List of prizes known as the Nobel of a field
Several fields of human cultural and scientific development are not included in the list of Nobel Prizes, because they are either not among the prizes established as part of Alfred Nobel's will nor, in the case of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, sponsored afterwards by the Nobel Foundation. While the foundation has discouraged (and occasionally taken legal action against) individuals and organizations that have used the Nobel name to refer to prizes not meeting the aforementioned criteria, several prominent individuals and organizations have nonetheless used the label "Nobel Prize of X" to refer to highly prestigious awards in fields of activity not recognized by the "real" Nobel Prizes. These awards are listed below.
While the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was not originally endowed by Alfred Nobel, it is sponsored and administered by the Nobel Foundation, and generally recognized as the "Nobel Prize in Economics." Due to this recognition it is included in the list below.
Prizes sponsored by the Nobel Foundation
Alfred Nobel's last will of 1895 only included five prizes, covering outstanding achievements who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. The original Nobel prizes thus includes:
- Nobel Prize in Chemistry
- Nobel Prize in Physics
- Nobel Prize in Literature
- Nobel Peace Prize
- Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
In addition to the prizes listed above, the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences is sponsored by the Nobel Foundation. The foundation has trademarked the term "Nobel Prize" and this designation cannot be legally used to refer to any prizes other than the five original Nobels.
Prizes not sponsored by the Nobel Foundation
Several prizes in fields of study and achievement not covered by the original Nobel Prizes have been established by various entities. These have been referred to as the "Nobel Prize of" that particular field, in the vast majority of cases without the approval of the Nobel Foundation. These prizes include (with founding year in brackets):
- Pritzker Prize (1979)
- Turing Award (1966)
- IAQF Financial Engineer of the Year Award
- Vautrin Lud Prize (1991)
- Vetlesen Prize (1960)
See also 'Philosophy' below.
- 1: The Wolf Prize was considered an equivalent of the Nobel Prize for mathematics until the Abel Prize was established.
- Holberg Prize (2003)
- Ig Nobel Prize
- Right Livelihood Award, which recognizes contributions to solving global problems, oftentimes called "Alternative Nobel Prize"
- Japan Prize, which recognizes achievements in applied science (as opposed to the Nobel prizes, which tend to focus on basic science).
- Goldman Environmental Prize for environmental activism, often referred to as the "Green Nobel"
- Stockholm Water Prize for water-related achievements, known as the "Nobel Prize of water"
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