileptic and severely disabled Emperor Ferdinand I (1835-1848), Ferdinand's uncle, Archduke Ludwig (from 1836 to 1848), acted as a de facto regent.

Brazil

  • John, Prince Regent, was responsible for elevating Brazil to the status of Kingdom in 1815. One year later, he was acclaimed King of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves.
  • Pedro I, Prince Regent, was responsible for declaring the independence of Brazil, in 1822, during his regency (1820–1822), after his father, John VI, returned to Portugal. Some months later, he would be acclaimed Emperor of Brazil.
  • Maria Leopoldina, Empress consort of Brazil, acted as Empress Regent while her husband, Pedro I, was away – especially during the war against Uruguay.
  • Provisional triumviral regency – from 7 April to 18 June 1831, comprised José Joaquim Carneiro de Campos, marquess de Caravelas, Nicolau Pereira de Campos Vergueiro and Francisco de Lima e Silva, baron of Barra Grande, was formed to control the country after the abdication of Peter I.
  • Permanent triumviral regency – from 18 June 1831 to 12 October 1835, comprised the baron of Barra Grande as well as José da Costa Carvalho, Marquis of Monte Alegre, and João Bráulio Muniz.
  • Diogo Antônio Feijó – from 12 October 1835 to 19 September 1837, during what was considered the advance of the Liberal Party
  • Pedro de Araújo Lima, Marquis of Olinda – from 1837 (provisional to 1838) to 1840, during what was considered the retaken of the Conservative Party.
  • Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, was Princess Regent of the Empire of Brazil three times (1871–1872; 1876–1877; 1887–1888) while her father travelled abroad. During her last regency, she signed the abolition of slavery in Brazil (known as the "Lei Áurea", or "Golden Law"), on 13 May 1888, whereby Isabel got the sobriquet Isabel the Redeemer. For the act of signing the Golden Law, she was awarded the Golden Rose by Pope Leo XIII.

Bulgaria

China

Egypt

Ethiopia

Finland

After the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia, the throne of the Grand Duke of Finland was vacant and according to the constitution of 1772, a regent was installed by the Finnish Parliament during the first two years of Finnish independence, before the country was declared a republic.

France

Greece

German monarchies

Anhalt

Baden

Bavaria

Brunswick

Hanover

Hesse-Kassel

Lippe

Mecklenburg-Schwerin

Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Prussia

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Saxe-Meiningen

Saxe-Weimar

Waldeck

Hawaii

  • Queen Kaʻahumanu, between 1824–1832 during the rule of the infant Kamehameha III; she was also Kuhina Nui (co-ruler), regent, of Kamehameha II
  • Elizabeth Kīnaʻu, between 5 June 1832 – 17 March 1833 after Kaʻahumanu's death and before Kamehameha III became 20 years old[3]

Hungary

Iceland

India

Madurai

Mughal Empire

Travancore

Both before and during the British raj (colonial rule), most of India was ruled by several hundred native princely houses, many of which have known regencies, under the raj subject to British approval

Vakataka Kingdom

Iraq

In the short-lived Hashemite kingdom, there were three regencies in the reign of the third and last king Faysal II (b. 1935 – d. 1958; also Head of the 'Arab Union', a federation with the Hashemite sister-kingdom Jordan, from 14 February 1958) :

  • 4 April 1939 – 1 April 1941 Prince 'Abd al-Ilah (1st time) (b. 1913 – d. 1958)
  • 1 April 1941 – 1 June 1941 Sharaf ibn Rajih al-Fawwaz (b. 1880 – d. 1955)
  • 1 June 1941 – 2 May 1953 Crown Prince 'Abd al-Ilah (2nd time)

Italy

Italian former principalities

Mantua

Parma

Savoy

Korea

Mongolia

Myanmar

Portugal

Romania

Russia

Serbia

Serbian regents abroad

Tibetan Empire

Turkey

Vietnam

Yugoslavia

Notes

  1. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the term as "A person appointed to administer a State because the Monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated."
  2. Pryde, E. B., ed. (1996). Handbook of British Chronology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-0-521-56350-5.
  3. "Kuhina Nui 1819–1864". Centennial Exhibit. State of Hawaii Department of Accounting and General Services. Retrieved 3 October 2009.
  4. Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 95.
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