List of percussion instruments

This is a wide-ranging, inclusive list of percussion instruments.

It includes:

These three groups overlap heavily, but inclusion in any one is sufficient for an instrument to be included in this list. However, when only a specific subtype of the instrument qualifies as a percussion instrument, only that subtype is listed here. For example, a samba whistle (or apito) is an unpitched percussion instrument, but a whistle in general is not.

For brevity, synonyms represented in Wikipedia by redirects to a main article are not listed, but may be mentioned as a note. Only the main article names are listed in these cases. For example, apito is listed but samba whistle is merely noted as an alternate name. A distinct instrument or type represented only by a redirect to an article section should however be shown. Instruments represented only by redlinks have no Wikipedia articles as yet but are shown.

See list of percussion instruments by type for some shorter, more focused lists. Use the sorting arrows on the common usage column to group instruments as pitched, unpitched or both. Use the sorting arrows on the Classification column to group instruments according to their Hornbostel–Sachs classification.

Percussion instruments

Name(s) Picture Origin Common usage

Pitched /Unpitched /Both

Hornbostel–Sachs Classification References and notes
Aburukuwa Ghana Unpitched 211 Membranophone
Acme siren England Unpitched Aerophone
Afoxé Brazil Unpitched 112.122 Idiophone
Agogô Yoruba Unpitched 111.242 Idiophone Commonly used in Samba.
Agung Philippines Unpitched 111.241.2 Idiophone
Agung a tamlang Philippines 111.24 Idiophone
Alarm device Both May be electronic or mechanical
Alfaia Brazil Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Alligator drum China Unpitched 211.2 Membranophone
Angklung Indonesia Pitched 111.232 Idiophone [1]
Anvil Unpitched 111 Idiophone A similar-sounding alternative is often used due to the weight of the blacksmith's anvil[2]
Apito Brazil Unpitched 421.221.11 Aerophone Also known as samba whistle. Some apitos produce up to three different tones, but none of these is normally used as a pitched note.[3]
Ashiko Yoruba Unpitched 211.251.1 Membranophone
Atabaque Brazil Unpitched 211.221.1 Membranophone
Babendil Philippines Unpitched 111.242.1 Idiophone
Bak Korea Unpitched 111.12 Idiophone
Balafon Mali Pitched 111.212 Idiophone
Bamboula Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Bara West Africa Unpitched 211.11 Membranophone
Bass drum Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Batá drum Nigeria Unpitched 211.242.12 Membranophone
Beatboxing Both 4 Aerophone
Bedug Indonesia Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Bell China Both 111.242 Idiophone
Bell plate Asia Pitched 111.222 Idiophone
Bell tree Unpitched 111.242.221 Idiophone Often confused with mark tree
Bendir North Africa Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone
Berimbau Brazil Pitched Chordophone
Bianzhong China Pitched Idiophone
Binzasara Japan Unpitched Idiophone
Bo China Unpitched Idiophone
Bock-a-da-bock Unpitched 111.1 Idiophone
Bodhrán Ireland Unpitched 211.321 Membranophone
Body percussion Unpitched Membranophone
Bombo criollo Unpitched Membranophone A family of Latin American drums derived from the European bass drum
Bombo legüero Unpitched Membranophone Argentina
Bonang Indonesia Pitched 111.241.2 Idiophone
Bones (instrument) Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Bongo drum Cuba Unpitched 211.251.2 Membranophone
Boobam United States Unpitched 211.211.1 Membranophone
Boomwhacker United States Pitched Idiophone Plastic percussion tubes
Bougarabou West Africa Unpitched 211.261.2 Membranophone
Bubon Ukraine Unpitched 232.311 Membranophone Type of skinned Tambourine
Buk Korea Unpitched 211.222.1 Membrarophone
Cabasa Unpitched 112.122 Idiophone
Cajón Peru Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone Box Drum
Cajón de rumba Cuba Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone
Calung Indonesia Pitched 111.232 Idiophone
Carimbo Africa Unpitched Membranophone
Candombe drums Uruguay Unpitched Membranophone
Cannon Unpitched Pyrophone Used in 1812 Overture
Cantaro Mexico
Carillon Belgium Pitched 111.242.2 Idiophone A type of bell tower inner workings.
Castanets Unpitched 111.141 Idiophone
Caxirola Brazil Unpitched Idiophone
Caxixi West Africa Unpitched 112.13 African basket rattle
Celesta France Pitched 111.222 Idiophone As a keyboard instrument, not part of the percussion section of the orchestra[4]
Chácaras Canary Islands Unpitched 111.141 Idiophone
Chenda India Unpitched 211.212 Membranophone
Chime bar Pitched 111.221 Idiophone
Chime (bell instrument) Pitched 111.242.2 Idiophone
China cymbal Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone
Cimbalom Pitched Chordophone
Clapper Unpitched Idiophone
Clapping Unpitched Idiophone
Clap stick Australia Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Clash cymbals Unpitched 111.142 Idiophone Better known as crash cymbals
Claves Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Clavichord Pitched 314.122-4-8 Chordophone Sound formed by striking the strings, but played as a keyboard instrument
Clay drum
Cocktail drum Unpitched Membranophone
Conga Cuba Unpitched 211.221.1 Membranophone
Cowbell Both 111.242 Idiophone Tuned cowbells are known as almglocken or alpine bells[5]
Crotale Both 111.24 Idiophone
Crystallophone Pitched Idiophone
Cuíca Disputed Pitched 231.11 Friction Membranophone
Cup chime Pitched 111.24 Idiophone The only pitched cymbal, it is identical to a bell cymbal in all but usage
Cymbal Unpitched 111 Idiophone
Dabakan Philippines Unpitched 211 Membranophone, although shape is variously described as goblet, hourglass, conical, or tubular.
Daf Iran Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone Also known as Dafli, Dap, Def, Tef, Defi, Gaval, Duf, and larger ones defi or daire
Damaru South Asia Unpitched 212 Membranophone Type of Pellet drum.
Damphu Nepal Unpitched Membranophone
Đàn tam thập lục Vietnam Pitched Chordophone Type of hammered dulcimer.
Davul Unpitched 211.212 Membranophone
Daxophone Germany Pitched 132.1 Friction Idiophone Bowed percussion invented by Hans Reichel
Dayereh Iran Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone Also known as doyra, dojra, dajre, doira, dajreja
Den-den daiko Japan Unpitched 212 Membranophone Type of Pellet drum.
Derkach Ukraine Unpitched 112.24 Idiophone Type of ratchett
Dhaa Nepal Unpitched 211.212 Membranophone
Dhimay Nepal Unpitched 211.212 Membranophone
Dholak South Asia Both 211.222.1 Membranophone Also known as dholki, similar to dohl
Dhol India Both 211.212.1 Membranophone The bass head is pitched, the treble often unpitched, see pitched percussion instruments easily mistaken for unpitched
Dimdi India Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone
Djembe Mandinka Unpitched 211.261.1 Membranophone
Dohol Middle East Both 211.212.1 Membranophone
Dollu India Unpitched 211.222.1 Membranophone
Đông Sơn drums Vietnam Bronze drums
Drum stick Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Dunun Mandé Both 211.212.1 Membranophone In ballet style playing, a repeating melody is played on three pitched drums
Egg shaker Unpitched 112.13 Idiophone
Ekwe Nigeria Unitched 111.24 Idiophone A type of Slit drum
Electronic drum England Both 53 Electrophone
Esterilla Colombia Unpitched Idiophone
Ferrinho Cape Verde Unpitched Idiophone
Fiddlesticks Chordophone
Finger snapping Unpitched Idiophone
Flexatone Unpitched 112.12 Idiophone
Flower drum China Unpitched Idiophone
Fontomfrom Ghana Membranophone
Found object
Frame drum Unpitched 211.3 Membranophone
Friction drum Both Membranophone A drum where a stick or chord is drawn through a hole in the membrane to make a sound.
Galgo Korea Unpitched 211.242.1 Membranophone
Gandingan Philippines Unpitched 111.241.2 Idiophone
Ganzá Brazil Unpitched 112.13
Gbedu Yoruba Unpitched Membranophone
Gendèr Indonesia Pitched 111.222 Idiophone
Geophone France Unpitched Membranophone
Ghatam India Unpitched Idiophone
Glass harmonica United States Pitched 133.2 Idiophone Specifically a friction Idiophone
Glass harp Ireland Pitched 133.2 Idiophone Specifically a friction Idiophone
Glockenspiel Pitched 111.222 Idiophone
Goblet drum Unpitched 211.261 Membranophone Generic type by construction, see also individual instrument names
Goema South Africa Unpitched Membranophone
Gong China Pitched 111.241.1 Idiophone
Gong bass drum Japan Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone
Gonguê Brazil Unpitched 111.242 Idiophone
Gubguba India 32 Chordophone
Gudugudu Yoruba Pitched 211.11 Membranophone
Güira Dominican Republic Unpitched 112.23 Idiophone
Güiro Unpitched 112.23 Idiophone Also known as scraper
Hammered dulcimer Pitched Chordophone Listed as a stringed instrument in some classifications
Handbell England Both 111.242 Idiophone
Handchime Pitched 111.231 Idiophone
Hand-repique Brazil 211.211.1 Membranophone
Handpan Pitched 111.24 Idiophone
Hi-hat Unpitched 111.142 Idiophone
Hosho Zimbabwe Unpitched 112.13 Idiophone
Huiringua Type of slit drum
Hyoshigi Japan Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Igba Unpitched Membranophone
Ikembe Africa Pitched 122.1 Idiophone Lamellophone
Ikoro Nigeria Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone
Ilimba Zimbabwe Unpitched 211.11 Membranophone
Jam block Unpitched 111.2 Idiophone
Janggu / Janggo / Changgo Korea Pitched 211.242.1 Membranophone
Jawbone Peru Unpitched 112.211 Idiophone
Jew's harp China? Pitched 121.2 Lamellophone
Jhallari India Pitched Chordophone
Junjung Serer Unpitched Membranophone
Kakko Japan Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Kanjira India Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone
Kebero East Africa Unpitched Membranophone
Kecer Indonesia Unpitched 111.142 Idiophone
Kemanak Indonesia Pitched 111.24 Idiophone
Kempyang and ketuk Indonesia 111.241.1 Idiophone
Kendang Southeast Asia Unpitched 211.222.1 Membranophone
Kenong Indonesia Pitched 111.241.2 Idiophone
Kepyak Indonesia Unpitched 111 Idiophone
Keyboard glockenspiel Pitched 111.222 Idiophone A keyboard instrument, not normally part of a percussion section
Khim South Asia Pitched Chordophone Type of hammered dulcimer
Khol India Unpitched Membranophone
Kirikoketa Basque Idiophone
Kisanji Congo Pitched Lamellaphone
Klong khaek Thailand Unpitched Membranophone
Klong yao Thailand Unpitched Membranophone
Kpanlogo Ghana Unpitched 211.221.1 Membranophone
Kulintang Southeast Asia Pitched 111.241.2 Idiophone
Kundu Papua Unpitched 211.222.1 Membranophone Papuan musical instrument
Kus Persia Membranophone Ancient Persian kettledrum
Lambeg Ireland Unpitched 211.212 Membranophone
Lion's roar Unpitched 232.11 Membranophone Has also been referred to as a Chordophone or a Friction drum
Lithophone Global Pitched Idiophone Either natural or placed rock formations which produce differing tones when struck.
Lujon United States Pitched 111.222 Idiophone Bass Metalophone
Lummi stick Native American Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Madal Nepal Unpitched Membranophone
Maddale India Unpitched 211.222 Membranophonre
Madhalam India Unpitched Mambranophone
Maktoum Unpitched Membranophone
Makuta Cuba Unpitched Membranophone
Malimbe Congo Pitched 111.212 Idiophone
Mangey Middle East Unpitched Membranophone
Maraca Latin America Unpitched 112.13 Idiophone
Maram (drum) India Membranophone
Marching machine Unpitched 111.212 Idiophone [6]
Marimba Guatemala Pitched 111.212 Idiophone
Marímbula Caribbean Pitched 122.1 Idiophone
Mark tree United States Unpitched 111.232 Idiophone Also known as a chime tree or bar chimes
Mbira Africa Pitched 122.1 Idiophone African musical instrument, a type of plucked idiophone (lamellophone)
Metallophone Asia Pitched 111.222 Idiophone
Monkey stick England Unpitched 112.12 Idiophone Also known as mendoza or lagerphone
Mridangam India Pitched 211.222.1 Membranophone
Musical saw Pitched 132.1 Friction Idiophone
Muyu Japan Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone
Nagara Middle East Unpitched Membranophone
Naqara Mongolia Unpitched Membranophone Large battle drum
Naqareh Middle East Unpitched Membranophone
Naqus Morocco Idiophone
Ngoma drums Africa Unpitched Membranophone
North Drums United States Unpitched Membranophone
Ocean drum Unpitched
Octa-Vibraphone Pitched Idiophone
Octoban Japan Both 211.211.1 Membranophone
Omele Nigeria
Onavillu India Pitched Chordophone
Ōtsuzumi Japan Pitched 211.242.1 Membranophone
Padayani thappu India Unpitched Membranophone
Pahu Hawaii Unpitched Membranophone
Pahū pounamu New Zealand Unpitched Idiophone Traditional Maori gong.
Paiban China Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Paila criolla Cuba Unpitched Membranophone
Pakhavaj India pitched 211.222.1 Membranophone
Pambai India Unpitched Membranophone
Pandeiro Brazil Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone
Pandero jarocho Mexico Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone Octagonal Tambourine
Pantalon Europe Pitched Chordophone A type of hammered dulcimer.
Parsifal bell
Pat waing Burma Pitched Membranophone A circle of 21 drums
Pellet drum Unpitched 212 Membranophone
Piano Italy Pitched Chordophone A keyboard instrument, not normally part of a percussion section but listed as percussion in some older classifications, and stringed in others
Pixiphone England Pitched 111.212 Idiophone
Practice pad Unpitched
Plasmaphone United States
Quadrangularis Reversum United States Pitched 111.212 Idiophone
Rainstick Mexico Unpitched 112.13 Idiophone Subclassed as a combination Shaken Idiophone and Individual friction vessel
Rakatak Ghana
Ranat ek Thailand Pitched Idiophone
Ranat ek lek Thailand Pitched Idiophone
Ranat thum Thailand Pitched Idiophone
Ranat thum lek Thailand Pitched Idiophone
Ratchet Unpitched 112.24 Idiophone
Rattle Unpitched 112.13 Idiophone
Ravanne Mauritias Unpitched
Repique Brazil Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Ring of bells Pitched Idiophone
Ring-repique Brazil Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Ringing rocks Idiophone
Riq Middle East Unpitched Membranophone
Rock gong Both 111.22 Idiophone A type of constructed Lithophone
Rototom United States Both 211.311 Membranophone classified it as no handle although it is usually mounted
Sabar Senegal Unpitched Membranophone
Sakara Yoruba Unpitched Membranophone
Salterio Europe Pitched Chordophone
Sambal India Unpitched Membranophone
Samphor Cambodia Unpitched 211.222.1 Membranophone
Sand blocks Unpitched 13 Idiophone
Santoor South Asia Pitched Chordophone
Santur Iran Pitched Chordophone Type of hammered dulcimer.
Saron Indonesia Pitched 111.222 Idiophone Size from smallest to largest is Saron panerus, Saron barung,

Saron demung.

Scabellum Ancient Rome Unpitched Often used by the aulos players
Semantron Both Idiophone Used to summon monastics to prayer
Shekere West Africa Unpitched 112.122 Idiophone
Shime-daiko Japan Unpitched 211.222.1 Membranophone
Shishi-odoshi Japan
Shōko Japan Unpitched Idiophone
Sikulu Congo
Silex Piano Pitched Idiophone Lithophone
Singing bowl Himalayas Pitched 111.242.11 Idiophone
Siren (alarm) Scotland Both Electrophone
Skrabalai Lithuania Pitched 111.242.222 Idiophone
Skull Idiophone
Sleigh bells Unpitched 112.112 Idiophone Jingle bells
Slenthem Indonesia Pitched 111.222 Idiophone
Slide whistle Both Aerophone
Slit drum Both 111.24 Idiophone
Snare drum Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Song bells Pitched Idiophone
Sounding stone China Idiophone
Spoon Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Steelpan Trinidad & Tobago Pitched 111.241.12 and 111.241.22 Idiophone[7] Also known as steel drum
Stomp box Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone
Stone marimba Pitched Idiophone Lithophone
Suikinkutsu Japan
Surdo Brazil Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Suspended cymbal Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone
Tabla India Pitched 211.221.2 Membranophone See pitched percussion instruments easily mistaken for unpitched
Tabla tarang India Pitched Membranophone
Taiko Japan Unpitched 211 Membranophone Refers to traditional Japanese drums in general.
Talempong Indonesia Pitched Idiophone
Talking drum West Africa Pitched 211.242.11 Membranophone Has a sound that mimics the human voice
Tambora Dominican Republic Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Tamborim Brazil Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone
Tamborita calentana Mexico Unpitched Membranophone
Tambour Unpitched Membranophone
Tambourine Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone But the headless tambourine is an idiophone
Tan-tan Brazil Unpitched 211.211.1 Membranophone
Tap shoe Unpitched 111.222 Idiophone
Taphon Thailand Unpitched 211.222.1 Membranophone
Tar (drum) Unpitched Membranophone
Tassa India Unpitched Membranophone Type of kettle drum
Taxi Horn Both Aerophone
Tbilat Morocco Unpitched Membranophone
Temple block East Asia Both 111.24 Idiophone [5][8]
Thappu India Unpitched Membranophone
Thavil India Unpitched 211.222.1 Membranophone
Thunder machine (instrument) Unpitched
Thunder sheet Unpitched 111.221 Idiophone
Timbal Brazil Unpitched 211.251.1 Membranophone
Timbales Cuba Unpitched 211.212.2 Membranophone
Timpani Pitched 211.12 Membranophone Also called kettle drums
Tingsha Tibet Unpitched 111.142 Idiophone
Tom-tom drum Pitched 211.211.1 Membranophone
Tonbak Iran Unpitched 211.261.1 Membranophone Persian, also known as tombak, donbak and dombak, and as Tombakh Naar in Kashmir
Triangle Both 111 Idiophone
Triccaballacca Italy Unpitched Idiophone
Tsuzumi Japan Pitched 211.242.1 Membranophone
Tsymbaly Ukraine Pitched Chordophone Type of hammer dulcimer.
Tubular bells Pitched 111.232 Idiophone
Tumba Unpitched Membranophone
Turntable Both 53 Electrophone
Tumdak' India Unpitched Membranophone
Turkish crescent Unpitched Idiophone
Txalaparta Basque Pitched 111.222 Idiophone
Udu Nigeria Unpitched Idiophone Also classed as an implosive Aerophone.
Vibraphone United States Pitched 111.222 Idiophone
Vibraslap United States Unpitched 112 Idiophone
Washboard United States Unpitched 132.1 Idiophone
Whip Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone Also known as slapstick
Whistle Unpitched Aerophone
Wind chime Unpitched 111.232 Idiophone Borderline as pitched or unpitched, as a melody can sometimes be perceived
Wind machine Unpitched 13 Idiophone
Wobble board Australia
Wood block Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone
Xylophone Disputed Pitched 111.212 Idiophone The xylophone is a musical instrument in the percussion family that consists of wooden bars struck by mallets
Xylorimba Pitched 111.212 Idiophone
Yanggeum Korea Pitched Chordophone Type of hammered dulcimer.
Yangqin China Pitched Chordophone Type of hammered dulcimer.
Yuka Congo Unpitched Membranophone Made from a hollowed out avocado trunk with a leather membrane.
Zabumba Brazil Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Zatula Ukraine Unpitched 112.2 Idiophone
Zill Unpitched 111.142 Idiophone Also known as finger cymbal

See also

Top-level articles

Subgroups of percussion instruments


Only the more significant subcategories are shown

  • Category:Percussion instruments
    • Category:Membranophones
      • Category:Drums
    • Category:Idiophones
      • Category:Cymbals
    • Category:Pitched percussion
    • Category:Percussion instruments by means of sound production
    • Category:Percussion instruments by playing technique
    • Category:Percussion instruments by tradition
    • Category:Percussion instruments by usage


  1. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-09-28. Retrieved 2014-10-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) retrieved March 13, 2012: The tubes are carefully whittled and cut by a master craftsperson to produce certain notes when the bamboo frame is shaken or tapped.
  2. "Anvil : Grove Music Online - oi". doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.01068. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. "Brazilian Samba". Retrieved 2015-09-07.
  4. retrieved March 13, 2012: Although treated as a member of the percussion section in orchestral terms, the celesta is played by a pianist, the part being normally written on two bracketed staves.
  5. retrieved 13 March 2012 There are lots of tuned percussion instruments. Among the most common are the xylophone, marimba, the glockenspiel, the cowbells and the temple blocks. Other suthorities cited here however say that temple blocks are not considered pitched instruments.
  6. retrieved 16 March 2012
  7. Revision of the Hornbostel-Sachs Classification of Musical Instruments by the MIMO Consortium
  8. retrieved 13 March 2012: Although temple blocks are not considered pitched instruments, they can produce discernable pitches, and some temple blocks are actually tuned to the pentatonic scale. Other authorities cited here however say that temple blocks are tuned percussion.
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