List of political parties in Malaysia

This is a list of political parties in Malaysia, including existing and historical ones.

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Malaysia
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Legislation

Under the current legislation, all political parties (termed "Political Associations") must be registered under the Societies Act.

Election expenses

The Election Offences Act (1954) regulate the maximum expenses allowed for candidates vying for parliamentary seats and for state seats during the campaign period (excluding before the nomination day and after election day). The permissible campaign expenditure set by the Election Offences Act (1954) is RM100,000 per candidate for state seats, and RM200,000 per candidate for federal seats. According to this guideline, with 505 state seats and 222 parliamentary seats in the 2013 general election, the maximum amount that Barisan Nasional was allowed to spend was only about RM95 million. Due to the lack of record and regulations, Malaysian politicians may not even know how much they spent on their campaigns or overspending the expenditure than permitted by law. Another related problem was the secrecy surrounding political funds and their use. Although many politicians, including members of newly appointed cabinets, voluntarily disclosed their personal finances, such disclosure is not compulsory and many sources of revenue remain obscure.

Election deposits

The deposit was RM10,000 to contest a parliamentary seat, or RM5,000 to contest a state assembly seat. The deposit is used to pay for infringements of election laws and is returned after polling day unless the candidate loses and fails to garner more than 12.5 percent or one-eighth of the votes cast. Additionally it is required that each candidate provide a RM5,000 deposit for cleaning up banners and posters after the election.

Political donations

Political donations are legal in Malaysia. There is no limit, and parties are not obliged to disclose the source of the funding, which makes political donations a vague subject but still entirely legal in the country. All political donations are allowed to be given into accounts of individuals and accounts of the political party. Anonymous donors and foreigners may request to not to reveal their identities.

Political parties are funded by contributions from:

  • party members and individual supporters (via membership fees/dues/subscriptions and/or local/foreign small donations),
  • organisations, which share their political views (e.g. by trade union affiliation fees) or which stand to benefit from their activities (e.g. by local/foreign corporate donations) or
  • taxpayers respectively the general revenue fund (by grants that are called state aid, government or public funding).

Latest election results

 Summary of the 9 May 2018 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results
Party Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
Pakatan Harapan[lower-alpha 1]PH5,518,638[1]45.6811350.90 45
People's Justice PartyPKR2,046,39416.944721.17 17
Democratic Action Party[lower-alpha 2]DAP2,098,06818.924218.92 4
Malaysian United Indigenous PartyPPBM718,6485.95135.86 13
National Trust Party[lower-alpha 3]PAN655,5285.43114.95 11
Sabah Heritage Party (Pakatan Harapan ally)WARISAN280,5202.3283.61 8
National Front[lower-alpha 4]BN4,080,79733.777935.59 54
United Malays National OrganisationUMNO2,525,71320.905424.32 34
United Bumiputera Heritage PartyPBB220,4791.83135.86 1
Sarawak People's PartyPRS59,2180.4931.35 3
Malaysian Indian CongressMIC167,0611.3821.35 2
Progressive Democratic PartyPDP59,8530.5020.90 2
Malaysian Chinese AssociationMCA653,3465.4110.45 6
Sarawak United People's PartySUPP122,5401.0110.45
United Sabah PartyPBS58,3510.4810.45 3
United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut OrganisationUPKO57,0620.4710.45 2
United Sabah People's PartyPBRS11,7830.1010.45
Malaysian People's Movement PartyGERAKAN128,9731.0700 1
Liberal Democratic PartyLDP8,9960.0700
People's Progressive PartymyPPP7,4220.0600
Ideas of ProsperityGS2,041,18616.90188.11 3
Pan-Malaysian Islamic PartyPAS2,032,08016.82188.11 3
Malaysian National Alliance Party[lower-alpha 5]IKATAN9,0250.0800
Pan-Malaysian Islamic FrontBERJASA810.0000
Love Malaysia Party (Gagasan Sejahtera strategic partner)PCM5020.0000
United Sabah AllianceUSA67,1750.5610.45 1
Homeland Solidarity PartySTAR21,3610.1810.45 1
Sabah People's Hope PartyPHRS37,7080.3100
Sabah Progressive PartySAPP6,0900.0500
Sabah People's Unity PartyPPRS2,0160.0200
Love Sabah PartyPCS8,6030.0700
Socialist Party of MalaysiaPSM3,7820.0300 1
Malaysian People's PartyPRM2,3720.0200
Malaysian United PartyMUP2,1020.0200
State Reform PartySTAR1,2990.0100
Sabah Native Co-operation PartyAnak Negeri1,1730.0100
People’s Alliance For Justice of PeacePEACE1,0050.0100
Penang Front PartyPFP8920.0000
New Sarawak Native People's PartyPBDSB5380.0000
Land of the Hornbill PartyPBK3920.0000
People's Alternative PartyPAP3020.0000
IndependentsIND71,1530.5931.35 3
Valid votes12,082,431[1]
Invalid/blank votes217,083[1]
Total votes (voter turnout: 82.32%)12,299,514100.00222100.00TBA
Did not vote2,641,110
Registered voters[lower-alpha 6]14,940,624
Ordinary voters[lower-alpha 6]14,636,716
Early voters[lower-alpha 6]300,255
Postal voters[lower-alpha 6]3,653
Voting age population[lower-alpha 7] (aged 21 years and above)18,359,670
Malaysian population[lower-alpha 8]32,258,900

Source: Election Commission of Malaysia (SPR)[2]

  1. Contested using People's Justice Party election symbol on the ballot papers.
  2. Contested using rocket election symbol on the ballot papers in East Malaysia.
  3. Contested using white mountain election symbol on the ballot papers in Batu Sapi, Sabah.
  4. Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.
  5. Contested using green moon election symbol on the ballot papers in the election.
  6. Abdullah, Mohd. Hashim (10 April 2018). Urusan Pilihan Raya Umum ke-14 (in Malay). SPR Media Statement. Retrieved on 8 May 2018.
  7. The estimates are correct as at February 2018. See Zulkipli, Nur Lela (12 February 2018). 3.6 juta orang muda belum daftar pengundi (in Malay). Berita Harian. Retrieved on 9 May 2018.
  8. Malaysia (6 February 2018). Perangkaan Demografi Suku Tahun Keempat (ST4) 2017, Malaysia (in Malay). Department of Statistics Malaysia Media Statement. Retrieved on 9 May 2018.

The parties

Parties represented in the Parliament and/or the state legislative assemblies

This is the list of coalitions and parties that have representation in the Parliament of Malaysia (Dewan Rakyat & Dewan Negara) and/or the state legislative assemblies, sorted by seats held in the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of the Parliament of Malaysia.

Coalitions and electoral pacts

Pakatan Harapan

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Barisan Nasional

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Gagasan Sejahtera

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Gabungan Parti Sarawak

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

United Sabah Alliance

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

United Alliance

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Parties without representation in the Parliament and the state legislative assemblies

This is the list of active coalitions and parties that do not have representation in the Parliament of Malaysia (Dewan Rakyat and Dewan Negara) and the state legislative assemblies, sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS). Parties that are part of a coalition that is represented are not listed here even if the party itself is not represented.

Parties registered with the ROS and EC

Political parties registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS) and with the Election Commission (EC).

Parties registered with the ROS but not with the EC

Political parties registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS) but not with the Election Commission (EC). They are therefore unable to contest in elections using their own symbols. Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah is one such party and has only contested elections using the Barisan Nasional symbol.

Historical parties

These organisations have never been or are no longer registered as political bodies, and can thus no longer contest elections. Parties that were registered in British Malaya but operated solely in the territory of Singapore are also excluded from this list. Parties that have been renamed but still exist today as registered political parties are also excluded from this list. A number of these may still exist as organisations in some form, but none are recognised as political parties.

Before 1949

1950 - 1959

1960 - 1969

1970 - 1979

1980 - 1989

1990 - 1999

2000 - 2009

2010 – present

See also

References

  1. Koh, Aun Qi (15 May 2018). "Discrepancies in media reports of GE14 popular vote". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  2. "Dashboard PRU 14". Pilihan Raya Umum Malaysia 14. Suruhanjaya Pilihan Raya Malaysia. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  3. Tawie, Sulok (12 June 2018). "Sarawak ruling parties quit BN". Malay Mail. Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
  4. "PBS quits BN and joins STAR in new coalition". The Star Online. Kota Kinabalu. 13 May 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  5. Teh Eng Hock (27 August 2010). "Kimma becomes Umno associate member". The Star. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
  6. Patrick, Sennyah; Chow Kum Hor (10 November 2002). "Parti Punjabi willing to wait for admission into BN". New Straits Times. The New Straits Times Press (M) Berhad. Retrieved 24 June 2008.
  7. "Parti Punjabi forced to amend constitution". New Straits Times. The New Straits Times Press (M) Berhad. 3 October 2002. Retrieved 24 June 2008.
  8. Sahat, Yusri (5 November 2006). "Saberkas pelopori penubuhan UMNO Kedah" [Saberkas led towards the establishment of UMNO Kedah]. Utusan Malaysia (in Malay). Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  9. Tan, Kim Hong (20 February 2009). "The Labour Party of Malaya, 1952–1972". Aliran Monthly. Aliran Kesedaran Rakyat. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  10. "Malayan Democratic Union is formed - Singapore History".
  11. "Pan-Malayan Council of Joint Action is formed - Singapore History".
  12. Hashim, Wan (2011). Hubungan Etnik di Malaysia [Race Relations in Malaysia] (in Malay). Kuala Lumpur: ITBM. ISBN 9789830685793.
  13. Mueller, Dominick M (2014). Islam, Politics and Youth in Malaysia: The Pop-Islamist Reinvention of PAS. Routledge. pp. 51–52. ISBN 9781317912989.
  14. "New Youth Party Formed". The Straits Times. Singapore. 22 January 1948.
  15. "Labour Party for Malacca". Morning Tribune. Singapore. 8 September 1948.
  16. Ong, Anna (1 February 2017). "Tun Dato' Seri Dr Lim Chong Eu". Penang Trail Blazers. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  17. "Perak Labour Party Meeting". Straits Times. Singapore. 19 July 1952. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  18. "Negri to form labour party". Straits Times. Singapore. 11 December 1952. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  19. "Son of Perak who brought pride to his state". The Star. Kuala Lumpur. 1 September 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  20. "New labour party in Province". Straits Times. Singapore. 22 September 1953. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  21. Sarawak party joins Pakatan, 10 January 2010, MalaysianMirror
  22. "Snap secara rasmi sertai Pakatan Rakyat". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  23. SNAP now fourth PR member, 20 April 2010, MalaysianMirror
  24. SNAP quits Pakatan
  25. Sandhu, KS; Mani, A (1993). Indian Communities in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 581–582. ISBN 9789812304186.
  26. Kroef, Justus M. (2012). Communism in Malaysia and Singapore: A Contemporary Survey. Berlin, Germany: Springer. ISBN 9789401504997.
  27. "Chinese form new political party - UMCO". Straits Times. Singapore. 10 November 1966.
  28. Ong, Wei Chong (23 August 2010). Securing the Population from Insurgency and Subversion in the Second Emergency (1968-1981) (PhD). University of Exeter. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  29. Yusoff, Kamarul Zaman (24 December 2017). "Abdul Hadi semarakkan kembali obor perjuangan PAS" [Abdul Hadi reignited the struggle of PAS]. Harakah Daily (in Malay). Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
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