List of parliaments of England

This is a list of parliaments of England from the reign of King Henry III, when the Curia Regis developed into a body known as Parliament, until the creation of the Parliament of Great Britain in 1707.

For later parliaments, see the List of parliaments of Great Britain. For the history of the English Parliament, see Parliament of England.

The parliaments of England were traditionally referred to by the number counting forward from the start of the reign of a particular monarch, unless the parliament was notable enough to come to be known by a particular title, such as the Good Parliament or the Parliament of Merton.

Parliaments of Henry III

No.SummonedSelectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsPresiding officer[lower-alpha 1]Note
1st[lower-alpha 2]1 November 1236n/a1 January 1237?n/aHenry III commenced his reign on 19 October 1216. The first summons of parliamentum generalissimum in November 1236 for January 1237, was for 24 barons, known as a Special Writ formed Curia Regis (later House of Lords), but only 18 actually attended.[1] First parliamentum was a result of baronial revolt and an infant minority King in wardship. Rather than the celebrated Magna Carta, specifically, but more the charters se presenting the law to the two houses. A writ of mandamus was sent to bishops, the lords spiritual, and judges. Lord Chancellor was responsible for summons, and in later parliaments for writ of patent (peer creation); Writs of Tenure were issued to royal officers, and in medieval parliaments to sheriffs and knights, latterly 'of the shire' who had won their spurs, to come armed.[lower-alpha 3] Burgesses were rarely summoned, e.g. when Edward I wanted extra funds. Statute of Merton was generally the first passed by an English 'parliament'.[2] The "whole body (universitas) knoweth not," denying the king on thirtieth imposition.
2nd[lower-alpha 2]14 December 1241n/a27 January 1242?n/aThe king's writ summoned the barons to appear at London on the Wednesday before Candlemas Day. The barons engaged one another by oath not to consent to give any money at all. They accused the kings of "extortions" that were "wasted scandalously".[3]
3rd12441244?n/aThe king asked for "a pecuniary aid". The barons wanted to be consulted about the "proposal". The king refused the "Petition of the Nobles"; the king should choose counsellors by advice of the Committee of Twelve. The king's Treasury, through the Great Council, should hear the complaints of all sufferers, and act with aids for the common good.
4th1246n/a1246?n/aParliamentum generalissimum met at London to pass severe laws against robbery. They argued against the Pope's Peter-Pence that oppressed the kingdom.[4]
3rdn/a3 February 1247?n/aUniversitas meaning the 'whole of the clergy' were summoned to the council in London.[5] Baronial letters preserved by Matthew Paris showed fear of the Vatican bulls and interdicts.[6]
4th[lower-alpha 2]n/a23 January 124812 February 1248?n/aParliamentum met at London during Hilary term. Writs showed how outlawry reached the statute books; by holding it contract void, no one could be imprisoned without first obtaining a judgement in court. No justiciar appointed, and no chancellor for Henry to receive a long list of grievances. Henry claimed cum privilegio right to choose his own ministers. On 9 February, the king used church hierarchy to buttress power in colloquium with lay magnates to raise taxes.[7]
n/a1 March 1251?n/aA parliament at London was called to try Henry de Batho, the Chief Justice, for treason.[8] Lord John Mansel had to quell the fury of the mob. de Batho was released on payment of 2,000 marks.
5thn/a1 October 1252?n/aMichaelmas term at Westminster intercommuning (communiter) took place between church and lay magnates. One tenth of all the goods of clergy voted for three years to conformatio and deliberate the charters.[9]
6thn/a1 January 1253?n/aMet at Winchester. By April/May the council/parliament voted one tenth, and the king received feudal aids for knighting his eldest son, the Lord Edward. Observance of writs of the charters included an army muster at London.
7th²11 February 1254n/a26 April 1254?n/aA parliament was called to Westminster after Easter. The royal letter and memorandum remains.[10]
8th[lower-alpha 2]n/a18 April 1255?n/aMet at Westminster and London, it demanded 1/10th tax, pecuniary aid, 'common counsel'; "advice and deliberation of the assembled realm." It was postponed until the Autumn 1255. John Stowe raised the principle of parliament by consent.[11]
9thn/a1 October 1255?n/aA parliament met at London and lasted only a month.
10thn/a2 April 12582 May 1258?n/aOn 12 April Hugh de Lusignan occupies Westminster Hall with a body of armed men. Parliament met at London, but was adjourned on 5 May, to retire as a Council of Twenty-four to Oxford. Henry relied on his richest individual nobles, communitas regni to raise funds, for example, Earl of Derby and Earl of Salisbury.[12]
11th[lower-alpha 2]2 May 1258n/a11 June 1258?n/aParliament met on St Barnabas Day. Committee of 24 met at Oxford on 12 June (but writs confused by 'doctored' records.).[13] There were 137 Knights among the nobles. First time a Justiciar of England, Hugh Bigod, was elected by parliament (22 June 1258). Twenty castellans were appointed. On 22 June a royal order for the election of a permanent council. On 26 June, a council of fifteen was chosen; twelve by writ, and three nominated by King Henry III.[14][15][16] The Greater Council of nobles met in parliament at Michaelmas, Candlemas, and Midsummer. On 13 May, the king ordered the sheriffs of Yorkshire and Northumberland to attend the Edinburgh Parliament. The parliament in colloquium was called so Henry III could declare war on Llywelyn of Wales.[17]
12th[lower-alpha 2]n/a13 October 1258?n/aThe Chronica maiora mentioned "a great and long parliament" at Westminster, on 6 October, for "the provisions (purveances) and Establishments (establissemnz)".[18] Sheriffs were appointed as custodesto almost every shire; complaints could be made without fear of reprisal. They could claim court expenses for duties, respect all parties; and to refuse gifts. On 18 October, a proclamation made it a felony to oppose a sheriff's jurisdiction.[19] On 20 October, it was declared that proclamations would be read pluries in anno throughout the year.[20]
13thn/a27 October 12584 November 1258?Peter de MontfortThe parliament probably moved on towards Oxford on the Octave of Michaelmas. It is sometimes known as the Mad Parliament. Knights of the shire (representing counties) were the only commoners summoned. They were not required to be chosen by election. Between 1237 and 1258, the king was refused a grant of aid on nine occasions. Parliament already had a say on 80% of the revenues; only 20% went directly to the Exchequer.[21]
14th[lower-alpha 2]n/a3 February 1259?n/aParliament met at Westminster on the morrow of Candlemas. Justices were called eight days before, to prepare a document called The Provisions of the Barons of England.[22] On 14 March, Lord Edward and Richard de Clare disputing the Welsh Marches forced to swear to observe the new treaty witnessed by Henry of Almain and the Earl Warenne.[23] And on 30 March, The Ordinances of the Magnates were published, two days after that in favour of lesser tenants. A peaceful compact was reached with the proctors of the clergy.[24]
15th[lower-alpha 2]24 May 125913 October 1259?n/aThis parliament was held at Westminster. Its legislation was known as the 'Provisions of Westminster'.[25] There was a parliament in Midsummer, 1259 because all ordinances had to be issued before 1 November, banning writs precipe and baronial protection to lesser men; there were however many complaints, petitions, writs of entry, and specific querelae .[26] The free tenement had to be protected by the actions of novel disseisin.[27] The new legislative provisions were translated from French into Latin, enrolled in The Close Rolls after being read in the presence of the King at Westminster Hall. There may have been nine parliaments between 1258 and 1261.[28]
16thn/aMichaelmas 125914 November 1259?n/aParliament was held at Westminster. "The Provisions of Oxford" was not a document: it was practical and temporary record that limited royal government. Drawn up by 24 barons independent of, and not by parliament.[29] On 24 October, the Provisions of Westminster were published.[30] Henry sailed with the sealed Writs on 14 November 1259, and so the parliamentary session ended.[31]
17th[lower-alpha 2]27 March 1260n/a>30 April 1260?n/aOver 100 barons and tenants-in-chief were summoned to Westminster, by special writ while the king was in France. Citizens of London drafted complaints against Lord Edward and Earl of Leicester.
18th[lower-alpha 2]n/a8 July 1260?n/aThe Hoketide parliament at Candlemas was cancelled to take the fight among the barons to Llywelyn. But one did finally meet at Westminster. On 20 July Roger Mortimer of Wigmore was blamed for the loss of the Castle of Builth, but he was absolved.[32]
19th[lower-alpha 2]n/a13 October 1260?n/aParliament met at Westminster. In October, Hugh Bigod sought re-election as Justiciar (but electorate appears to have been 5 men only of the Council). The new Chancellor Nicholas of Ely and treasurer abbot of Peterborough, were men of the second rank noblesse de robe. It was moved in January 1261 to the Tower of London.
20th[lower-alpha 2]n/ac.23 February 1261?n/aParliament met during Candlemas at Westminster.[33] The King acknowledged abolition of 7-year General Eyre by the provisions of Westminster, after Sheriffs had submitted capitula or heads of eyre to parliament and the 7 special Justices, commissars on the administrative provisions of October 1258. Royal bailiffs who 'deferring' justice could already be punished since June 1258.[34]
21st11 December 1261n/a2 February 1262?n/aA parliament met at Westminster for Hilary term.[35] In March, the king tried to ask parliament to react to Pope Alexander IV's cancellation of Prince Edmund's grant to the Kingdom of Sicily; but parliament to Henry it was too late. The new mood was repentiam et novam bringing great change, baronial influence, that was not acceptable to the Pope.[36]
22ndn/a1 October 1262?n/aParliament met at Michaelmas at Westminster. De Montfort and Pope demanded 'Provisions of Oxford' be upheld by the King. They were re-issued on 22 January 1263.
23rd[lower-alpha 2]17 August 1263n/a8 September 1263>18 September 1263?n/aCalled for the Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Mary at St Paul's. Provisions of Oxford were confirmed and promulgated.[37] Henry rejected proposal that Council should appoint royal officers of the household; Montfort was recognised as undisputed leader and steward. On 16 September, Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester was sent to the Tower for sedition.[38] Council had failed to distinguish between politics and dealing with the violent spoliatores; many went without redress. The Amendment of Provisions was dropped.[39]
24th[lower-alpha 2]18 September 1263n/a13 October 126330 October 1263?n/aCalled for Michaelmas at Westminster. On 8 September, the provisum (provisions) were promulgated at St Paul's.[40] Government removed to Windsor, and the Lord Edward ordered parliament to break up on 30 October; it was the beginning of the end for De Montfort and the Provisions.[41]
25thn/a1 March 12643 April 1264?n/aDe Montfort at Northampton had defeated the royalists, while Henry held a parliament at Oxford. The bishops were present.[42][43] Montfort published the Ordinance (28 June 1264) of the Mise of Lewes which encompassed the principles of the Provisions. The triumvirate chose 9 councillors, three of whom would monitor the King's progress. The parliament probably broke up when Henry marched out in April with the dragon standard.[44] Montfort planned deposition, imprisonment and banishment for the King and royal princes.
25th4 June 1264n/a22 June 126412 August 1264?n/aSummoned against the De Montfortians, the Provisioners versus 'the men of the shire'. They discussed the noble prisoners taken at Northampton; castellans and refugees, the Jews of London, and trade with the Continent. Elected knights of the shire were the only commoners summoned from about 20 constituencies. They were not required to be chosen by election.[45] Parliament/council faced a threatened French invasion.[46] The new Council of Nine was constituted forma regiminis drawn up by 28 June.[47] The Court moved to papal negotiations in Kent; Montfort drafted 'the Peace of Canterbury' on 14 August. The Council suffered, discord and alienation, whereas the Franciscans rallied to De Montfort after parliament broke up.[48]
26th12 December 12641264/6520 January 126515 February 1265?unknownWrits sent out from Worcester, this Parliament is sometimes known as Montfort's Parliament.[49] This is not the first Parliament to which representatives of cities and boroughs were summoned, as well as knights of the shires; burgesses were first summoned in 1204.[50] It is also the first Parliament to which the representatives were required to be chosen by election in a consultative role.[51] Parliament was still in session on 8 March.[52]
27thn/aMarch 1265?n/aA parliament met at Westminster, where the Charter of Liberties was confirmed, as was the fines of miskenning abolished. Nine bishops excommunicated transgressors of the Charters of liberties, forest, and the statutes passed by the De Montfortian parliaments. Enemies spread rumours of castellan alienation. Only the Marcher Lords stood in the way of total Montfortian victory. Oxford scholar, Thomas de Cantilupe, bishop of Worcester, was elected Lord Chancellor by the Council.[53] Montfort's Treaty of Pipton (19 June 1265) with Llewelyn, a codicil included the covenant forced on Henry III in parliament, to disinherit the Lord Edward and, seeking his own deposition on pain of its breach.[54]
28th[lower-alpha 2]n/a14 September 1265?n/aMet at Winchester. First summons of Town burgesses to parliament. Young Simon de Montfort was declared an outlaw; his title of Earl of Leicester was forfeit, and granted to Prince Edmund on 20 October 1265 in a royal charter.
29thn/a1 August 1266?n/aParliament called to Kenilworth. The council declared the Kenilworth Dictum.
30th[lower-alpha 2]8 March 1267n/a9 February 1267?n/aMet at Bury St Edmunds to discuss investing the Isle of Ely held by Montfortian rebel John de Vescy. Efforts to restore lands to The Disinherited. At Lincoln in October, Papal Legate Ottobuono ordered the church to donate 1/20th tax to The Disinherited.[55]
31stn/a1 November 1267?n/aThe king met a parliament at Marlborough. The Statute of Marlborough (18 November 1267) guaranteed poor access to justice; compliance with Charter of Liberties; and baronial redemption payments for rebellion. Charter writs were granted for free. It also incorporated clauses protecting tenants in Provisions of Westminster.[56] Taxation Assessment of the North of England was completed; that included a Tallage of the towns and royal demesne attempting to raise more secular general aid.[57]
32ndn/a1 April 1268?n/aParliament met at London. 26 town representatives (or burgesses) are recorded.
33rdn/a1 June 1268?n/aThe royal family and nobles met with Ottobuono at Northampton "in a time of parliament".[58] 700 persons took the cross for a holy crusade from the legate.
34th[lower-alpha 2]20 September 1268n/a13 October 12681n/aMet in London at Michaelmas : the 45 royalists included 6 bishops and 3 earls elected by the five northern shires to "ordain and dispose" of the aid to the king. The bishops were considered 'lay fees' for the purposes of tax collection. The tax on personal property was the first on the laity since 1237.[59]
35thn/a1 January 1269?n/a
36thn/a1 April 1269?n/a
35th[lower-alpha 2]21 June 1269n/a24 June 12691n/aLords and Commons (knights and burgesses) assembled at Westminster on the Octave or Feast of St John the Baptist, to watch consecration of body of Edward the Confessor at Westminster Abbey.[60]
36thn/a13 October 12691n/aThe Michaelmas (29 September) parliament met at Westminster for the Feast of St Edward the Confessor. St Edward the Confessor's relic bones moved on St Edward's Day, 13 October 1369 to a new ambulatory shrine.[61] Knights were appointed to assess and collect the tax.[62] The 1/20th was given by the communa but probably hung in suspense at the king's request.[63]
37th[lower-alpha 2]28 March 1270n/a27 April 127020 August 1270?n/aOn second Tuesday after Easter a great Hoketide parliament met at Westminster, "nearly all the bishops, earls, barons, knights and free tenants of the whole of England."[64] The Commons finally agreed with the Lords to the one-twentieth on moveables tax demanded on 12 May. On 13 May, nine bishops read Pope Innocent IV's bull confirming the Charter Liberties (1245). They republished the Great Charters of 1225, and those of Westminster Hall (1253). The king ordered enforcement of the restrictions upon Jewish bonds.[65] Violence broke out in the hall among the disinherited: John de Warenne attacked Alan la Zouche, who later died of his wounds.
38th[lower-alpha 2]24 May 1272n/ac.>29 September 1272?n/aMet at Westminster, the last parliament of the reign.
  1. The presiding officer of the House of Commons was initially known as the "Prolocutor" and sometimes as the Parlour, but the term most often used was "Speaker" and this became the title always used from the 1540s onwards.
  2. No commoners were summoned.
  3. In the reign of King John knights came armed to police the parlement, but barons and nobles were not permitted to have weaponry in precincts of Westminster. The king wanted protection, but no violence, and no brawling. The lesser men were therefore noblesse oblige to the king's service in knight's fee.

Parliaments of Edward I

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsPresiding officer[lower-alpha 1]Note
1st27 December 1274127529 April 127519 June 12751unknownOriginally intended for 16 Feb, the quinzaine of Purification of the Blessed Mary, parliament was prorogued. For the first time since 1264–65 the representatives of the communities of the Realm are known to have been summoned to London a fortnight after the Close of Easter or Octave of Easter, which was one week after Easter Sunday. Parliament may have actually opened on 29 April or in the first week of May.[66] Edward I's first parliament enacted the Statute of Westminster. The session ended early because the King was ill. It was the first parliament in which burgesses were allowed to sit.
2nd7 October 1275127513 October 12755 November 12751unknownParliaments were granted in perpetuum. This one was probably held around Feast of St Luke the Evangelist (16 Oct). Almost every magnate attended; the knights of the shires only were summoned to this Parliament and not the burgesses met at Westminster on the 'Quinzaine of Michaelmas'.[67] The magna custuma of wool, wool-fells, and hides, and the Statute of Jewry.[68]
3rd[lower-alpha 2]n/a1 May 12763 June 1276?n/aMet at Westminster a Fortnight after Easter.
4th[lower-alpha 2]29 July 1276n/a>29 September 127618 November 12761unknownThe king arrived at Westminster on 11 October, a fortnight after Michaelmas. But on 15 November the Close Rolls were published. The Statute of Ragman was passed de justiciariis assignatis and was preceded in the same session by statute de Bigamis. Parliament was probably over when the King left on 18 November.
5thn/a1 May 1277?n/aMet at Westminster.
6th[lower-alpha 2]...n/a1 May 1278...?n/aMet at Gloucester "Three Weeks after Easter".[69]
7th[lower-alpha 2]...n/a8 July 1278...1n/aMet at Westminster. 61 petitions were submitted against royal officials in the localities. The phrase "the whole community of the realm" implies parliament has the right to raise taxation.
8th...n/a1 August 1278...1n/aParliament met at Gloucester. Statute of quo warranto proceedings was issued on the terms of Treaty of Conway against the Welsh Prince Llywelyn.[70][71]
9th[lower-alpha 2]...n/a29 September 1278...?n/aMet at Westminster.
10th[lower-alpha 2]...n/ac.16 April 1279...?n/aMet at Westminster after Easter. Statute of Mortmain ordered by the King to prevent land grants to the Church.
11th[lower-alpha 2]...n/ac.20 October 1279...?n/aMet at Westminster, they passed the important Statute of Religious Men.[72][73] Llywelyn mounts criminal defence at parliament with his proctors [attorneys].[74]
12th[lower-alpha 2]...n/ac.12 May 1280...1n/aMet at Westminster after Easter. The King denied using Writs of Prohibition on Grievances to prevent the collection of Tithes on the new mills. Llywelyn appealed to King's own 'statutes' in common law under Treaty of Conway. The prince said the raid on Meririonydd was "contrary to the peace and the king's statutes."[75] Llywelyn tried under law of Hywel Dda.[76]
13th[lower-alpha 2]10 June 1280n/ac.>29 September 1280...1n/aMet at Westminster, "under the seal of our Justiciar of Ireland".[77]
14th[lower-alpha 2]...n/ac.11 May 1281...1n/aMet at Westminster "a month after Easter."[78]
15th[lower-alpha 2]...n/ac.>29 September 1281...?n/a
16th30 May 1282n/a30 September 128210 November 1282?n/aThe king summoned the nobility during May from Acton Burnell Manor.[79] This parliament met at Shrewsbury. 10 earls and 100 barons were summoned using the military lists. Parliament was forced to move to Robert Burnell's estate at Acton Burnell. Edward returned during October and November to enact legislation, including the Statute of Acton Burnel begins work on the issue of debts and debtors.[80]
17th26 June 1283n/a30 September 1283...?n/asummoned by King Edward I at Rhuddlan Castle. 110 barons and 74 knights were called to Shrewsbury, but there was no room in the town, so they decamped 8 miles away to Acton Burnell, home of the Archdeacon of York, Robert Burnell, the new Lord Chancellor of England, and later Bishop of Bath and Wells. On 19 March, Edward issued great Statute of Wales...And we wish those laws and customs to be kept and observed in perpetuity in our lands in those parts...."[81][82]
18th...n/aDecember 1284...?n/aheld at Bristol.
19th[lower-alpha 2]...n/a4 May 1285...?n/aParliament met at Westminster. Second Statute of Westminster, 1285 and the Statute of Merchants.
20th...n/aMichaelmas 1285...?n/aIt was held at Winchester and known as the 'Great Council'. The Statute of Winchester began formalizing the criminal law. The Statute of Merchants recognised the problem of tackling debts. Lord Mayors to hear creditor cases; formulation of the scheme. royal writs made Statute of Gloucester, Statute of Mortmain, and Statute of Westminster applicable to governing law of Ireland.
21st[lower-alpha 2]...n/ac.>14 April 1286...?n/a
22nd[lower-alpha 2]...n/ac.24 April 1286...?n/awas held at London.
23rd[lower-alpha 2]...n/aFebruary 1289...?n/aA parliament was summoned in London but never took place.
24th[lower-alpha 2]...n/a>13 January 1290...?n/awas held at Westminster
25thEaster 1290129023 April 129016 July 1290?unknownKnights only summoned 13–14 June 1290. Assembled 23 April 1290 Lords and 15 July 1290 Commons. After this Parliament it became fairly usual for the representatives of the counties, cities and boroughs to be summoned to attend Parliament and from 1320 they were always included.
26th...129011 October 129011 November 12901A parliament was held at Clipstone, Nottinghamshire by King Edward in Sherwood Forest; it was the third that year. This royal manor had a hunting lodge, houses, chapel, mill, pool and park. on 25 October the magnates granted a tax of 1/15th on moveables, and Edward agreed Pope Honourius IV's plan to go on crusade to the Holy Land, because he had taken the cross at Blanquefort.[83]
27th...1290/917 January 129124 January 12911The King held parliament at Ashridge Palace, near the royal Berkhamsted Castle on Hertfordshire/Buckinghamshire boundary. 20 clerks (13 were priests) from the new college served the parliament, known as The Good Men of Ashridge. King saw justice was done in some difficult cases and one "there had never been the like."[84]
28th...?1 October 1291...?It met at Abergavenny. State trials of traitors in the Welsh Wars.[85] One of the 'exceptions' was the punitive fine of £10,000 marks on Gilbert, Earl of Gloucester, and 1,000 marks on Earl of Hereford. Gloucester challenged the King with Writ of scire facias, which was allowed on technical arguments. Edward said he "..had a much more arduous record excelling all his ministers...". But the writ was quashed by the inhibition proclamation (1290). Gloucester was forced to pay the crippling charge.[86]
29th6 May 12911291/928 January 1292...7unknownParliament met that summer on the green, on the banks of the river and in the king's chamber of Norham Castle, Northumberland, in the Palatinate of the Prince-bishop of Durham.[87] Most of the nobility was present both spiritual and temporal "a certain other prelates, earls, barons, magnates, nobles and commoners (populares)". The issue during June was suzerainty over Scotland. They discussed the civil war between Balliol and Bruce.
30th[lower-alpha 2]Jan 1292n/a2 June 1292...?n/aThis parliament included Scottish members; met at Westminster.
31st[lower-alpha 2]...n/a13 October 129217 November 12921n/aThis parliament at Westminster included Scottish members, who discussed Balliol's claim, upon which the king's representative, Roger Brabazon decided. On 20 November, Balliol swore fealty to King Edward I.
32nd...?1293>29 March 1293...?unknownParliament met at Easter.
33rd...129313 October 1293...?unknownMet at Westminster.
34th...129312 September 1294...?unknownFlorence of Worcester called it a parliamentum on 21 September.[88]
35th...12 November 1294...?The parliament met at Westminster, but the town burgesses were not present.[89]
36th[lower-alpha 2]24 June 1295n/a16 August 1295...?n/a53 barons were summoned.
37th30 September 1295129527 November 12954 December 1295?unknownModel Parliament summoned 41 barons on 30 September 1 and 3 October 1295; and a maximum of 62 'white Abbots' and 37 'black Abbots', by mainly Frankalmoign. This is the traditional start of the regular participation of the Commons in Parliament summoned Praemunientes, "in place of the communities of the counties." Sheriffs only sent representatives from towns and shires, and not the lower clergy.[90]
38th26 August 129612963 November 129629 November 1296?unknownHeld at Berwick-upon-Tweed.[91]
39th[lower-alpha 2]26 January 1297n/a24 February 1297...?n/aMet at Salisbury was dominated by Roger Bigod, Justiciar of England and Marshall of the King's Army; and Humphrey de Bohun, Constable of England.
40th[lower-alpha 2]8 May 1297n/a8 June 1297...?n/aMet at Westminster. The king addressed the public in person outside Westminster Hall. (the rebel earls called a parallel parliament at Northampton).
41st20 August 1297129715 September 129714 October 1297?unknownSummoned by the King to meet in his absence, after 24 August, when the Lords presented the Monstraunces. Those not on the expedition arrived at different times on 30 September 1297 (peers) and 6 October 1297 (knights of the shire) for a total of 170. Another 56 writs were despatched on 28 August.[92] Assembled 9 October 1297 Lords and 15 October 1297 Commons met in London. Earl of Norfolk's party held their own rival parliament at Northampton.[93] The King issued a pardon to Norfolk and Hereford.[94][lower-alpha 3]
42nd14 October 129714 January 1298...?unknownMet in York granted the King a 1/5th tax for his army in Flanders "because they were nearer the danger."[95][96] Scottish peers were summoned by failed to appear. Another muster was called to York for 25 May "colloquium et tractatus with the earls, barons, and proceres regni of our realm."
43rd10 April 1298129825 May 1298...?unknownSummoned 10, 11 and 13 April 1298, Parliament met at York. On 10 April knights and burgesses also summoned. Edward intended it to confirm victory in Scotland.[97]
44th[lower-alpha 2]6 February 1299n/a8 March 1299...?n/aSummoned to Westminster; recess in April for perambulation of the forest; parliament reconvened that May. Sittings sent east for safety to Stepney, Essex.[98]
45th[lower-alpha 2]10 April 1299n/a3 May 1299...?n/aJuly 1297, The Earls draft Remonstrances, being complaints against the King. They present De Tallagio a principle opposition against raising arbitrary taxation. Confirmatio Cartarum requires the King to reaffirm the promises made in Magna Carta.
46th[lower-alpha 2]21 September 1299n/a18 October 1299...?n/aTen English earls, Scots earls of Angus and Dunbar, and 97 barons were summoned to York, to muster for knights service against the Scots.[99]
47th29 December 12991299/006 March 130020 March 130030 April 1300unknown11 earls, 99 barons, 38 judges and officials, all the archbishops and bishops, and praemunientes (representatives) of the lower clergy met at Westminster. Writs were also sent to about 60 abbots, the Gilbertines, Templars, Hospitallers, knights of shire, and burgesses were also summoned. On 28 March Charters were confirmed. Edward granted 20 Articles known as articuli super cartas; in return 1/20th was granted.[100]
48th26 September 13001300/0120 January 130130 February 1301n/aRoger BrabazonEdward advised Canterbury that parliament must consider the Papal Bull.[101] Met in Lincoln. Dissolved 27–30 January 1301. Nadir of Edward I's reign. Parliament was held at Lincoln. 17 abbots drew exempt certificates. 9 earls, 80 barons, 23 judges and court officials. The Commons were the same as summoned in previous parliament minus the deceased. Perambulation reports were submitted for Charter of Forests, in 22 constituencies where representatives were paid expenses.[102] Earl of Lincoln was sent on embassy to Rome. Brabazon was appointed 'spokesman of the King'. Without "disinheriting the Crown ...a bill of the prelates and magnates presented to the King on behalf of the whole community in the parliament at Lincoln."[103] A 1/15th tax was granted. on 30 January the Commons were dismissed.
49th[lower-alpha 2]2 June 1302n/a1 July 1302...?n/aKing Edward I held the parliament at Kilkenny, Ireland. All the bishops, earls, 44 abbots, and 83 barons were summoned.[104]
50th14 July 1302130229 September 130221 October 1302?unknownAll usual parliaments were summoned 14, 20 and 24 July 1302, except the lower clergy. Met in London. On 7 November the King's writ demanded feudal aid uncollected from 1290.[105]
51st25 June 1303...?n/a42 representatives from London and other towns joined the Lords at York. They agreed to an increase in the Levy on Wool and the Customs Duties.[106] On 21 March Lords were prorogued by the King; but parliament was still in session on 6 April.
52nd12 November 13041304/0528 February 130520 March 1305?unknownEdward demanded taxation for his war in Scotland, "...the king of his grace would command that they should have their scutages as the king and his council shall ordain...and others who owe the king service on Knights fees. Edward petitioned the Lords to grant Tallage.[107] Nicholas de Segrave was tried in Lords "charged upon their homage, fealty and allegiance, to advise him faithfully what he should be the penalty" for cowardice. Segrave humbly begged forgiveness admitting guilt. The penalty was death, which was commuted to imprisonment, 8 barons were soon released on recognizances. 3 "discreet men" were among the knights summoned were royal officials of Exchequer. Parliament was held at York House, now Whitehall.
53rd[lower-alpha 2]26 March 1305n/a15 July 130515 September 1305?unknownmet at London. After several prorogations the king arrived on 24 September. They discussed "an ordinance for the settlement of Scotland."[108]
54th5 April 1306130630 May 130630 May 1306?unknownAssembled at Westminster a week after Whit Sunday. A full parliament met and dissolved 30 May 1306. Four abbesses were summoned. Parliament was expected to grant a feudal aid; and a normal tax on movables was granted. "Citizens and burgesses and communities of all the cities and boroughs of the realm and the tenants of our demesne." The Commons voted 1/20th. There were two proxy summons.[109]
55th3 November 13061306/0720 January 130731 March 1307?unknownWrits sent from Lanercost Priory. Parliament met in Carlisle to "treat of the ordering and settling of the land of Scotland...and the state of his kingdom."[110] Bishop of Winchester was excused long distance to travel. A full parliament was writ including 2 knights of shire and 2 burgesses from every city and borough.[111] Deemed dissolved when writs de expensis were issued 20 January 1307 (burgesses only), and 19 March 1307 (knights only). On 20 March the Statute of Carlisle was sealed.
  1. The presiding officer of the House of Commons was initially known as the "Prolocutor" and sometimes as the Parlour, but the term most often used was "Speaker" and this became the title always used from the 1540s onwards.
  2. No commoners were summoned.
  3. the dates for the summons of the parliament are highly tendentious: EC, 36-42. Documents illustrating the Crisis of 1297-8 in England, ed. M.Prestwich, CS 4th ser.24(1980). The British Library manuscripts cite 10 October 1297 as the first day.

Parliaments of Edward II

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsPresiding Officer[lower-alpha 1]Note
1st26 August 1307130713 October 130716 October 1307?unknownMet at Northampton. Statute of Winchester was finally sent to Ireland.[112]
2nd19 January 130813083 March 1308...?unknownOn 25 February 1308, Edward II was unlawfully crowned by the Bishop of Winchester during a parliamentary sitting, in absence of Archbishop of Canterbury. The nobles signed a secret agreement at Boulogne to work together; it immediately challenged royal authority. Baronial coercion of the king was treason, punishable by death; a recension of the Ordo of the coronation oath.
3rd[lower-alpha 2]19 January 1308n/a3 March 1308...?n/aElder statesman the Earl of Lincoln drafts document declaring allegiance is owed to the Crown, and not ad personam the king. Prorogued to quindene 28 April 1308. The Earl of Lincoln's Homage et serment was a tirade against Piers Gaveston, the king's friend. Archbishop Winchelsey excommunicated Gaveston for disinheriting and impoverishing the Crown.[113]
4th[lower-alpha 2]16 August 1308n/a20 October 1308...?n/a
5th4 March 1309130927 April 130913 May 1309?unknown"The Community of the Realm" met at Westminster. A new list of 81 baronial names was drawn up for the Lords. There were deep grievances against the articles about illegal courts and misuse of writs, but quite how this was the sole concern of knights and burgesses, historians have never discovered, since they may have been drawn up as petitions "by a combination of knights, burgesses, and magnates."[114]
6th[lower-alpha 2]11 June 1309n/a27 July 1309...?n/aThe Stamford assembly summoned the lay barons and higher clergy. On 20 August, the king issued the Statute of Stamford. Writs were issued for the 1/25th tax to be collected, but Gloucester, Lincoln and Cornwall petitioned the king. Gloucester assisted the king in mediating life earldom of Cornwall for Gaveston with House of Lords.[115] Lincoln persuaded Warenne to accept Gaveston's peerage.[116]
7th[lower-alpha 2]26 October 1309n/a8 February 131012 April 1310?n/aParliament that met at Westminster was served with petition against the disinheritance and dishonour of the King and his power. Preamble warned against the squandering of it. 1/20th was awarded for war with Scots.[117]
8th16 June 131113118 August 131118 December 1311?unknownMet in London. The New Ordinances were drafted and completed within time allotted of 18 months. Preliminary ordinances included maintenance of church franchisees, ordered observance of Magna Carta. Three substantive clauses tackled the King's debts. Customs dues were reserved for natives, and delivered to the Exchequer. Clause 34 and 38 regulated unfairness in courts. On 5 October, the king signed all the clauses into law. Ordinances were a short-lived victory for Lancaster.[118]
9th3 June 1312131220 August 131216 December 13122unknownOriginally to meet on 23 July, but delayed for a month when it met at Westminster. Although prohibited (4 Aug.) to bear arms, magnates marched towards London on 16 August. The anti-pope's two envoys invited to attend. French clerks drafted Edward's objections to Ordinances based on legal precedents in the Mise of Amiens (1264). Prima Tractation as Pacem Confirmandam and the Rationes Baronum were signed in the Cardinal's room in London on 20 December 1312.[119] On the last day the king imposed a Tallage of 1/10th and 1/15th on movables, although collection of revenue payments was very slow.
10th8 January 1313131318 March 13139 May 1313?unknownThe king, who was at Windsor, feigned illness. The magnates failed to appear in person.[120]
11th23 May 131313138 July 131327 July 1313?unknownAbortive parliament was summoned but did not sit.
12th26 July 1313131323 September 131315 November 13132unknownTaxation granted due to be collected by 24 June 1314. Edward II issued writ of summons to meet on 21 April 1314, intended to discuss Scotland further. The parliament was not held in the end, Edward cancelled it on 24 March.
13th29 July 131413149 September 131427/28 September 1314?unknown88 lay magnates summoned to attend the Lords. Grant of 1/15th was made. Clerical 1/10th sent for urgently to pay for war in Scotland.
14th24 October 13141314/1520 January 13159 March 1315?unknownMet at Lincoln. This parliament heard a list of grievances. An historical list of complaints about the clergy, Articuli Cleri, was presented. Grants of land to the church were prohibited by mortmain. On 4 December, the Exchequer was required to list all gifts and grants contrary to ordinances. Twelve northern Lords excused.
15th16 October 13151315/1627 January 131620 February 1316?unknownThe Parliament of 1316 was delayed five months before it finally met in Lincoln.[121] The full parliament did not get underway until Thomas, Earl of Lancaster arrived on 12 February 1316.[122] Lancaster was interrogated, pardoned, and the petition was heard. Exemptions were granted to six abbots.
16th1317?unknownThe Lincoln Parliament witnessed the king's clash with rebellious barons led by Lancaster, who was summoned but never showed up.
17th27 January 1318n/aIn theory Parliament was summoned to Lincoln, but it was twice postponed on 12 March and 26 June. The writs were abandoned, probably because of the Scots invasion. The Earl of Lancaster and the Earl of Warenne were in a feud. On 8 June, Lancaster demanded all his lands in Yorkshire and north Wales must be returned by reversion.
18thn/a12 April 1318?unknownThe parliament met at Leicester on the Wednesday before Palm Sunday. It was a "parliament" in a technical sense because the king was not present. The archbishop, five bishops, three earls, and 28 barons attended. The two despensers and 200 armed knights were to be retained by Lancaster for life. Lancaster and the earls wanted the king to accept the "Ordinances" safeguarding their lands and estates. Pembroke and Hereford were sympathetic to Lancaster; the other magnates were Curialists. On 8 June, the king yielded to approving the Leicester Agreement in principle. The commission's articles of ordinance was not repealed; but there was no prohibition of others save by barons consent in Parliament. Lancaster made usual complaints about "evil counsellors".
19th24–25 August 1318131820 October 13189 December 1318?unknownParliament convened at York on 15 August 1318, the archbishop excommunicated Robert the Bruce for capture of Norham Castle and garrison. It aimed to implement the Treaty of Leake where the "conciliar system" was tested by Lancaster, so that it did not embarrass the king. Bishops in Middle Party wanted peace above all else. Lancaster finally turned up to answer charges against him: was acquitted, if he dropped the mitigation claims. On 16 November, per concilium Middle Party replaced Hereford and Pembroke's candidate Walwayn as Treasurer after only five months in office. On 6 December, the Ordinance of York became the Statute of York, Treasurer Northburgh was sent to London to treat with the Curia Regis "de statu hospicii."[123] Lancaster was paid for 'debts' owed for king's service.[124]
20th20 March 131913196 May 131925 May 13191unknownParliament met at York. On 10 June, parliament ordered the muster at Newcastle. Lancaster assumed the Stewardship and brought an armed retinue to York. Lancaster relied on the stewardship being hereditary.
21st[lower-alpha 2]6 November 1319n/a20 January 1320...?n/aParliament summoned to York confined to clergy and baronage; it did not have the authority to call a truce with the Scots. In cameris the Lords met locus occultus - in secret chambers without the Commons. But two archbishops, sixteen bishops, thirty abbots and priors, nine earls and 98 barons, judges, knights, or burgesses.
22nd5 August 132013206 October 132025/26 October 1320?unknownThe king's character was very much under keen scrutiny. The archbishop, 17 suffragans, earls, barons, and lords were present. Edward II was highly praised by Cardinal Vitale Dufour, the papal legate.
23rd15 May 1321132115 July 132122 August 1321?unknownKnown as the Parliament of Whitebands, only 38 barons were summoned, after the Lancastrians defeat. A new baronial list included 8 new names: Hereford had converted to Lancaster's side. Tract of the Office of the Steward was a process against the Despensers, and attempt to remove evil counsellors over the head of the king.
24th14 March 132213222 May 132219 May 1322?unknownThe Convocation was assembled by the Archbishop while the king insisted all clergy should attend.[125] It was "an astonishing sight and sound", thought the Abbot of Peterborough, since Edward's summons had "caused great offence."[126]
25th18 September 1322132214 November 132229 November 1322?unknownMet in York.
26th20 November 13231323/2423 February 132418 March 1324?unknown49 barons were summoned, but parliament at Westminster was substituted and Colloquium abandoned.
27th6 May 1325132525 June 1325...?unknownOnly MPs for the Cinque Ports were summoned with the 50 barons. The parliament that met in London was twice prorogued.
28th10 October 1325132518 November 13255 December 1325?unknownThe last parliament that accepted the knight representatives of the King Edward II's Seal.[127] Owing to the war with France only 38 barons were able to attend. Parliament ordered the confiscation of Queen Isabella's estates, after she had escaped her guardian to flee to France.
29th14 December 13261326/277 January 1327...?William TrussellThis Westminster parliament continued after the deposition of the king on 13 January (Feast of St Hilary), included 46 barons of whom only 26 had sat in 1325, as well as twenty magnates and nineteen abbots and priors.[128] It was the first parliament in which members were paid to sit. According to the Lichfield Chronicler it was not technically a parliament without the king's presence. On 24 January, Roger Mortimer reported the king's abdication to Parliament. The next day Parliament sat in stunned silence as a deputation that included Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster read out the abdication notice and Edward III was acclaimed king for a second time. Edward was crowned by Parliament on 1 February 1327. Some historians believe Forma Deposicionis took place in parliamento.[129]
  1. The presiding officer of the House of Commons was initially known as the "Prolocutor" and sometimes as the Parlour, but the term most often used was "Speaker" and this became the title always used from the 1540s onwards.
  2. No commoners were summoned.

Parliaments of Edward III

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsPresiding Officer[lower-alpha 1]Note
1st.........9 March 1327?William TrussellContinued from the last reign.
2nd7 August 1327132715 September 132723 September 1327?William TrussellWestminster was very poorly attended, absentees cited war with the Scots.
3rd10 December 13271327/287 February 13285 March 1328?unknownMet at Lincoln. 'The Great Council' that met at Winchester also included some of the Commons summoned as well as the Lords, as a continuation of Edward II's parliaments.[130]
4th5 March 1328132824 April 132814 May 1328?unknownMet at Northampton, and moved on to Council at York (July 1328).[131]
5th28 August 1328132816 October 132822 February 13291unknownMay have met at Salisbury, The Justice Eyre (of 1294) was revived and adjourned to Westminster for February 1329. Escaping execution for treason, Lancaster was fined Cognizance of £10,000, but it was never paid. Lancaster's insistence upon upholding Ordinances brought England to the brink of civil war.
6th25 January 1330133011 March 133021 March 1330?unknownMet at York.
7th23 October 1330133026 November 13309 December 1330?unknownMet at New Sarum (Salisbury).
8th16 July 1331133130 September 13319 October 1331?unknownParliament met at Westminster where a violent quarrel broke out between Lords Zouche and Grey; Zouche was wounded and both bound over to keep the peace. But Grey was pardoned by the magnates.[132]
9th27 January 1332133216 March 133221 March 1332?Henry de BeaumontMet at Winchester. A list of 31 abbots and priors was added to Parliaments of 1330s. Writs of Praemunientes were sent to the bishops and Mandamus to the two archbishops.[133] The Proctors of Clergy (31 abbots and priors) attended.
10th20 July 133213329 September 133212 September 1332?Sir Geoffrey le Scropemet at Westminster, the king abandoned the Tallage of 1/14th of movables and 1/9th of revenues. The King wanted to hear petitions in the North, and to deal with the Scots. On 12 September expenses were ordered paid to knights of shire. Citizens and burgesses granted 1/10th on movables.[134] John Darcy was appointed Justiciar of Ireland (1332-7) and dropped from the baronial lists in parliament.[135]
11th20 October 133213324 December 133227 January 13332unknownGeoffrey Scrope, Chief Justice acted as the 'King's spokesman' in Commons. Prelates and lay barons deliberated together in one chamber for first recorded occasion. The Lords were ordered to collect Feudal aid for expenses of the King's daughter's wedding.[136]
12th2 January 1334133421 February 13342 March 1334?unknown...
13th24 July 1334133419 September 133423 September 1334?unknownMet at York. Another 1/15th and 1/10th was granted.
14th1 April 1335133526 May 13353 June 1335?unknownMet at York.
15th22 January 1336133611 March 133620 March 1336?unknownMet at York.
16th29 November 13361336/373 March 1337c.16 March 1337?unknown...
17th20 December 13371337/383 February 133814 February 1338?unknownMet at Northampton.
18th15 November 13381338/393 February 133917 February 1339?unknown...
19th25 August 1339133913 October 1339c.3 November 1339?unknownMet at Northampton.
20th16 November 13391339/4020 January 134019 February 13401William TrussellCommons agreed to make a grant to the king but not without first consulting their constituents. The King wanted to go to war, and so had asked Lords to pressurise the Commons en chargeaunce manere.[137]
21st21 February 1340134029 March 134010 May 13401William Trussell...
22nd30 May 1340134012 July 134026 July 1340?William Trussellthe Grandees consulted with chivalers des countees (knights of the shire) and marchandz in the Commons to raise a loan on Wool staples.[138]
23rd3 March 1341134123 April 134127–28 May 1341?unknown...
24th24 February 1343134328 April 134320 May 1343?William Trussell...
25th20 April 134413447 June 134428 June 1344?unknown...
26th30 July 1346134611 September 134620 September 1346?unknownInstrument that drew up taxes was usually Indenture by "the Commons with the assent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal" until 1399 when the Commons became more independent on the usurpation with Parliament's consent.[139]
27th13 November 13471347/4814 January 134812 February 1348?William de Thorpe21 bishops and 30 lay magnates met on the baronial lists. 4 new bannerets were "new men" made from knights.
28th14 February 1348134831 March 134813 April 1348?William de ThorpeThe same baronial list was summoned. Another parliament was planned for January 1349, but was cancelled.[140] No parliament was held in 1349 due to bubonic and pneumonic plague.
29th25 November 13501350/519 February 13511 March 1351?William de Shareshull...
30th15 November 13511351/5213 January 135211 February 1352?William de Shareshull...
31st15 March 1354135428 April 135420 May 1354?unknown...
32nd20 September 1355135523 November 135530 November 1355?unknown...
33rd15 February 1357135717 April 13578–16 May 1357?unknown...
34th15 December 13571357/585 February 135827 February 1358?unknownSeven bishops, six abbots, two priors, a dean, seven earls, four judges, and 68 barons made up the House of Lords to a total of 101. They helped negotiate the Treaty of Calais (1360).
35th3 April 1360136015 May 1360...?unknown...
36th20 November 13601360/6124 January 136118 February 1361?unknown...
37th14 August 1362136213 October 136217 November 1362?Sir Henry Green...
38th1 June 136313636 October 136330 October 1363?unknown...
39th4 December 13641364/6520 January 136517 February 1365?unknown...
40th20 January 136613664 May 136611 May 1366?unknown...
41st24 February 136813681 May 136821 May 1368?unknown...
42nd6 April 136913693 June 136911 June 1369?unknown...
43rd8 January 1371137124 February 137129 March 1371?unknown...
44th1 September 137213723 November 137224 November 1372?unknown...
45th4 October 1373137321 November 137310 December 1373?unknownLords met in the White Chamber, Commons met in the Painted Chamber. Intercommuning took place in the Lord Chamberlain's Chambers.
46th28 December 13751375/7628 April 137610 July 1376?Sir Peter de la MareKnown as the Good Parliament. Met at Westminster in the Painted Chamber "the commons, together and with one accord assembled, came before the king, prelates, and lords in the parliament chamber" known for the first time as "the house of parliament."[141] Intercommuning took place by Commons invitation asked for a deputation of Lords to discuss the Chancellor's opening speech on 2 May.[142]
47th1 December 13761376/7727 January 13772 March 1377?Sir Thomas Hungerford[lower-alpha 2]Known as the Bad Parliament.[143]
  1. The presiding officer of the House of Commons was initially known as the "Prolocutor" and sometimes as the Parlour, but the term most often used was "Speaker" and this became the title always used from the 1540s onwards.
  2. Hungerford was the first presiding officer of the Commons to be recorded as having the title of Speaker.

Parliaments of Richard II

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeakerNote
1st4 August 1377137713 October 13775 December 1377?Sir Peter de la Mare...
2nd3 September 1378137820 October 137816 November 1378?Sir James PickeringMet at Gloucester. First occasion of a speaker's 'protestation'.
3rd16 February 1379137924 April 137927 May 1379?unknown...
4th20 October 13791379/8016 January 13803 March 1380?Sir John Guildesborough...
5th26 August 138013805 November 13806 December 1380?Sir John GuildesboroughMet at Northampton. The Commons worked closely with the Lords to produce a poll tax at three groats per head: one-third was found by the clergy; but the Commons rate was lower than the five groats demanded by the Lords, proving the Commons authority over taxation.[144]
6th16 July 138113813 November 138125 February 1382?Sir Richard Waldegrave...
7th24 March 138213827 May 138222 May 1382...Sir Richard WaldegraveMet at Westminster.
8th9 August 138213826 October 138224 October 1382?Sir Richard Waldegrave...
9th7 January 1383138323 February 138310 March 1383?Sir James Pickering...
10th20 August 1383138326 October 138326 November 1383??...
11th3 March 1384138429 April 138427 May 1384??This session was held at Salisbury in the bishop's palace. A delegation of three bishops, three earls, three barons, and three royal brothers were intercommuning with the Commons assembled. The noisy, more numerous Commons visited the Lords' chamber.
12th28 September 1384138412 November 138414 December 1384??...
13th3 September 1385138520 October 13856 December 1385??...
14th8 August 138613861 October 138628 November 13861?Known as the Wonderful Parliament.
15th17 December 13871387/883 February 13884 June 13882?Known as the Merciless Parliament or the Miraculous Parliament.
16th28 July 138813889 September 138817 October 13881?92 knights and burgesses joined 54 returners from the Merciless Parliament when they met at Cambridge; but 104 were newcomers. A majority of the leaders were still in favour of Lords Appellant, 26 of whom had received a royal pardon.
17th6 December 13891389/9017 January 13902 March 13901?...
18th12 September 1390139012 November 13903 December 13901?...
19th7 September 139113913 November 13912 December 13911unknownMet at Westminster.
20th23 November 13921392/9320 January 139310 February 13931unknownMet at Winchester.
21st13 November 13931393/9427 January 13946 March 13941Sir John BussyMet at Westminster.
22nd20 November 13941394/9527 January 139515 February 13951Sir John BussyMet at Westminster.
23rd30 November 13961396/9722 January 139712 February 13971Sir John BussyThis session was held at Westminster.
24th18 July 1397139717 September 139731 January 13982Sir John BussyTwo sessions were held, one at Westminster and another session met at Shrewsbury. The Earl of Arundel was put on trial 'before his peers' in the Lords for treason. St Albans Chronicler complained the king had 'packed' the Commons with the court's knights of the shire. Many new sheriffs were Crown appointees in Sept 1397; the court's supporters were accused of intimidation and retaliation on the king's behalf. Sir John Russel and Sir Ivo Fitzwaryn could easily manipulate the less experienced members.
25th19 August 1399139930 September 139930 September 13991Sir Henry de RetfordParliament met at Westminster the day after Richard II's abdication. It was used as the instrument of his deposition. Bolingbroke summoned a second parliament to meet less than a week later. Sir Henry de Retford was elected by this parliament on 3 October; Henry IV crowned on 13 October.

Parliaments of Henry IV

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeakerNote
1st30 September 139913996 October 139919 November 13991Sir John CheyneSummoned by Henry IV it was known as a Convention Parliament. Henry was crowned as quickly as possible on 13 October.
John Doreward
2nd9 September 14001400/0120 January 140110 March 14011Sir Arnold SavageCalled to meet at York, then prorogued, it actually met at Westminster.
3rd19 June 1402140230 September 140225 November 14021Sir Henry RedfordCommons intercommune with Lords as the new century sees more co-operation between the two houses, but not without the King's Special Grace.[145]
4th20 October 14031403/0414 January 140420 March 14041Sir Arnold Savage...
5th25 August 1404140416 October 140413 November 14041Sir William EsturmyKnown as the Unlearned Parliament, the Lawless Parliament.[146] The Parliament of Dunces or Parliamentum Indoctorum met at Coventry.
6th21 December 14051405/061 March 140622 December 14063Sir John TiptoftKnown as the Long Parliament.; the autumn session was held at Gloucester.[147]
7th26 August 1407140720 October 14072 December 14071Thomas ChaucerMet at Gloucester. The first occasion Lords and Commons clashed over primacy and initiating money bills. Lord Chancellor made opening speech on 24 October in the place of the King; but intercommuning did not take place until Monday, 14 November.[148]
8th26 October 14091409/1027 January 14109 May 14102Thomas Chaucer...
9th21 September 141114113 November 141119 December 14111Thomas Chaucer...
10th1 December 14121412/133 February 141320 March 14131unknown...

Parliaments of Henry V

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeakerNote
1st22 March 1413141314 May 14139 June 14131William Stourton...
John Doreward
2nd1 December 14131413/1430 April 141429 May 14141Sir Walter HungerfordKnown as the Fire and Faggot Parliament. Met at Greyfriars Priory, Leicester.
3rd26 September 1414141419 November 1414...1Thomas Chaucer...
4th12 August 141514154 November 141512 November 14151Sir Richard RedmanKnown as the Parliament of 1415 it was the shortest of medieval English history.[149]
5th21 January 1416141616 March 1416May 14162Sir Walter Beauchamp...
6th3 September 1416141619 October 141618 November 14161Roger Flower...
7th5 October 1417141716 November 141717 December 14171Roger Flower...
8th24 August 1419141916 October 141913 November 14191Roger Flower...
9th21 October 142014202 December 1420...1Roger Hunt...
10th26 February 142114212 May 1421...1Thomas ChaucerKing Henry V was present in person made his assent known with words Le roi le voet, de Passent des seignurs...esteantz en ceste parlament, et a la requeste des ditz Communes, sicome est desiree par la dite petition en toutz points. This led in 1429 statute to the historic 40 shilling qualification until 1832.[150]
11th20 October 142114211 December 1421...1Richard Baynard...

Parliaments of Henry VI

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeakerNote
1st29 September 142214229 November 142218 December 14221Roger FlowerIn this reign Parliaments were opened with French phrase Soit fait come il est desire.
2nd1 September 1423142320 October 142328 February 14242John RussellRoll derives the long form Soit il come est desire par la petition.[151]
3rd24 February 1425142530 April 142514 July 14252Sir Thomas Walton
4th7 January 1426142618 February 14261 June 14262Sir Richard VernonParliament of Bats. Met at Leicester.
5th15 July 1427142713 October 142725 March 14282Sir John Tyrrell...
6th12 July 1429142922 September 142923 February 14302William Alington...
7th27 November 14301430/3112 January 143120 March 14311Sir John Tyrrell...
8th25 February 1432143212 May 143217 July 14321Sir John Russell...
9th24 May 143314338 July 1433>c.18 December 14332Roger Hunt...
10th5 July 1435143510 October 143523 December 14351John Bowes...
11th29 October 14361436/3721 January 143727 March 14371Sir John Tyrrell...
William Burley
12th26 September 1439143912 November 1439c.15–24 February 14402William Tresham...
13th3 December 14411441/4225 January 144227 March 14421William Tresham...
14th13 January 1445144525 February 14459 April 14454William Burley...
15th14 December 14461446/4710 February 14473 March 14471William Tresham...
16th2 January 1449144912 February 144916 July 14493Sir John Say...
17th23 September 144914496 November 1449c.5–8 June 14504Sir John Popham...
William Tresham
18th5 September 145014506 November 1450c.24–31 May 14513Sir William Oldhall...
19th20 January 145314536 March 1453c.16–21 April 14544Thomas Thorpe...
Sir Thomas Charlton
20th26 May 145514559 July 145512 March 1456?Sir John Wenlock...
21st9 October 1459145920 November 145920 December 1459?Sir Thomas TreshamParliament of Devils. Met at Coventry.
22nd30 July 146014607 October 1460c.4 March 1461?John GreenPasses Act of accord in October 1460
James Strangeways of West Harlsey and Whorlton.
23rd15 October 1470147026 November 1470c. 11 April 1471?unknownThis Parliament was held during a period when King Henry VI was restored to the throne. It ended when King Edward IV deposed Henry for the second time.

Parliaments of Edward IV

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeakerNote
1st23 May 146114614 November 14616 May 14622James StrangewaysParliament announced the new king and attainted the old, reversing all the legislation against the Yorkist claim. It annulled the compromise of 1459 drawn up in Coventry. It enabled the arrest and detention of Lancastrian enemies at Edward's request. The Lancastrian stronghold of Harlech Castle was captured, and the session ended on 21 December. Another session opened on 6 May 1462, but the king and nobles were absent, so Archbishop Bourchier dissolved it.[152]
2nd22 December 14621462/6329 April 146328 March 1465?John SayOn petition Indenture by Statute of 1465 transferred taxation directly to Treasurer of Calais until city's loss in 1558. Subsidy-indentures became common after 1465.
3rd28 February 146714673 June 14677 June 1468?John Say
4th19 August 147214726 October 147214 March 14757William AllingtonIn 1473 Indenture could not be 'granted' because the specific presence of the King was required for such petitions.[153]
5th20 November 14771477/7816 January 147826 February 14781William Allington
6th15 November 14821482/8320 January 148318 February 14831John Wood

Parliament of Richard III

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeaker
1st9 December 14831483/8423 January 148420 February 14841William Catesby

Parliaments of Henry VII

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeaker
1st15 September 148514857 November 1485c. 4 March 14861Thomas Lovell
2nd...14879 November 1487c. 18 December 14871John Mordaunt
3rd...?1488/8913 January 148927 February 14901Thomas fitzWilliam
4th12 August 1491149117 October 14915 March 14921Richard Empson
5th15 September 1495149514 October 149521–22 December 14951Robert Drury
6th20 November 14961496/9716 January 149713 March 14971Thomas Englefield
7th...?1503/0425 January 1504c. 1 April 15041Edmund Dudley

Parliaments of Henry VIII

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeakerNote
1st17 October 15091509/1021 January 151023 February 15101Thomas Englefield...
2nd28 November 15111511/124 February 15124 March 15144Robert Sheffield...
3rd23 November 15141514/155 February 151522 December 15152Thomas Neville...
4th...152315 April 152313 August 15233Thomas MoreKnown as the Black Parliament[154]
5th9 August 152915293 November 152914 April 15369Thomas AudleyReformation Parliament
Humphrey Wingfield
Richard Rich
6th27 April 153615368 June 153618 July 15361Richard Rich...
7th1 March 1539153928 April 153924 July 15403Nicholas Hare...
8th23 November 15411541/4216 January 154228 March 15443Thomas Moyle...
9th1 December 15441544/4523 November 154531 January 15472Thomas Moyle...

Parliaments of Edward VI

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeaker
1st2 August 154715474 November 154715 April 15524Sir John Baker
2nd5 January 155315531 March 155331 March 15531James Dyer

Parliaments of Mary I

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeaker
1st14 August 155315535 October 15535 December 15531Sir John Pollard
2nd17 February 155415542 April 15543 May 15541Robert Broke
3rd3 October 1554155412 November 155416 January 15551Clement Higham
4th3 September 1555155521 October 15559 December 15551Sir John Pollard
5th6 December 15571557/5820 January 155817 November 15582William Cordell

Parliaments of Elizabeth I

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeaker
1st5 December 15581558/5923 January 15598 May 15591Thomas Gargrave
2nd10 November 15621562/6311 January 15632 January 15672Thomas Williams
Richard Onslow
3rd17 February 157115712 April 157129 May 15711Christopher Wray
4th28 March 157215728 May 157219 April 15833Robert Bell
John Popham
5th12 October 1584158423 November 158414 September 15852John Puckering
6th15 September 1586158615 October 158623 March 15872John Puckering
7th18 September 15881588/894 February 158929 March 15891Thomas Snagge
8th4 January 1593159318 February 159310 April 15931Edward Coke
9th23 August 1597159724 October 15979 February 15982Christopher Yelverton
10th11 September 1601160127 October 160119 December 16011John Croke

Parliaments of James I

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeakerNote
1st31 January 1604160419 March 16049 February 16115[155]Sir Edward Phelips[156]Blessed Parliament
2nd19 February 161416145 April 16147 June 16141[157]Sir Randolph Crewe[156]Addled Parliament[157]
3rd13 November 1620162116 January 16218 February 16222[158]Sir Thomas Richardson[156]
4th30 December 1623162412 February 162427 March 16251[159]Sir Thomas Crewe[156]Happy Parliament[160]

Parliaments of Charles I

The Long Parliament, which commenced in this reign, had the longest term and the most complex history of any English Parliament. The entry in the first table below relates to the whole Parliament. Although it rebelled against King Charles I and continued to exist long after the King's death, it was a Parliament he originally summoned. An attempt has been made to set out the different phases of the Parliament in the second table in this section and in subsequent sections. The phases are explained in a note.

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeakerNote
1st2 April 1625162517 May 162512 August 16252[161]Sir Thomas Crewe[156]Useless Parliament[162]
2nd26 December 162516266 February 162615 June 16261[163]Heneage Finch[156]...
3rd31 January 1628162817 March 162810 March 16292[164]John Finch[156]Supplanted by Personal Rule
4th20 February 1640164013 April 16405 May 16401John GlanvilleShort Parliament
5th24 September 164016403 November 164016 March 1660...William LenthallLong Parliament[lower-alpha 1]
Henry Pelham
William Lenthall
William Say (Deputy)
William Lenthall
  1. Speakers of the Long Parliament (including times when it sat as the Rump Parliament): Lenthall 3 November 1640 – 26 July 1647; Pelham 30 July 1647 – 5 August 1647; Lenthall 6 August 1647 – 20 April 1653 (restored to the Chair by the Army and sat until Oliver Cromwell dissolved the Rump Parliament) and 26 December 1653 – 13 January 1660 (when the Rump was restored); Say 13 January 1660 – 21 January 1660 and Lenthall 21 January 1660 – 16 March 1660.

The Long Parliament (Royalist phases)

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeakerNote
5th 'a'[lower-alpha 1]24 September 164016403 November 164021 August 16421William LenthallLong Parliament
5th 'c'[lower-alpha 2]......22 January 164410 March 16452Sampson EureKing's Oxford Parliament
  1. Phase 'a' of the Long Parliament was when it functioned as a conventional Parliament, requiring the assent of King Charles I to legislation. An unusual feature was that a law was enacted providing that this Parliament could not be lawfully dissolved without its own consent. This phase ended when the King raised his standard (22 August 1642) and commenced the English Civil War. The day before this event is the date inserted in the Dissolved column.
  2. Phase 'c' of the Long Parliament was the King's Oxford Parliament. The King was unable to lawfully dissolve the Long Parliament, without its consent, so he summoned the members to meet at Oxford. Royalists and those interested in trying to settle the Civil War by compromise attended the meetings, which were in opposition to the revolutionary body (phase 'b' of the Long Parliament, see below) sitting concurrently at Westminster. The date of the first meeting is given in the Assembled column and of the last sitting in the Dissolved column.

Parliaments of the Revolution and Commonwealth

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeakerNote
1st 'b'......22 August 16425 December 16481William LenthallLong Parliament[lower-alpha 1]
Henry Pelham
William Lenthall
1st 'd'......6 December 164820 April 16531William LenthallRump Parliament[lower-alpha 2]
2nd20 June 1653n/a4 July 165312 December 16531Francis RousBarebone's Parliament[lower-alpha 3]
  1. This was phase 'b' of the Long Parliament, when it functioned as a revolutionary Parliament, after the start of the English Civil War. Parliament assumed the power to legislate by Ordinance, without needing Royal assent. This phase ended with Pride's Purge, which converted the Long Parliament into the Rump Parliament. In 1644 the King summoned the Long Parliament to meet at Oxford. Those members who responded constituted the King's Oxford Parliament (phase c of the Parliament, see the previous section), in opposition to the revolutionary Parliament which continued to sit at the Palace of Westminster. The date in the Assembled column is the day when King Charles I raised his standard and commenced the English Civil War. The date in the Dissolved column is the day before Pride's Purge, when the full Long Parliament last met (until the Purge was reversed on 21 February 1660).
  2. This was phase 'd' of the Long Parliament, known as the Rump Parliament. During this period the Army only permitted selected members to continue to participate. The House of Lords was abolished (6 February 1649) as was the monarchy (7 February 1649). Thereafter the Rump of the House of Commons was the only remaining element of Parliament. It legislated the Commonwealth of England into existence on 19 May 1649. The date of Pride's Purge is given in the Assembled column and the date when Oliver Cromwell dissolved the Rump by force is in the Dissolved column.
  3. The Little or Barebone's Parliament was an appointed body.

Parliaments of the Protectorate

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeakerNote
1st1 June 165416543 September 165422 January 16551William Lenthall1st Protectorate Parliament
2nd10 July 1656165617 September 16564 February 16582Thomas Widdrington2nd Protectorate Parliament
Bulstrode Whitelocke
3rd9 December 16581658/5927 January 165922 April 16591Chaloner Chute3rd Protectorate Parliament
Lislebone Long (Deputy)
Thomas Bampfylde

These parliaments included representatives of Scotland and Ireland.

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeakerNote
4th 'e'......7 May 165913 October 16591William LenthallRump Parliament (restored)[lower-alpha 1]
  1. This was phase 'e' of the Long Parliament. The Army restored the Rump Parliament, to liquidate the Protectorate and re-establish the Commonwealth regime.

Parliaments of the Commonwealth

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeakerNote
1st 'f'......26 December 165920 February 16601William LenthallRump Parliament[lower-alpha 1]
William Say (Deputy)
William Lenthall
1st 'g'......21 February 166016 March 16601William LenthallLong Parliament[lower-alpha 2]
  1. This was phase 'f' of the Long Parliament, with the Rump Parliament running the restored Commonwealth regime.
  2. This was phase 'g' of the Long Parliament. Pride's Purge was reversed and the full Long Parliament made arrangements for a Convention Parliament and then dissolved itself.

Parliaments of Charles II

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeakerNote
1st16 March 1660166025 April 166029 December 16601Harbottle GrimstonThe Convention Parliament assembled without a royal warrant. After the restoration of the monarchy, of which this parliament was a key enabler, it was retrospectively recognised as a parliament by Charles II
2nd18 February 166116618 May 166124 January 167916Edward TurnourCavalier Parliament
Job Charlton
Edward Seymour
Robert Sawyer
3rd25 January 167916796 March 167912 July 16792William GregoryHabeas Corpus Parliament
4th24 July 1679167921 October 168018 January 16811William WilliamsExclusion Bill Parliament
5th20 January 1681168121 March 168128 March 16811William WilliamsOxford Parliament

Parliament of James II

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeakerNote
1st14 February 1685168519 May 16852 July 16871John TrevorLoyal Parliament

Parliaments of William III and Mary II

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeakerNote
1st29 December 16881688–8922 January 16896 February 16902Henry PowleThe Convention Parliament of 1689 was not summoned by King James II, who was outside the country, but by the future William III. On 12 February 1689, the Convention decided that James had abdicated by fleeing the capital on 18 December 1688 and by throwing the Great Seal of the Realm into the River Thames and offered the throne jointly to William III and Mary II, who accepted it. The Convention converted itself to a formal parliament the next day (13 February), and legal records use that date (13 February rather than the original assembly date of 22 January) as the official start date of the parliament.[165]
2nd6 February 1690169020 March 169011 October 16956John Trevor
3rd12 October 1695169522 November 16957 July 16983Paul Foley
4th13 July 1698169824 August 169819 December 17002Thomas Littleton
5th26 December 17001700/016 February 170111 November 17011Robert Harley
6th3 November 1701170130 December 17012 July 17021Robert Harley
  • Note: The Convention Parliament of 1689 is usually referred to as the 1st Parliament of William & Mary and thus the 1690 parliament is referred to as the "Second Parliament".[166] The very first act of the 1690 parliament (2 Will. & Mar., c.1)[167] was to legitimise the Convention parliament as a lawfully-summoned parliament.
  • Note: Queen Mary II died in December 1694, during the sixth session of the second parliament. Subsequent parliamentary sessions are labelled as "William III" alone (rather than "William & Mary"), but their numbering is not reset. The next parliament (1695) is conventionally called the "third parliament", the 1698 parliament the "fourth parliament" etc.

Parliaments of Anne

No.SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedSessionsSpeaker
1st2 July 1702170220 August 17025 April 17053Robert Harley
2nd2 May 1705170514 July 17053 April 17073John Smith

On 29 April 1707, the Parliament of Great Britain was constituted. The members of the 2nd Parliament of Queen Anne became part of the 1st Parliament of Great Britain.

See also

Notes

    References

    1. Matthew Paris, Chronica, cited in J Enoch Powell et al, Medieval Parliaments of England (1971),
    2. Curia Regis Rolls, xv, no.2047. (London: 17 vols, 1922–91)
    3. M. Paris, History of England since 1235
    4. M. Paris, (1246) Annales Monastici: Burton Annals, p.307.
    5. Winchester Pipe Rolls first describes this parliamentum.; J Maddicott (2014), pt 2, chap.4.1
    6. W.Cobbett, The Parliamentary Or Constitutinal History of England, From the Earliest Times, p.lxvi.
    7. Close Rolls, 1247–51, pp.104, 106–7, 109.
    8. habitum est Parliamentum mangnum Londini, M Paris.
    9. tertio Idus Maii, in majori Aula Regia Westmonasterii, sub Praesentia & Assensu Domini H. dei Gratia Regis Angliae., M. Paris
    10. Close Rolls, 153-4, p.243.
    11. Matthew Paris cited by J Enoch Powell (1971)
    12. c.f De Montfort Archives, Bemont, France; Matthew Paris, v, pp.668–9
    13. Tiberius B.IV and Burton Annals; Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1247–58, p.627, 639, 649, 654–655
    14. Annales Monastici, i, p.443; iii, p.209
    15. Matthew Paris, v, pp.695–7
    16. Burton Annals, pp.443–5
    17. Letter to Alexander II of Scotland, May 1258; Powicke, p.380.
    18. J Enoch Powell
    19. Select Charters (9th ed.), pp.397–8.; Powicke, p.393.
    20. Annals of Dunstable, Annales monastici, iii, p.210.
    21. Treharne, Baronial Plan, pp.26–30; Baker, Henry IIIp.257.
    22. Coke MS., lost docs, abridged by Selden Society, Richardson & Sayles, p.33.
    23. Reports on the Manuscripts of Lord Middleton, Hist. MSS. Comm., 1911, pp.67–9; Powicke, p.398.
    24. Coke MS.; Richardson & Sayles, pp.12, 33.
    25. Coke Roll; Calendar Patent Rolls, 1258–66, p.123. Lord's Reports, iii, pp.19–20. Statutes of the Realm, i, p.10. Annales Monastici, i, pp.474, 482.
    26. Richardson & Sayles, Select Charters; Powicke, p.401.
    27. Foedera, I, i, p.381; Powicke, p.399.
    28. Flores Historiarum, II, pp.428–9; Treharne, p.141; Trans. Hist. Society, 4th series, xi, pp.172–3.
    29. H.G. Richardson & G.O. Sayles, The English Parliament in the Middle Ages, Bloomsbury, 1981, p.11
    30. Historians have long debated whether the Burton Annals are reliable in Annales Monastici. They claim that the knights, who owed fee in service to the king for their right to attend the Commons, complained that the king had done all asked of him, but the Lords had failed to uphold the Oxford Agreement. The king employed the knights 'of the shires' as sheriffs.
    31. Powicke, p.409.
    32. Foedera, I, i, pp.398, 404; Powicke, p.417.
    33. Burton Annals; Annales Monastici, i, p.439-84. Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1258–66, pp.45, 54. Hist. MSS. Commission Report on the Manuscripts of Lord Middleton, pp.67–9.
    34. Treharne, pp.398–406; Close Rolls, 1259–61, p.144.
    35. B.L., Cotton MS. Julius D.5, fo.35; Gervase of Canterbury, Historical Works, ii, xxii, 217. Close Rolls, 1261–64, p.162.
    36. Calendar of Papal Letters, i, pp.265, 467.
    37. Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1258–66, pp.271, 277; Calendar of Close Rolls, 1261-9, pp.308–9.
    38. Close Rolls, 1261-4, p.312.
    39. Annales Monastici, iii, p.224.
    40. Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1258–1266, pp.280, 271, 277. Calendar of Close Rolls, 1261-4, pp.308–09.
    41. Foedera, I, i, p.430.
    42. Chronica maiorunt et vicecomitum, pp.61–62.
    43. Flores et Historiarum et Annales Londonienses ed. W. Stubbs in Chronicles of the Reign of Edward I and Edward II, vol.1, (1882), p.61.
    44. Powicke, p.459.
    45. Foedera, I, i, 442; Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1258–1266, p.360
    46. It became known as a Law of de jure gentium; Close Rolls, 1261-4, p.389.
    47. Dugdale MS., Bod. lib. no.91, English Historical Review 48 (1933), pp.563–9; EHR 49 (1934), p.93.
    48. Calendar of Papal Letters, i, pp.431–2.
    49. Close Rolls, 1264-8, p.89; Powicke, (1947), p.488
    50. R.F.Traherne, ed. 'The Documents of the Baronial Movement of Reform and Rebellion, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979, p.301.
    51. Close Rolls, 1264–68, pp.84–87
    52. Calendar of Charter Rolls, 1259–1300, p.54
    53. Powicke, pp.488–91.
    54. CPR, 1258–66, pp.429–34; Maddicott, Montfort, pp.337–38; Baker, Henry III, p.323.
    55. Barling's Chronicle in 'The Chronicles of the Reigns of Edward I and Edward II', ed. W.Stubbs, vol.ii, p.cxvi.
    56. The Statutes of the Realm, pp.6–15; Powicke, King Henry III, pp.547–9.; Baker, p.337.
    57. Close Rolls, 1264-1268, 334-340.
    58. Powicke, 'Henry III and Lord Edward,' p.562.
    59. Close Rolls, 1264-8, 557.
    60. Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1266–72, p.384
    61. CPR, 1258–66,p.365; Baker, p.343.
    62. Powicke believed the decision of the Committee of 45 to collect tax was indicative of the presence of a parliament. This opinion was based on Henry III's letter dated 7 August at Chichester to the bishop of Worcester, referring to the 1/20th assessed for aid to the Holy Land the previous year.
    63. Annales Monastici, iv, 227-8.
    64. The exact dating of this parliament was confused by early historians, who thought it April 1269. See Liber de Antiquis Legibus, p.122; Bishop Giffard's register, fo.105a, p.23. Chronica maiorum, pp.122–3.
    65. J.R. Maddicott, The Crusade of Taxation, pp.93–117.
    66. Parliamentary Writs, i, 1, 381; Calendar of Close Rolls, 1272–79, pp.229, 197–8.
    67. Calendar of Close Rolls, 1272–79, p.167, 200.
    68. Matthew Paris, English History Documents, iii, pp.411–13.
    69. King's Bench Roll, no.90, m.34d; Sayles, King's Bench, i, pp.140–145.
    70. Epistolae Iohannis Peckham, ii, pp.440–1, 675.
    71. Calendar of Chancery Rolls, p.198.; Powicke, King Henry III and the Lord Edwardd, OUP, [1947] (1966), pp.673–4.
    72. King's Bench Roll, no.49, m.23; Sayles, King's Bench, i, p.50-1
    73. The Statutes of the Realm, London: Eyre & Spottiswood, 1870, vol.1, pp.16, 71.
    74. Calendar of Ancient Proceedings, pp.58–9.
    75. Calendar of Ancient Correspondence, p.88; Powicke, p.677.
    76. Calendar of Ancient Proceedings,pp.59–62, 90–1.
    77. Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1272–81, pp.380–81; Rymer, Foedera, II, ii, p.582.
    78. Kings Bench Roll, no.60, m.19d; Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1272–81, p.384.
    79. Calendar of Close Rolls, 1279-88, 157.; Calendar of Chancery Rolls, various, 1277-1326, 222, 250-2.
    80. Annales Wigorn, p.489; Statutes of the Realm, i, pp.53–4.
    81. Statutes of the Realm, i, pp.55–68.
    82. The Welsh Assize Roll, p.266.; Powicke (1966), p.663
    83. Foedera, I, ii, pp.742–7.; Powicke, p.733.
    84. Itinerary of Edward I; Rotuli Parliamentorum, i, 45, 66-9; Powicke, p.735
    85. Calendar of Ancient Correspondence, p.134; Powicke, p.679.
    86. Calendar of Chancery Rolls, Various, p.343-5; Select cases in the King's Bench ed. Sayles, iii (Selden Society, 1939), pp.91-2.; Powicke, p.680
    87. William Rishanger, 'Chronica et Annales', in ed. H.T. Riley in Chronica Monasterii S.Albani, R.S. (1865), ii, 252-3; Powell & Wallis, (1968), 215.
    88. Florence of Worcester, ii, pp.273–4.
    89. 'Annales Wigorn', Annales Monastici , pp.517–18. Florence, ii, p.275.
    90. Stubbs, ed. Select Charters, pp.481–2.
    91. Calendar of Close Rolls, 1298-96, pp.488–90.,
    92. Parliamentary Writs ed.F.Palgrave, Record Commission (1827-34).; J enoch Powell and Keith Wallis, The House of Lords in the Middle Ages, p.236-7. The writ..."Whereas we have enjoined upon our dear son Edward, our lieutenant in England, certain matters specially touching us and our realm on which we wish to have discussion and debate, we command you....
    93. Powell & Wallis (1968), p.238
    94. Statutes, i, 124.
    95. Parliamentary Writs, i, 62-4; Powell & Wallis, p.238
    96. Registrum Roberti Winchelsey, i, 221-2; Powell & Wallis, p.238.
    97. Guisborough, pp.323-5.; Powell & Wallis, 241.
    98. English Historical Documents, pp.491–4; Guisborough, p.330; The Parliament Rolls of Medieval England, 1275–1504, vol.1, ed. P.brand and C.Given-Wilson (Woodbridge, 2003); Parliamentary Writs and Writs of Military Summons, ed. F.Palgrave, vol.1, (Record Commission, 1827)
    99. Guisborough, p.322; Parliamentary Writs, i, 323-4.; Powell & Wallis, 241.
    100. Statutes of the Realm, i, 136-41.; Rishanger, pp.404-5.; Powell & Wallis, 241.
    101. "it is the custom of the realm of England that in business touching the state of that realm the advice is sought of all whom the thing concerns." Matthew Paris, Flores Historiarum ed. Matthew Parker (Frankfurt, 1601), p.439; Powell & Wallis, p.241.
    102. CCIR, 1296-1302, 370; CPR, 1292-1301, p.538-40.
    103. Parliamentary Writs, i, 104-5; Powell & Wallis, p.243.
    104. Calendar of the Justiciary Rolls, i, p.453-55.
    105. Dignity of the Peerage, iii, 143-9; CPR, 1301-7, 76-77.; Powell & Wallis, 245.
    106. Parliamentary Writs, i, 134-5.
    107. Memoranda, 54-5, 122-3, 126.
    108. Parliamentary and Council Proceedings, E 175/1, m. 20; Parliamentary Writs, i, 159-63.; Powell & Wallis, 247.
    109. Parliamentary Writs, i, 178, 165-6.
    110. Powell & Wallis, 255.
    111. PRO, Close Rolls, C 54/123, m.2d.; Powell & Wallis, 250.
    112. Sir John Davies, The Irish Parliaments cited by Berry, Early Statutes of Ireland, pp.46–177, 245; Curtis, p.169; Powell, Medieval Parliaments ,
    113. Burney MSS, ascription of the document to Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln.
    114. Maddicott, J.R. (1970). Thomas of Lancaster 1307-1322 : A Study in the Reign of Edward II. London. pp. 97–9.
    115. The Guisborough Chronicler; Haines, p.73.
    116. The Burlington Chronicler.
    117. Haines, p.75.
    118. Haines, 75-81.
    119. Stubbs, William, ed. (1883). Annales Londoniensis (Chronicles of Edward I and II.). London. pp. 210–215.
    120. Phillips, Seymour (2010). Edward II. Yale University Press.
    121. Flores Historiarum, 173.
    122. Michael Prestwich, Medieval England, 1216–1360, Oxford University Press, 2008, pp.192–4
    123. Tout, Administration of the Constitution of England, pp.245-281.
    124. R.M.Haines, King Edward II: His Reign, His Life, and his aftermath, 1284-1330, McGill, 2003.
    125. Palgrave, F., ed. (1827–1834). Parliamentary Writs and Writs of Military Summons. London: The Record Commission. pp. 259–260.CS1 maint: date format (link)
    126. J.Enoch, Powell; Wallis, Keith (1968). The House of Lords in the Middle Ages. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 308. ISBN 0-297-76105-6.
    127. Pronay and Taylor, Parliamentary Texts of the Later Middle Ages, pp.88–91.
    128. Teste Rege Rolls.
    129. Richardson, H.G.; Sayles, George O. (1981). The English Parliament in the Middle Ages. London. pp. volume 2, pages 233, 90.
    130. G O Sayles, vol.1, p.32
    131. Sayles, George O. (1988). The Functions of the Medieval Parliament of England. A& C. Black.
    132. Calendar of Close Rolls, 1330-3, 551; Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1330-4, 367.
    133. Literae Cantuariensis, I, 441.
    134. R.P., ii, 66-7; CCIR, 1330-3,608; Rymer, Foedera, ii, 845; Powell & Wallis, The House of Lords in the Middle Ages, (London, 1968), 320-1.
    135. CPR, 1330-4, 410; CPR 1334-8, 476.
    136. CCIR, 1333-7, 95.
    137. R.P., iii, 104, 107
    138. R.P., iii, 118.
    139. H.L. Gray, The Influence of the Commons on Early Legislation, pp.40–5.
    140. Dignity of the Peerage,iv, 577-83.
    141. In the Middle French, 'dentrer en parlement...al huse del parlement,' The Anonimalle Chronicle, ed. V.H.Galbraith, Manchester, 1927, pp.79-94.; Chronicon Anglie, pp.68-101.
    142. R.P., iii, 145.
    143. The Anonimalle Chronicle 1333–1381, ed. V.H.Galbraith (1927), pp.79–94.
    144. Rotuli Parliamentorum, iii, pp.89–90.
    145. H.G. Richardson, 'The Commons and Medieval Politics, in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 4th series.
    146. Jeaffreson, John Cordy (1867). A Book about Lawyers, 2. Hurst and Blackett. p. 93. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
    147. St.Albans, Greater Chronicle
    148. Rotuli Parliamentorum ...inediti, ed. H.G. Richardson and G. Sayles (Royal Historical Society, Camden 3rd series, vol.Ii, 1935), pp.608–610.
    149. Chris Given-Wilson, (ed.) Parliamentary Rolls of Medieval England, Woodbridge, 1415, appendix.(2005) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1413–1416 (1910), p.371.
    150. Rotuli Parliamentorum, iv, p.350.
    151. Be it as it is asked:
    152. J.S.Roskell, The Commons and their Speakers, p.271
    153. Rotuli Parliamentorum, vi, pp.41, 198.
    154. Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts Relating to English Affairs Existing in the Archives and Collections of Venice, and in Other Libraries of Northern Italy, section 679. 3. Longmans, Green, Reader and Dyer. 1869. p. 318. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
    155. Thrush & Ferris 2010, The Parliament of 1604–1610.
    156. Thrush & Ferris 2010, Appendix II: Officers of the Commons and Chairmen of standing committees
    157. Thrush & Ferris 2010, The Parliament of 1614.
    158. Thrush & Ferris 2010, The Parliament of 1621.
    159. Thrush & Ferris 2010, The Parliament of 1624.
    160. Coke, Littleton & Hargrave 1817, p. ii.
    161. Thrush & Ferris 2010, The Parliament of 1625.
    162. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Cassell. 1970. p. 1120.
    163. Thrush & Ferris 2010, The Parliament of 1626.
    164. Thrush & Ferris 2010, The Parliament of 1628–1629.
    165. Statutes at Large (1 William & Mary c.1)
    166. e.g. A Parliamentary History of England (1809 vol. 5)
    167. 2 Will & Mar, c.1 in Statutes at Large (note: legal year is given here, not historical year).

    References

    Further reading

    • Laundy, Philip (1964), The Office of Speaker, Cassell & Company
    • Powell, J. Enoch; Wallis, Keith (1968), The House of Lords in the Middle Ages, Weidenfeld and Nicolson
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