List of political parties in the Netherlands

This article lists political parties in the Netherlands, which has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which any one party has little chance of gaining power alone, and parties often work with each other to form coalition governments.

The lower house of the legislature, the House of Representatives, is elected by a national party-list system of proportional representation. There is no threshold for getting a seat, making it possible for a party to get a seat with only two-thirds percent of the vote—roughly one seat for every 67,000 votes.

No party has won a majority of seats since the election of 1894[1], and no party has even approached the seats needed for a majority since the current proportional representation system was implemented in 1918. All Dutch governments since then have been coalitions between two or more parties. However, there is a broad consensus on the basic principles of the political system, and all parties must adjust their goals to some extent in order to have a realistic chance at being part of the government.

General overview

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Netherlands

Parliamentary parties

Political parties represented in the States General of the Netherlands
Political party Ideology Political
European Union
EP group International
Leader Senate House EP
People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy

(Volkspartij voor
Vrijheid en Democratie
VVD Conservative liberalism
Economic liberalism
ALDE Party Renew Europe LI Mark Rutte 12 33 4
Party for Freedom
(Partij voor de Vrijheid)
PVV Nationalism
Right-wing populism
(Radical right)
Hard Euroscepticism
ID Party
(Associate Member)
IFA Geert Wilders 5 20
Christian Democratic Appeal
(Christen-Democratisch Appèl)
CDA Christian democracy
Centre[28][29] to centre-right
EPP EPP Group CDI Vacant [Note] 9 19 4
Democrats 66
(Democraten 66)
D66 Social liberalism
ALDE Party Renew Europe LI Vacant [Note] 7 19 2
GL Green politics
Social democracy
Centre-left to
Pro-Europeanism EGP Greens-EFA GG Jesse Klaver 8 14 3
Socialist Party
(Socialistische Partij)
SP Democratic socialism
Social democracy
Left-wing populism
Soft Euroscepticism
Lilian Marijnissen 4 14
Labour Party
(Partij van de Arbeid)
PvdA Social democracy
Pro-Europeanism PES S&D PA Lodewijk Asscher 6 9 6
Christian Union
CU Christian democracy
Social Christianity
Centre to
Soft Euroscepticism
ECPM EPP Group Gert-Jan Segers 4 5 1
Party for the Animals
(Partij voor de Dieren)
PvdD Animal rights
Animal welfare
Soft Euroscepticism APEU GUE-NGL ANP Esther Ouwehand
3 4 1
50+ Pensioners' interests
Identity politics
Soft Euroscepticism EPP Group Henk Krol 2 4 1
Reformed Political Party
(Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij)
SGP Christian right
Social conservatism
Soft Euroscepticism
ECPM ECR Kees van der Staaij 2 3 1
DENK Identity politics
Minority rights
Left-wing populism
to left-wing
Tunahan Kuzu 3
Forum for Democracy
(Forum voor Democratie)
FvD National conservatism
Fiscal conservatism
Direct democracy
Right-wing populism
(Radical right)
Hard Euroscepticism
ACRE ECR Thierry Baudet 11 2 3
Political party represented in the Senate only
Independent Senate

OSF Regionalism Centre EFA Gerben Gerbrandy 1

Other national parties

Political party Ideology Political position European Union position European affiliation EP group International affiliation Leader
B1 Social democracy
Identity politics
Sylvana Simons
Libertarian Party
(Libertarische Partij)
LP Libertarianism
Euroscepticism EPIL LI Robert Valentine
Liberal Democratic Party
(Liberaal Democratische Partij)
LibDem Social liberalism Centre Pro-Europeanism Sammy van Tuyll
van Serooskerken
GP Direct democracy
Right-wing populism
Right-wing Hard Euroscepticism Vacant
Pirate Party
PPNL Pirate politics
Direct democracy
Party for Human and Spirit
(Partij voor Mens en Spirit)
MenS Spiritual left
Centre-left Vacant
Nieuwe Wegen
(Nieuwe Wegen)
NW Social democracy
Left-wing populism
Centre-left Vacant
Jesus Lives

(Jezus Leeft)


Social conservatism




Right-wing Florens van der Spek
Dutch Peoples-Union NVU Right-wing nationalism
Greater Netherlands
Far-right Hard Euroscepticism Constant Kusters
Volt Europa
(Volt Nederland)
Volt Social liberalism
European federalism[72]
Centre to centre-left Pro-Europeanism Reinier Van Lanschot

Regional parties

Party Abbreviation Active in Number of provincial seats Number of municipal seats
Frisian National Party FNP Friesland 4 58
Groninger Belang GB Groningen 3 -
Party for the North PvhN Groningen 1 3
Party for Zeeland PVZ Zeeland 1 1

Locally represented parties

Party Abbreviation Year of creation Number of municipal seats
The Greens DG 1983 1
Islam Democrats ID 2006 2
New Communist Party of the Netherlands NCPN 1992 3
Forza! Netherlands Forza! 2003 8
Proud of the Netherlands TROTS 2007 6
United Communist Party VCP 1999 5
United Senior Party VSP 2001 13

Defunct parties

See also


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Leadership and Lijsttrekker (top candidate) pending on possible leadership election
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