List of oldest universities in continuous operation
This article contains a list of the oldest existing universities in continuous operation in the world. Inclusion in this list is determined by the date at which the educational institute met the traditional definition of a university although it may have existed as a different kind of institute before that time. This definition limits the term "university" to institutions with distinctive structural and legal features that developed in Europe, and which make the university form different from other institutions of higher learning in the pre-modern world. Thus, for the list below, the university must have been founded before 1500 in Europe or be the oldest university derived from the medieval European model in a country or region. It must also be still in operation, with institutional continuity retained throughout its history, and so some early universities, most notably the University of Paris, which was abolished by the Revolution in 1793, are excluded. Some institutions re-emerge, but with new foundations, such as the modern University of Paris, which came into existence in 1896 after the Louis Liard law disbanded Napoleon's University of France system.
The word university is derived from the Latin: universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which approximately means "community of teachers and scholars". The term was coined by the Italian University of Bologna, which, with a traditional founding date of 1088, is considered to be the first university. The origin of many medieval universities can be traced back to the Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools, which appeared as early as the 6th century and were run for hundreds of years as such before their formal establishment as universities in the high medieval period.
Other institutions of higher learning, such as those of ancient Greece, ancient Persia, ancient Rome, Byzantium, ancient China, ancient India and the Islamic world, are not included in this list owing to their cultural, historical, structural and juristic dissimilarities from the medieval European university from which the modern university evolved.. By some accounts, the University of Ancient Taxila and University of Nalanda were considered to be one of the earliest universities in the world.
The university is a European institution; indeed, it is the European institution par excellence. There are various reasons for this assertion. As a community of teachers and taught, accorded certain rights, such as administrative autonomy and the determination and realisation of curricula (courses of study) and of the objectives of research as well as the award of publicly recognised degrees, it is a creation of medieval Europe, which was the Europe of papal Christianity [...].
From the early modern period onwards, the university gradually spread from the medieval Latin West across the globe, eventually replacing all other higher-learning institutions and becoming the preeminent institution for higher education everywhere. This process occurred in the following chronological order:
- Southern and Western Europe (from the 11th or 12th century)
- Central and Northern Europe (from the 14th or 15th century)
- Americas (from the 16th century)
- Australia (from the 19th century)
- Asia and Africa (from the 19th or 20th century), with the exception of the Philippines, where the University of Santo Tomas was established in the 17th century.
Founded as universities before 1500
(charter granted 1158)
|University of Bologna||The oldest university in the world. A university in the sense of a higher-learning, degree-awarding institute, the word university (Latin: universitas) having been coined at its foundation. It received, in 1158, from Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa the "Authentica habita", which settled the rules, rights and privileges of universities.|
(charter granted in 1248)
|University of Oxford||The oldest university in the English-speaking world: Oxford claims its founding ("...teaching existed ... in some form...") as early as 1096, and not later than 1167. Rashdall takes 1167 as the date when Oxford became a studium generale. In 1254, Pope Innocent IV granted Oxford a university charter by papal bull ("Querentes in agro"). Teaching was suspended in 1209 (due to the town's execution of two scholars) and in 1355 (due to the St. Scholastica Day riot), but was continuous during the English Civil War (1642–1651), when the university was Royalist.|
|1134 (charter granted in 1218)||University of Salamanca||The oldest university in the Hispanic world. The university claims to have been founded by Alfonso IX of León in 1218 (although James Trager's People's Chronology sets its foundation date as 1134), making it the third or fourth oldest university in continuous operation. It was the first European university to receive the title of "University" as such, which was granted by the King of Castile and León, Alfonso X in 1252, and ratified by the Pope Alexander IV in 1254. After being excluded from the University in 1852 by the Spanish government, the Faculties of Theology and Canon Law became the Pontifical University of Salamanca in 1940.|
(charter granted in 1231)
|University of Cambridge||Founded by scholars leaving Oxford after a dispute caused by the execution of two scholars in 1209. Its royal charter was granted in 1231. The University takes 1209 as its official anniversary. Inspired the establishment of Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, with the first college in the United States, Harvard University named after one of Cambridge University's alumni, John Harvard.|
|University of Padua||Medieval commune of Padua||Founded by scholars and professors after leaving Bologna. The university is conventionally said to have been founded in 1222 (which corresponds to the first time when the University is cited in a historical document as pre-existing, therefore it is quite certainly older) when a large group of students and professors left the University of Bologna in search of more academic freedom (Libertas scholastica). The first subjects to be taught were law and theology. The curriculum expanded rapidly, and by 1399 the institution had divided in two: a Universitas Iuristarum for civil law and Canon law, and a Universitas Artistarum which taught astronomy, dialectic, philosophy, grammar, medicine, and rhetoric. There was also a Universitas Theologorum, established in 1373 by Urban V. From the fifteenth to the eighteenth century, the university was renowned for its research, particularly in the areas of medicine, astronomy, philosophy and law. During this time, the university adopted the Latin motto: Universa universis patavina libertas (Paduan Freedom is Universal for Everyone). Nevertheless, the university had a turbulent history, and there was no teaching in 1237–61, 1509–17, 1848–50.|
|1224 (1258)||University of Naples Federico II||The first public university, founded by Frederick II, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. The university moved to Salerno in 1253, and its return to Naples in 1258 is sometimes considered as a refoundation. It is considered to be the oldest public and state university in the world.|
|1240–1357||University of Siena||Originally founded in 1240 by the Commune of Siena, although Rashdall dates the proclamation of the Studium to 1246, when Frederick II tried to place a ban on scholars travelling to Bologna. Was granted some exemptions from taxes by Pope Innocent II in 1252, but closed shortly after when the scholars returned to Bologna. Attempted revivals in 1275 and (fed by further short-lived migrations of scholars from Bologna) in 1321 and 1338 were unsuccessful. Gained an Imperial Bull in 1357 "granting it de novo the 'privileges of a Studium Generale.'", but was not firmly established until "[i]n 1408 a fresh grant of privileges was obtained from Pope Gregory XII". Closed temporarily in 1808–1815 when Napoleonic forces occupied Tuscany. On 7 November 2015 the University celebrated its 775th anniversary.|
|1290||University of Coimbra||It began its existence in Lisbon with the name Studium Generale (Estudo Geral). Scientiae thesaurus mirabilis ("the admirable treasure of knowledge"), the royal charter announcing the institution of the University, was dated 1 March 1290, although efforts had been made since at least 1288 to create this first university in Portugal. Papal confirmation was also given in 1290 (on 9 August of that year), during the papacy of Pope Nicholas IV.|
|University of Macerata||Founded in 1290, possibly as a private law school rather than a university. Unknown whether this was in continuous operation, but there is evidence for a school (without degree awarding powers) in 1518. After petitions from the commune to the Pope from 1534, bull establishing a studium generale issued in 1540.|
|1293||University of Valladolid||Founded in the late 13th century (first documentary evidence 1293), probably by the city.|
|Complutense University of Madrid||The University of Alcalá was founded by King Sancho IV of Castile as Studium Generale in 1293 in Alcalá de Henares. It was granted a papal bull in 1499, and quickly gained international fame thanks to the patronage of Cardinal Cisneros and the production of the Complutensian Polyglot Bible in 1517, which is the basis for most current translations. The University moved to Madrid in 1836 by royal decree as Universidad Central. The Moyano Law of 1857 established Central as the sole university in Spain authorized to confer the title of Doctor on any scholar. This law remained in effect until 1969. In 1970, Universidad Central de Madrid changed its name to Universidad Complutense de Madrid, its present name. On the other side, the Universidad de Alcalá was restored in Alcalá de Henares in 1977.|
|1303||Sapienza University of Rome||Founded by Pope Boniface VIII, but became a state university in 1935.|
|1308||University of Perugia||Attested by the Bull of Pope Clement V.|
|1321||University of Florence||The University of Florence evolved from the Studium Generale, which was established by the Florentine Republic in 1321. The Studium was recognized by Pope Clement VI in 1349.|
|1343||University of Pisa||It was formally founded on 3 September 1343 by an edict of Pope Clement VI, although there had been lectures on law in Pisa since the 11th century. Nowadays is one of the most important universities in Italy.|
|1348||Charles University||Three of four faculties closed in 1419. Merged with Prague Jesuit University (founded in 1562) and renamed Charles-Ferdinand University in 1652. Split into German and Czech parts in 1882; the Czech branch closed briefly during Nazi occupation (1939–1945) while the German branch closed permanently in 1945.|
|1361||University of Pavia||Closed for short periods during the Italian Wars, Napoleonic wars, and Revolutions of 1848.|
|1364||Jagiellonian University||Founded by Casimir the Great under the name Studium Generale, and was commonly referred to as the Kraków Academy. The institution's development stalled upon the king's death in 1370; primarily due to a lack of funding. Without a permanent location; lectures were held across the city at various churches and in the Kraków Cathedral School. Further development again resumed in the 1390s, by the initiative of King Władysław Jagiełło and his wife Jadwiga of Poland; at which point the school became a fully functioning university with a permanent location. The university was forcibly shut down during the German Occupation of Poland (1939–1945). The staff was deported to Nazi concentration camps, and many of its collections were deliberately destroyed by the occupying German authorities. Within a month after the liberation of the city, the university again re-opened; with some of the original pre-war staff who survived the occupation.|
|1365||University of Vienna||Modelled on the University of Paris.|
|1386||Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg||Founded by Rupert I, Elector Palatine. The oldest in contemporary Germany and third oldest Germanophone university.|
|1391||University of Ferrara||Founded by Marquis Alberto d'Este.|
|1404||University of Turin||Founded by the prince "Louis of Piedmont" during the reign of Amadeus VIII.|
|1409||University of Leipzig||Founded when German-speaking staff left Prague due to the Jan Hus crisis.|
|1413||University of St. Andrews||A school of higher studies was founded in 1410 and became a full university by the issue of a Papal bull in 1413.|
|1419||University of Rostock||During the Reformation, "the Catholic university of Rostock closed altogether and the closure was long enough to make the refounded body feel a new institution". The university closed in 1523, but would appear to have reopened by 1551, when there are records of a number of professors being appointed, including Johannes Aurifaber, David Chytraeus, and Johann Draconites.|
|1434||University of Catania||The oldest in Sicily. Founded by Alfonso V of Aragon.|
|1450||University of Barcelona||Founded by Alfonso V of Aragon as Estudi general de Barcelona after the unification of all university education. For forty-nine years prior to that foundation, however, the city had had a fledgling medical school founded by King Martin of Aragon, and in the 13th century Barcelona already possessed several civil and ecclesiastical schools.|
|1451||University of Glasgow||Founded by a Papal bull.|
|1456||University of Greifswald||Teaching had started by 1436. Founded by initiative of Heinrich Rubenow, Lord Mayor of Greifswald (and first rector), with approval of Pope Callixtus III and Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, under the protection of Wartislaw IX, Duke of Pomerania. Teaching paused temporarily during the Protestant Reformation (1527–39).|
|1457||Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg||Temporarily transferred to Constance in 1686–98 and 1713–15.|
|1460||University of Basel||Founded in 1460 (Schola Basiliensis), the University of Basel is the oldest university in Switzerland.|
|1472||Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich||Founded in Ingolstadt in 1472; with a Papal Bull obtained in 1459 from Pope Pius II by Louis the Rich, transferred to Landshut in 1800, moved to Munich in 1826.|
|1477||Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen|
|Uppsala University||Uppsala's bull, which granted the university its corporate rights, was issued by Pope Sixtus IV in 1477, and established a number of provisions. Among the most important of these was that the university was officially given the same freedoms and privileges as the University of Bologna.|
|1479||University of Copenhagen||The University of Copenhagen is the oldest university in Denmark, and the second oldest in Scandinavia after Uppsala University in Sweden|
|1481||University of Genoa||Founded in 1481 (Genuense Athenaeum).|
|1495||University of Aberdeen||King's College was founded by a Papal bull in 1495 and then Marischal College in 1593; they merged in 1860.|
|University of Santiago de Compostela||The university traces its roots to 1495, when a school was opened in Santiago. In 1504, Pope Julius II approved the foundation of a university in Santiago, and the bull for its creation was granted by Clement VII in 1526.|
|1499||University of Valencia|
Oldest universities by country or region after 1500 still in operation
The majority of European countries had universities by 1500. After 1500, universities began to spread to other countries all over the world. Many universities were established at institutes of learning such as schools and colleges that may have been founded significantly earlier but were not classed as universities upon their foundation; this is normally described in the notes for that institution. In some countries (particularly the US and those influenced by its culture), degree-granting higher education institutions that would normally be called universities are instead called colleges, in this case both the oldest institution that would normally be regarded as a university and the oldest institution (if different) to actually be called a university are given. In many parts of the world the first university to have a presence was an institution based elsewhere (often the University of London via the affiliation of a local college); where this is different from the first locally established university both are given.
|University of Algiers||1909|
|Agostinho Neto University||1962||Founded as Estudos Gerais Universitários de Angola. Was renamed Universidade de Luanda (University of Luanda) in 1968. After Angolan independence from Portugal in 1975, the institution was renamed the University of Angola (Universidade de Angola). In 1985 it was renamed Agostinho Neto University, in honour of Agostinho Neto, the first President of Angola.|
|University of Abomey-Calavi||1970||Originally the University of Dahomey. Renamed the National University of Benin in 1975 and took its current name in 2001.|
(Gaborone, Francistown, Maun)
|University of Botswana||1964 (as part of the University of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland; university 1982)|
|University of Ouagadougou||1974|
|University of Burundi||1964|
|University of Yaoundé||1962||In 1993 following a university reform the University of Yaounde was split into two (University of Yaoundé I and University of Yaoundé II) following the university branch-model pioneered by the University of Paris.|
|Jean Piaget University of Cape Verde||2001||as a result of the merger of the two previously existing higher education establishments (ISE and ISECMAR)|
|University of Bangui||1969|
|University of N'Djamena||1971||Originally the University of Chad, renamed the University of N'Djamena 1994.|
|University of the Comoros||2003|
|University of Kinshasa||1954||Originator established as the Lovanium University, affiliated to the Catholic University of Leuven. Merged into the National University of Zaire in 1971 then demerged under its current name in 1981.|
|Marien Ngouabi University||1971||Founded as the University of Brazzaville in 1971, changed to current name in 1977.|
|University of Djibouti||2006|
|Cairo University||1908||The oldest university in Egypt and second oldest higher education institution (after Al-Azhar University, which was founded as a madrasa c. 970 and became a university in 1962)|
|National University of Equatorial Guinea||1995|
|Eritrea Institute of Technology||2003||Founded following the closure of the University of Asmara, which had been established as a college in 1958|
|University of Eswatini||1964 (as part of the University of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland; university 1982||Originally established as the University of Swaziland, changed to current name in 2018|
|University of Addis Ababa||1950 (as college offering degree courses; university 1962)||The university was originally called the University College of Addis Ababa in 1950, offering courses leading to degrees of the University of London. It became Haile Selassie I University in 1962, named after the Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie I. The institution received its current name in 1975.|
|Omar Bongo University||1970||Founded as the National University of Gabon and took current name in 1978|
|University of the Gambia||1999|
|University of Ghana||1948 (as affiliate college of the University of London; university 1961)||Founded as the University College of the Gold Coast, an affiliate college of the University of London which supervised its academic programmes and awarded the degrees. It gained full university status in 1961.|
|Gamal Abdel Nasser University of Conakry||1962|
|Universidade Colinas de Boé||2003|
|Universidade Amílcar Cabral||2003|
|Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny||1964 (as main campus of the University of Abidjan; university 1996)|
|University of Nairobi||1961 (as affiliate college of the University of London; college 1956; university 1970)||Oldest in Kenya. Established 1956 as the Royal Technical College. Renamed the Royal College of Nairobi when it became affiliated to the University of London 1961. On 20 May 1964, was renamed University College Nairobi when it was admitted as a constituent college of inter-territorial University of East Africa. In 1970, it transformed into the first national university in Kenya and was renamed the University of Nairobi. Egerton University, which was established as a farm school in 1939 but did not become a university until 1987, claims to be "the oldest institution of higher learning in Kenya".|
|National University of Lesotho||1964 (as part of the University of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland; college 1945; university 1975|
|University of Liberia||1951 (college 1863)||building on Liberia College founded in 1863|
(Benghazi & Tripoli)
|University of Libya||1956||A royal decree was issued on 15 December 1955 for the founding of the university. The first faculty to be formed was the Faculty of Literature in Benghazi, and the royal palace "Al Manar", from which King Idris I of Libya declared its independence on 24 December 1951, was assigned to be the campus. Later divided to University of Benghazi and University of Tripoli, the names were changed again during Gaddafi's era, but now they have reinstated their original names.|
|University of Antananarivo||1961 (as university; institute for advanced studies 1955)||Founded December 1955 as the Institute for Advanced Studies in Antananarivo. Renamed the University of Madagascar in 1961.|
(Zomba, Blantyre & Lilongwe)
|University of Malawi||1965|
|University of Bamako||1996|
|University of Nouakchott Al Aasriya||1981|
|University of Mauritius||1965||The Faculty of Agriculture is the oldest faculty of the university. It was founded in 1914 as the School of Agriculture in 1914, and in 1966 it was incorporated into the newly established University of Mauritius.|
|University of Al Quaraouiyine||1965 (as university; madrasa 859)||traces its origins back to the al-Qarawiyyin mosque and associated madrasa founded by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, but only became a university in 1965.|
|Mohammed V University||1957||Founded as University of Rabat|
|Eduardo Mondlane University||1962||Estudos Gerais Universitários de Moçambique|
|University of Namibia||1992|
|Abdou Moumouni University||1974||Originally the University of Niamey|
|University of Ibadan||1949 (as affiliated college of the University of London; college 1932; university 1962)||Founded as Yaba College in 1932 in Yaba, Lagos, as the first tertiary educational institute in Nigeria. Yaba College was transferred to Ibadan, becoming the University College of Ibadan, in 1948. and was a university college associated with the University of London. Independent university since 1962.|
|University of Nigeria, Nsukka||1960||First university in Nigeria.|
|University of Rwanda||1963||Founded as the National University of Rwanda in 1963; incorporated into the University of Rwanda 2013|
|University of São Tomé and Príncipe||2014 (as university; polytechnic school 1996)|
|University of Tifariti||2013|
|Cheikh Anta Diop University||1957|
|University of Seychelles||2009|
|Fourah Bay College||1876 (as affiliated college of Durham University; college 1827; part of University of Sierra Leone 1967)||Oldest university-level institution in Africa. Founded as a missionary school to train teachers in 1827. Became an affiliated college of Durham University in 1876 and awarded first degrees in West Africa in 1878. Became part of the federal University of Sierra Leone in 1967.|
|Somali National University||1954|
|University of South Africa||1873||Originally founded as the University of the Cape of Good Hope in 1916 in was transformed into the federal University of South Africa (Unisa) and relocated to Pretoria.|
|University of Juba||1975|
|University of Khartoum||1956 (as university; college 1902)||Renamed from Gordon Memorial College, founded 1902, when it gained full university status in 1956|
(Dar es Salaam)
(Dar es Salaam)
|University of Dar es Salaam||1961 (as affiliated college of the University of London; part of the University of East Africa 1963; university 1970)|
|University of Lomé||1970||Originally the University of Benin, changed to current name in 2001|
|University of Ez-Zitouna||1961 (as university; madrasa c. 737)||traces its origins back to the Al-Zaytuna madrasa founded around 737, it gained university status in 1961|
|Makerere University||1963 (as part of the University of East Africa; college 1922; university 1970)|
|University of Zambia||1966|
|University of Zimbabwe||1952 (as affiliated college of the University of London; university 1970)||Founded in 1952 as University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. University of Rhodesia from 1970 and University of Zimbabwe from 1980|
|Kabul University||1931||Founded in 1931, formally opened 1932.|
(Sakhir, Isa Town)
|University of Bahrain||1986|
(Dhaka, Eastern Bengal and Assam)
|University of Dhaka||1921||First university in Bangladesh, opened 1 July 1921.|
|Royal University of Bhutan||2003|
(Bandar Seri Begawan)
|University of Brunei Darussalam||1985|
|Royal University of Fine Arts||1918|
(Yuelu Mountain, Changsha, Hunan)
|Hunan University||1903 (as university; academy 976)||Known in Chinese as 湖南大学. The university was originally called the Yuelu Academy in 976 and was converted into Hunan Institute of Higher Learning (with university status) in 1903. It was later renamed Hunan Normal College, Hunan Public Polytechnic School, and finally Hunan University in 1926.|
|Nanjing University||1888||Known in Chinese as Jinling University (金陵大学). Was a private university later merged with the public University of Nanjing (南京大学). First institution in China to use the English term "university". Educational institutions were closed in China on 13 June 1966 due to the Cultural Revolution, reopening in July 1967.|
|National University of East Timor||2000|
|The University of Hong Kong||1911 (as university; college 1887)||Founded as the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese in 1887, incorporated as a university in 1911|
|Serampore College||1827 (as university; college 1818)||Incorporated and granted university status and the right to award degrees by royal charter of Frederick VI of Denmark on 23 February 1827, endorsed by the Bengal Government Act 1918.|
(Calcutta, Bengal Presidency)
|University of Calcutta||1857||First full-fledged multi-disciplinary university in South Asia. The University of Bombay and the University of Madras were subsequently established in the same year|
(Bombay, Bombay Presidency)
|University of Mumbai||Called the University of Bombay until 1996.|
(Madras, Madras Presidency)
|University of Madras|
|University of Indonesia||1924 (as hogeschool; medical school 1851; university 1947)||Incorporates the medical school founded as the Dokter-Djawa School Batavia in 1851, which became the Geneeskundige Hogeschool in 1927 and the Rechts Hogeschool founded in 1924.|
|Bandung Institute of Technology||1920||Founded as Technische Hogeschool. Renamed in 1959.|
|University of Tehran||1934||founded by Rezā Shāh, incorporating portions of the Dar ul-Funun Polytechnic Institute (1851) and the Tehran School of Political Sciences (1899)|
|University of Baghdad||1956||the Iraqi Royal College of Medicine was established in 1928|
|Technion – Israel Institute of Technology||1912 (opened 1924)||founded in 1912, but formal teaching began in 1924|
|Hebrew University of Jerusalem||1918|
|University of Tokyo||1877||Previous names are University of Tokyo (1877–1886), Imperial University (1886–1897), and Tokyo Imperial University (1897–1947). Its origins include a private college of Confucian studies founded by Hayashi Razan in 1630, Tenmonkata (The Observatory, 1684) and Shutōsho (Smallpox Vaccination Centre, 1849).|
The university was established in 1877 by the merger of three institutions: Shoheiko (Japanese and Chinese Literature, established 1789), Yogakusho (Occidental Studies, established 1855) and Shutosho (Vaccinations, established 1860), originally as Tokyo University before becoming the Imperial University and then Tokyo Imperial University before reverting to its original name after World War II.
|Keio University||1920 (as university; school for Dutch studies 1858)||Founded as a "school for Dutch studies" in 1858. College with three university departments (literature, law and economics) established 1890. Accredited as a university by the Japanese government in 1920.|
|Ryukoku University||1876 (as "Daikyoko (Great School)"; school 1639; university 1922||Traces its origins to a school for Buddhist monks of the Nishi Hongan-ji denomination founded in 1639. Assumed its current name and became a university under the University Ordinance in 1922.|
|University of Jordan||1962|
(Kazakh Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic)
|Al-Farabi Kazakh National University||1933|
|University of Kuwait||1966|
(Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic)
|Kyrgyz National University||1951 (as university; institute of education 1925)|
|National University of Laos||1996|
|American University of Beirut||1866 (as degree-awarding college; university 1920)||Originally Syrian Protestant College, chartered by the State of New York, took current name in 1920|
|Saint Joseph University||1872|
|University of Macau||1981||established as University of East Asia in 1981, renamed 1991|
|University of Malaya||1905||Established as Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States Government Medical School on 13 July 1905 in Singapore|
|Maldives National University||1998 (as degree awarding college; university 2011)||Established in 1998 as the Maldives College of Higher Education, establishing its first degree course in 2000. Became the Maldives National University in 2011.|
|National University of Mongolia||1942|
(Provisional People's Committee for North Korea)
|Kim Il-sung University||1946|
|Sultan Qaboos University||1986|
|University of the Punjab||1882||Established by British colonial authorities in 1882 as the first university in what would become Pakistan.|
|Government College University, Lahore||1864 (as affiliated college of the University of Calcutta; university 2002)||Established as Government College, Lahore, 1864. Became an independent university in 2002.|
|University of Santo Tomas||1611||Founded on 28 April 1611 by the Order of Preachers, it is the oldest extant university in Asia. Receiving the Royal Charter from King Phillip III of Spain in 1611, it was elevated by Pope Innocent X as a Pontifical University on 20 November 1645. The university celebrated its 400th anniversary in 2011.|
|King Saud University||1957|
|National University of Singapore||1905||Founded as Straits and Federated Malay States Government Medical School|
|Sungkyunkwan University||1895 (as university; royal institution 1398)||Sungkyunkwan was established in 1398 as the highest educational institution of the Joseon Dynasty. In 1895, Sungkyunkwan was reformed into a modern three-year university after the national state examination was abolished the previous year. It was again reorganized as Sungkyunkwan University in 1946 at the end of the Japanese occupation of Korea.|
|University of Colombo||1942||Formed in 1942 as the University of Ceylon by the amalgamation of University College Colombo (established 1921) and Ceylon Medical College (established in 1870). Was part of the University of Sri Lanka 1972–1978.|
|University of Damascus||1923||founded in 1923 through the merger of the School of Medicine (established 1903) and the Institute of Law (established 1913)|
|National Taiwan University||1928||Founded as Taihoku (Taipei) Imperial University|
(Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic)
|Tajik National University||1947|
(Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic)
|Turkmen State University||1950 (as university; pedagogical institute 1931)|
|Chulalongkorn University||1917 (as university; college 1899)|
|United Arab Emirates University||1976|
|Hanoi Medical University||1902|
|Vietnam National University, Hanoi||1904||Originally the University of Indochina, first full subject university in Vietnam.|
While Europe had 143 universities in 1789, the Napoleonic wars took a heavy toll, reducing the number to 83 by 1815. The universities of France were abolished and over half of the universities in both Germany and Spain were destroyed. By the mid 19th century, Europe had recovered to 98 universities.
|University of Tirana||1957||originally established in 1957 as the State University of Tirana through merging of five existing institutes of higher education, the most important of which was the Institute of Sciences, founded in 1947|
|University of Shkodër "Luigj Gurakuqi"||1957|
|Yerevan State University||1919|
|University of Graz||1585 (continuous from 1827)||founded in 1585 by Archduke Charles II of Austria. Closed 1782–1827.|
|University of Innsbruck||1669 (continuous from 1826)||Originally established as a Jesuit school in 1562 before becoming a university in 1669. Closed as a university from 1782 to 1826.|
|Baku State University||1919||In 1930, the government ordered the University shut down in accordance with a reorganization of higher education, and the University was replaced with the Supreme Pedagogical Institute. In 1934 the University was reestablished.|
|Ghent University||1817||established in 1817 by William I of the Netherlands|
|University of Liège||1817||established in 1817 by William I of the Netherlands|
(Flemish Region and Wallonia)
(Leuven and Louvain-la-Neuve)
|KU Leuven and |
|1834 (claims continuity with the Old University of Leuven from 1425)||Founded as the Catholic University of Belgium in Mechlin on 8 November 1834 by the bishops of Belgium. Moved to Leuven on 1 December 1835, after the suppression of the State University of Leuven, where it took the name Catholic University of Louvain. In 1968, it split to form two institutions: Dutch-speaking Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven and French-speaking Université catholique de Louvain.|
(Brussels – Capital Region)
|Université libre de Bruxelles|
and Vrije Universiteit Brussel
|1834||Founded in 1834 as the Université libre de Belgique (Free University of Belgium). In 1836, it changed its name to Université libre de Bruxelles. On 1 October 1969, the university was split into two sister institutions: the French-speaking Université libre de Bruxelles and the Dutch-speaking Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Both names mean Free University of Brussels in English, so neither uses the English translation as it is ambiguous.|
|University of Sarajevo||1949|
|Sofia University||1904 ("higher pedagogical course" from 1888)|
|University of Zagreb||1669||History of the University began on 23 September 1669, when the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I issued a decree granting the establishment of the Jesuit Academy of the Royal Free City of Zagreb. Decree was accepted at the Council of the Croatian Kingdom on 3 November 1671.|
|Palacký University||1573||Originally known as Olomouc Jesuit University.|
|Technical University of Denmark||1829||was founded in 1829 as the College of Advanced Technology|
|University of Tartu||1632 (continuous operation since 1802)||founded as The Academia Gustaviana in the then Swedish province of Livonia. It was closed from 1710 to 1802.|
|University of Helsinki||1640||founded as the Royal Academy of Turku (Swedish: Kungliga Akademin i Åbo. It was shut down by the Great Fire of Turku in 1827. The University of Helsinki was founded the next year, in 1828, and it started operating in 1829. The University of Helsinki sees itself as continuation of the Royal Academy of Turku.|
|Sorbonne University||1150–1250 (continuous operation since 1896)||Emerged around 1150 as a corporation associated with the cathedral school of Notre Dame de Paris, it was considered the second-oldest university in Europe. Officially chartered in 1200 by King Philip II (Philippe-Auguste) of France and recognised in 1215 by Pope Innocent III, it was often nicknamed after its theology collegiate institution, College of Sorbonne, founded about 1257 by Robert de Sorbon and charted by Saint Louis, King of France. It was abolished in 1793 by the French Revolution, and was replaced by Napoléon on 1 May 1806 by the University of France system. In 1896 the Law of Liard allowed the founding of a new University of Paris. In 1970, it split into 13 separate universities and numerous specialised institutions of higher education. In 2018, Sorbonne University was formed from the Paris-Sorbonne University (created from the faculty of humanities of the University of Paris) and Pierre and Marie Curie University (created from the faculty of science and medicine of the University of Paris).|
|Université fédérale de Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées||1229 (continuous operation since 1896)||Founded by papal bull in 1229 as the University of Toulouse. It closed in 1793 due to the French Revolution, and reopened in 1896. In 1969, it split into three separate universities and numerous specialised institutions of higher education. It no longer represents a single university, as it is now the collective entity which federates the universities and specialised institutions of higher education in the region.|
|University of Montpellier|
Paul Valéry University Montpellier 3
|1289 (continuous operation since 1896)||The world's oldest medicine faculty was established before 1137 and operated continuously through the French Revolution. University by Papal Bull in 1289. It closed in 1793 due to the French Revolution, and reopened in 1896. The university of Montpellier was officially re-organised in 1969 after the students' revolt. It was split into its successor institutions the University of Montpellier 1 (comprising the former faculties of medicine, law, and economy), Montpellier 2 (science and technology) and Montpellier 3 (social sciences, humanities and liberal arts). On 1 January 2015, the University of Montpellier 1 and the University of Montpellier 2 merged to form the newly recreated University of Montpellier. Meanwhile, the Paul Valéry University Montpellier 3 remains a separate institution.|
|Aix-Marseille University||1409 (continuous operation since 1896)||Founded in 1409 as the University of Provence, and in 1792, dissolved, along with twenty-one other universities. In 1896 it was reformed as the University of Aix-Marseille, one of 17 self-governing regional universities financed by the state. In 1968 it was divided into two institutions, the University of Provence (Aix-Marseille I) as a school of languages and letters, and the University of Aix-Marseille (Aix-Marseille II) as primarily a school of medicine and sciences. In 1973 the University of Law, Economics and Science (Aix-Marseille III) was added. In 2012 the three universities merged and was renamed Aix-Marseille University.|
|University of Lille||1559||Founded by Philip II of Spain in 1559 as the University of Douai. It closed in 1795 due to the French Revolution, and reopened in 1808. In 1887, it was transferred as University of Lille 27 km away from Douai. In 1971, it split into three separate universities. At the beginning of 2018, the three universities merged to form again the University of Lille.|
|Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg||1502||created in 1502 as the University of Wittenberg. Merged with University of Halle (founded 1691) in 1817.|
|Tbilisi State University||1918||founded in 1918 as Tbilisi State University|
|University of Gibraltar||2015|
|National and Kapodistrian University of Athens||1837|
|Eötvös Loránd University||1635||Founded in 1635 by the archbishop and theologian Péter Pázmány as the University of Nagyszombat. Renamed Royal Hungarian University of Science in 1769. The university was moved to Buda (today part of Budapest) in 1777. The university moved to its final location in Pest (now also part of Budapest) in 1784 and was renamed Royal University of Pest. It has been renamed three times since then: University of Budapest (1873–1921), (Hungarian Royal Pázmány Péter University (1921–1950), and since 1950, Eötvös Loránd University.|
|University of Iceland||1911|
|University of Dublin||1592||Effectively synonymous with Trinity College, Dublin|
|University of Urbino||1506|
|Universiteti i Prishtinës||1969|
|Riga Technical University||1862||first established as Riga Polytechnicum in 1862|
|University of Liechtenstein||1961||successor to the Abendtechnikum Vaduz in 1992|
|Vilnius University||1579 (continuous operation since 1919)||founded as the Jesuit Academy (College) of Vilnius; the university was closed from 1832 to 1919 and again in 1943–44|
|University of Luxembourg||2003|
|University of Malta||1769||first established as the Collegium Melitense by the Jesuits 1592|
|Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje||1946|
|University of Oslo||1811||founded as The Royal Frederik's University|
|University of Wrocław||1702||Founded in 1702 by Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor as the university Leopoldina. It has been renamed five times since then: Universitas Literarum Vratislaviensis in 1742 by King Frederick II of Prussia, Silesian Friedrich Wilhelm University in Breslau in 1811, University of Breslau in the second half of the 19th century, Bolesław Bierut university between 1952 and 1989, and since 1989, University of Wrocław.|
|University of Warsaw||1816||founded as a Royal University on 19 November 1816, when the Partitions of Poland separated Warsaw from the older University of Kraków (founded in 1364).|
|University of Porto||1836 (university 1911)||first established as Polytechnic University of Porto and Medical-Surgical School of Porto since 1836|
|University of Lisbon||1911||successor to the Lisbon General Study, 1290|
|Alexandru Ioan Cuza University||1860||successor to the Princely Academy from Iaşi, 1642, and Academia Mihăileană, 1835|
|University of Bucharest||1864||successor to the Saint Sava College, 1694|
|Babeș-Bolyai University||1918||teaching existed in Cluj-Napoca since the Jesuits College, 1581, and the Jesuits Academy, 1688|
|Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University||1967 (claims continuity with the University of Königsberg, 1544)||After the World War II, Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad, the University of Königsberg (the Albertina) was closed, and the new Russophone Kaliningrad State Pedagogical Institute used the campus of the Albertina from 1948 to 1967. In 1967, the institute received the status of a university and became known as Kaliningrad State University.|
|Saint Petersburg State University||1724 (continuous from 1819)||claims to be the successor of the university established along with the Academic Gymnasium and the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences on 24 January 1724 by a decree of Peter the Great. In the period between 1804 and 1819, Saint Petersburg University officially did not exist|
|Moscow State University||1755||Founded in 1755 as Imperial Moscow University|
|University of Belgrade||1905||founded in 1808 as the Belgrade Higher School, by 1838 it merged with the Kragujevac-based departments into a single university, under current name from 1905; Orthodox Christian Lyceum in 1794; Teacher's college in 1778||
|University of Ljubljana|
|University of Seville||1505|
|Lund University||1666||a Franciscan Studium Generale was founded in Lund in 1425, as the first university in Northern Europe, but as a result of the Protestant Reformation the operations of the catholic university were suspended|
|University of Lausanne||1537|
|University of Zurich||1833 (incorporating colleges dating to 1525)||University established in 1833, taking in the Carolinum theology college, dating to 1525, and colleges of law and medicine.|
|Istanbul Technical University||1773 (university 1928)||Founded in 1773 as Imperial School of Naval Engineering by the Ottoman Sultan Mustafa III, but became a state university in 1928.|
|Istanbul University||1453 (university 1933)||
Its ultimate origins lie in a madrasa and institute of higher education founded by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II in 1453; was reformed to Western style of education with Multiple faculties of sciences in 1846; and gained university status in 1933.
|V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University||1804|
|Lviv University||1661 (continuous from 1850)||operated from 1661–1773, 1784–1805, 1817–1848, 1850-|
|University of Edinburgh||1582/3||Formally established as the Tounis College (Town's College) under the authority of a Royal Charter granted to the Town of Edinburgh by King James VI of Scotland on 14 April 1582. It opened its doors to students in October 1583.|
|Durham University||1832||Claims to be the third oldest university in England.|
Listed by Rüegg in A History of the University in Europe as meeting standard criteria for recognition as a university from 1832
|University of London||1836||Claims to be the third oldest university in England on the basis of the date of its charter.|
Listed by Rüegg as meeting standard criteria for recognition as a university from 1836
|Queen's University Belfast||1845 (as college offering degree courses; university 1908)||Oldest university in Northern Ireland. Listed by Rüegg as meeting standard criteria for recognition as a university from 1845.|
|University of Wales||1893||Founded by Royal Charter in 1893 as a federal university with three constituent colleges – Aberystwyth, Bangor and Cardiff – the university was the first and oldest university in Wales. Listed by Rüegg as meeting standard criteria for recognition as a university from 1893|
|University of Wales Trinity Saint David||1852 (limited degree awarding powers; as college 1822)||The university was founded as St David's College (Coleg Dewi Sant) in 1822 "to provide a liberal education to members of the clergy" and was incorporated by royal charter in 1828. It was renamed St David's University College (Coleg Prifysgol Dewi Sant) in 1971, when it became part of the federal University of Wales. It was again renamed University of Wales, Lampeter in 1996 in line with moves elsewhere in the University of Wales. In 2010 it merged with Trinity University College to form the University of Wales, Trinity Saint David. Although described as the oldest university in Wales, it was not listed by Rüegg as meeting standard criteria for a university and lost a court case in 1951 against the Ministry of Education in which it sought to receive recognition as a university.|
|Aberystwyth University||1872 (as college offering degree courses; university 2007)||Founded in 1872 as University College Wales, offering courses leading to degrees of the University of London, it became a founder member of the University of Wales in 1894. It claims to be "Wales's oldest university", but was listed by Rüegg as a college of the University of Wales rather than as a university. It became an independent university (as Aberystwyth University) in 2007.|
Latin America and the Caribbean
|University of the West Indies||1948 (as affiliated college of the University of London; university 1962)||First campus opened in Jamaica as the University College of the West Indies associated with the University of London in 1948. Gained independent university status in 1962.|
|National University of Córdoba||1613||the oldest university in Argentina|
|University of Belize||2000|
|University of Saint Francis Xavier||1624||Founded in 1624 by order of the Spanish King Philip IV, and with the support of Pope Innocent XII. Full name is The Royal and Pontificial Major University of Saint Francis Xavier of Chuquisaca|
|Federal University of Amazonas||1913 (as university; university school 1909; continuous from 1962)||founded on 17 January 1909 as the Free University School of Manáos. Became the University of Manáos in 1913. Closed 1926, reformed 1962 as the University of Amazonas.|
|Federal University of Paraná||1912 (continuous from 1951)||Closed in 1920, reformed in 1951.|
|Federal University of Rio de Janeiro||1920||created in 1920 by a merger of the Escola Politécnica (Polytechnic School, partially descended from Academia Real Militar, Real Military Academy, founded on 17 April 1811), the Faculdade Nacional de Medicina (National College of Medicine, founded on 2 April 1808) and the Faculdade Nacional de Direito (National College of Law, which came to exist after the fusion between the College of Legal and Social Sciences and the Free College of Law – both recognized by the Law Decree 693 of 1 October 1891). It is the largest federal university in the country.|
|Universidad de Chile||1842||successor to the "Real Universidad de San Felipe", created in 1738. The oldest university in Chile|
|Saint Thomas Aquinas University||1580||Founded in 1580 by the Dominican Order. It is the second-oldest university in the Americas.|
|University of Costa Rica||1940||The first institution dedicated to higher education in Costa Rica was the University of Saint Thomas (Universidad de Santo Tomás), which was established in 1843. That institution maintained close ties with the Roman Catholic Church and was closed in 1888 by the progressive and anti-clerical government of President Bernardo Soto Alfaro as part of a campaign to modernize public education. The schools of law, agronomy, fine arts, and pharmacy continued to operate independently. In 1940, those four schools were re-united to establish the modern UCR, during the reformist administration of President Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia.|
|Universidad de La Habana||1728|
|Ross University School of Medicine||1978|
|Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo||1914||successor to the Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino, 1558, which disappeared in 1823|
|Central University of Ecuador||1826||Real y Pontificia Universidad de San Gregorio Magno|
|Universidad de El Salvador||1841||founded on 16 February 1841, by the President Juan Lindo,|
|St. George's University||1976|
|Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala||1676|
|University of Guyana||1963|
|Universite d'Etat d'Haiti||1820|
|Université Adventiste d'Haïti||1921|
|Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras||1847|
|Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México||1910||traces its origins back to Real y Pontificia Universidad de México (1551–1865) but no institutional continuity|
|Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo||1917 (as university; college 1540)||founded in 1540 as Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo (St. Nicholas Bishop College) and later in 1543 was appointed Real Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo (Royal St. Nicholas Bishop College) by King Carlos I of Spain; it was converted into a university on 15 October 1917.|
|Universidad de Panamá||1935|
|Universidad Nacional de Asunción||1889|
|National University of San Marcos||1551||Also known as the "Dean university of the Americas"; This is the first officially established (privilege by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) and the longest continuously operating university in the Americas.|
|National University of Saint Augustine||1828|
|University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras||1903||Original campus of the University of Puerto Rico|
|Anton de Kom University||1968|
|Universidad de la República||1849|
|University of the Virgin Islands||1967 (degree awarding; college 1962; university 1986)||Established by act of legislature in 1962. Opened in 1963 as the College of the Virgin Islands, offering only associate degrees. First bachelor's degree programmes 1967. Became the University of the Virgin Islands in 1986.|
|Central University of Venezuela||1721|
In the United States, the colonial colleges awarded degrees from their foundation, but none were formally named as universities prior to the American Revolution, leading to various claims to be the first university in the United States. The earliest Canadian institutions were founded as colleges, without degree awarding powers, and gained degree granting authority and university status later.
|University of the West Indies||2009 (Bermudian membership)||First campus opened in Jamaica as the University College of the West Indies associated with the University of London in 1948. Gained independent university status in 1962. Bermuda joined the university in 2009. Bermuda has also had a community college, Bermuda College, since 1974.|
(Halifax, Nova Scotia)
| Nova Scotia|
|University of King's College||1802 (as university; collegiate school 1789)||First established as the King's Collegiate School in Windsor, Nova Scotia in 1789. Received a royal charter in 1802 establishing it (after the model of Trinity College, Dublin) as "The Mother of an University", making it the oldest chartered university in Canada. A fire destroyed the original university in 1920, and the institution relocated to Halifax.|
|University of Greenland||1989 (as university; college 1983)||Established 1983, took name University of Greenland 1987, formal university status by legislation since 1 September 1989.|
|Institut Frecker||1975 (part of Memorial University of Newfoundland)|
|Harvard University||1636||Founded in 1636, named Harvard College in 1639, chartered in 1650. Oldest institution of higher education in the United States. Officially recognised as a university by the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780.|
|The College of William & Mary||1693 (continuously since 1888)||Chartered in 1693. Claims to be the "first college to become a university" in the US, in 1779. Closed during two different periods—from 1861 to 1869 due to the Civil War and postwar financial problems, and 1882 to 1888 due to continued financial difficulties.|
|University of Pennsylvania||1755||Traces its roots to a charity school founded in 1740. Collegiate charter 1755. Claims to be "the first American institution of higher education to be named a university" (in 1779).|
|New South Wales||University of Sydney||1850||oldest in New South Wales, Australia and Oceania|
|Victoria||University of Melbourne||1853||oldest in Victoria|
|University of Adelaide||1874||oldest in South Australia|
|University of South Australia||1889||UniSA was formed in 1991 by the merger of the South Australian Institute of Technology with three South Australian College of Advanced Education campuses|
|University of Tasmania||1890||oldest in Tasmania|
|University of Queensland||1909||oldest in Queensland|
|University of Western Australia||1911||oldest in Western Australia|
|Australian National University||1946||oldest in Australian Capital Territory|
|Charles Darwin University||1989||Founded as University of the Northern Territory in 1989, merged with other institutions to form Charles Darwin University in 2003.|
|University of the South Pacific||1968||Regional university, operating in (and owned by the governments of) 12 Pacific island nations. Main campus in Fiji.|
|University of Guam||1965 (degree granting; college 1952; university 1968)|
|University of Papua New Guinea||1965||first university in Papua New Guinea|
|University of Otago||1869||oldest in New Zealand|
|University of Auckland||1883||oldest in the North Island|
- 'The statement that all universities are descended either directly or by migration from these three prototypes [Oxford, Paris, and Bologna] depends, of course, on one's definition of a university. And I must define a university very strictly here. A university is something more than a center of higher education and study. One must reserve the term university for—and I'm quoting Rashdall here—"a scholastic guild, whether of masters or students, engaged in higher education and study," which was later defined, after the emergence of universities, as "studium generale".'
- "No one today would dispute the fact that universities, in the sense in which the term is now generally understood, were a creation of the Middle Ages, appearing for the first time between the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. It is no doubt true that other civilizations, prior to, or wholly alien to, the medieval West, such as the Roman Empire, Byzantium, Islam, or China, were familiar with forms of higher education which a number of historians, for the sake of convenience, have sometimes described as universities.Yet a closer look makes it plain that the institutional reality was altogether different and, no matter what has been said on the subject, there is no real link such as would justify us in associating them with medieval universities in the West. Until there is definite proof to the contrary, these latter must be regarded as the sole source of the model which gradually spread through the whole of Europe and then to the whole world. We are therefore concerned with what is indisputably an original institution, which can only be defined in terms of a historical analysis of its emergence and its mode of operation in concrete circumstances."
- "Thus the university, as a form of social organization, was peculiar to medieval Europe. Later, it was exported to all parts of the world, including the Muslim East; and it has remained with us down to the present day. But back in the Middle Ages, outside of Europe, there was nothing anything quite like it anywhere."
- The Court of Cassation of Belgium ruled 26 November 1846, that this new Catholic University of Louvain founded in Mechlin in 1834 does not have any links with the Old University of Louvain founded in 1425 and abolished in 1797 and can not be regarded as continuing it: "The Catholic University of Louvain can not be regarded as continuing the old University of Louvain", in, Table générale alphabétique et chronologique de la Pasicrisie Belge contenant la jurisprudence du Royaume de 1814 à 1850, Brussels, 1855, p. 585, column 1, alinea 2. See also: Bulletin Usuel des Lois et Arrêtés, 1861, p.166. To see also this rule of the Cour d'Appel of 1844: La Belgique Judiciaire, 28 July 1844 n° 69, p. 1 : "Cour d'Appel de Bruxelles. Deuxième chambre. L'université libre de Louvain ne représente pas légalement l'antique université de cette ville. Attendu que cette université (l'ancienne Université de Louvain), instituée par une bulle papale, de concert avec l'autorité souveraine, formait un corps reconnu dans l'État, ayant différentes attributions, dont plusieurs même lui étaient déléguées par le pouvoir civil; Attendu que ce corps a été supprimé par les lois de la république française; Attendu que l'université existant actuellement à Louvain ne peut être considérée comme continuant celle qui existait en 1457, ces deux établissemens ayant un caractère bien distinct, puisque l'université actuelle, non reconnue comme personne civile, n'est qu'un établissement tout-à-fait privé, résultat de la liberté d'enseignement, en dehors de toute action du pouvoir et sans autorité dans l'État...". "Court of Appeal of Brussels. Second Chamber. The Free University of Louvain is not legally representend the old university in that city. Whereas this University (formerly University of Louvain), established by a papal bull, together with the sovereign authority, formed a body recognized by the State, with different functions, many of which even he was delegated by the civil power. And whereas this body was removed by the laws of the French Republic; Whereas the currently existing university in Leuven can not be regarded as continuing that which existed in 1457, these two establishments with a distinct character, since the currently university is not recognized as legal person, and is institution is entirely private, the result of academic freedom, apart from any action without authority and power in the state." According to Arlette Graffart, only the State University of Louvain, deserves to be considered as the "resurrection of this one" : "elle seule ⟨the State University of Louvain⟩ et non point celle qui vit le jour en 1834 à l'initiative des évêques de Belgique, c'est-à-dire l'université catholique de Malines devenue de Louvain l'année suivante".
- Hyde, J. K. (1991). "Universities and Cities in Medieval Italy". In Bender, Thomas (ed.). The university and the city: from medieval origins to the present. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-0-19-506775-0.
- Jones, Colin (2006). "Queen of Cities". Paris : The Biography of a City. Paris: Penguin Books. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-14-303671-5.
- Hunt Janin: "The university in medieval life, 1179–1499", McFarland, 2008, ISBN 0-7864-3462-7, p. 55f.
- de Ridder-Symoens, Hilde: A History of the University in Europe: Volume 1, Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp. 47–55
- Riché, Pierre (1978). Education and Culture in the Barbarian West: From the Sixth through the Eighth Century. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. pp. 126–127, 282–298. ISBN 978-0-87249-376-6.
- Verger, Jacques: "Patterns", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-521-54113-8, pp. 35–76 (35):
- Makdisi, George: "Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages", Studia Islamica, No. 32 (1970), pp. 255–264 (264):
- Rüegg, Walter: "Foreword. The University as a European Institution", in: A History of the University in Europe. Vol. 1: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp. XIX–XX.
- Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004). A History of India (4th ed.). New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-32919-4.
- Rüegg, Walter (ed.): Geschichte der Universität in Europa, 3 vols., C.H. Beck, München 1993, ISBN 3-406-36956-1
- Nuria Sanz, Sjur Bergan: "The heritage of European universities", 2nd edition, Higher Education Series No. 7, Council of Europe, 2006, ISBN, p.136
- Adolphus Ballard; James Tait (2010). British Borough Charters 1216–1307. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781108010344.
- "Introduction and history". University of Oxford. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
As the oldest university in the English speaking world, Oxford is a unique and historic institution. There is no clear date of foundation of Oxford University, but teaching existed at Oxford in some form in 1096 and developed rapidly from 1167, when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris.
- Hastings Rashdall (2010). The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages: Volume 2, Part 2, English Universities, Student Life. Cambridge University Press. p. 332. ISBN 9781108018128.
In that case we may definitely assign the birth of Oxford as a Studium Generale to 1167 or the beginning of 1168.Originally published 1895.
- Simon Bailey (18 December 2009). "The hanging of the clerks in 1209". BBC News.
- "Reseña Histórica de la USAL" (in Spanish). University of Salamanca. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
- Hilde De-Ridder Symoens (2003). Cambridge University Press (ed.). A History of the University in Europe: Universities in the Middle Ages. 1. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-521-54113-8.
- "Early records". A brief history of the university. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- "800th anniversary". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- Pace, E. (1912). Universities. The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 1 February 2017 – via New Advent.
- "News – Dettagli Notizia". News.unina.it. Archived from the original on 11 January 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "Storia dell'Ateneo" (in Italian). University of Siena. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- Hastings Rashdall (2010). The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages: Volume 2, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. pp. 31–34. ISBN 9781108018111. Originally publisher 1895
- Times Higher Education – QS World University Rankings 2007 – World's oldest universities Archived 17 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Origins-1824". University of Macerata. 1 February 2017. Archived from the original on 11 May 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Foreign Students Guide". University of Valladolid. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- Bernabé Bartolomé Martínez (1 January 1992). La educación en la Hispania antigua y medieval (in Spanish). Ediciones Morata. p. 559. ISBN 9788471123749.
- "History of CU – Charles University". Cuni.cz. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "St Andrews: the Mediaeval University" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
- Owen Chadwick (2003). The Early Reformation on the Continent. Oxford University Press. p. 257. ISBN 9780191520501.
- "University of Rostock". Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company New York, NY. 1907–1912 – via Catholic Online.
[The university] fell into complete decay after the beginning of the Reformation in (1523) when the university revenues were lost and matriculations ceased.
- Irena Dorota Backus (2000). Reformation Readings of the Apocalypse: Geneva, Zurich, and Wittenberg. Oxford University Press. p. 113. ISBN 9780195138856.
- "Immatrikulation von Ioannes Draconites" (in German). University of Rostock. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- "The University of Barcelona: 599 years of history. The most important dates and events". Universitat de Barcelona. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
- "University of Basel – Swiss Universities Handbook – Top Universities in Switzerland". Universitieshandbook.com. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- Hastings Rashdall (1895). The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages: pt. 1. Italy. Spain. France. Germany. Scotland, etc. Clarendon Press.
- "La Universidad de Santiago cumple 500 años". El Mundo (in Spanish). 22 March 1995.
- Wagdy Sawahel (15 July 2016). "Higher education struggles under multiple pressures". University World News.
- "University of Ghana | Legon". Ug.edu.gh. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "Guinea: Higher Education". StateUniversity.com. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
- J. M. Hyslop (1964). "The University of East Africa". Minerva. 2 (3): 286–302. doi:10.1007/BF01097318. JSTOR 41821619.
- "Our Profile". Egerton. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
- Nkulu, Kiluba L. (2005). Serving the Common Good: an African perspective on higher education. Peter Lang. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-8204-7626-1.
- "History/Overview". University of Nigeria. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
- "Fourah Bay College (1827 – )". BlackPast.org. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "The First BA in Africa". Durham First. No. 32. 2012. p. 7.
- "Historical Background". University of Khartoum. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- "The University". Dhaka college. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
- Library World Records, 3d ed.; by Godfrey Oswald
- Kerry Schaefer; Lisa Torre. "China's Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution" (PDF). Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- Sankar Ray (11 April 2008). "Colonial Archive". The Hindu. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
- 須藤敏夫『近世日本釈奠の研究』（思文閣出版、2001年） ISBN 978-4-7842-1070-1
- "東京大学 [東京大学の歴史]沿革略図". U-tokyo.ac.jp. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- 深瀬泰旦著 『天然痘根絶史』 恩文閣出版、2002年9月 ISBN 4-7842-1116-0
- "Chronology". Tokyo University. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "History". Keio University. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "The Spirit of Tradition and Innovation Embodied in the 370 Year History of Ryukoku". Ryukoku University. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
Daikyoko (Great School) established in September, 1876, as the highest institution of the educational system promulgated by the Nishi-Hongwanji organization … 1922 Renamed Ryukoku University Became a university under University Ordinance
- "History". Maldives National University. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- "Yangon – From stately city to crumbling symbol of isolation". Reuters. 27 November 2011.
- "About Us". Tribhuvan-university.edu.np. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "Campus Profile". Sultan Qaboos University. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- "About Us". University of the Punjab. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "The Government College University, Lahore Ordinance 2002". Punjab Laws Online. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "Mission and History". Bethlehem University. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- "About". Qatar University. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- "History". University of Colombo. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Walter Rüegg (2004). "1 Themes". A History of the University in Europe. 3, Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800–1945). Cambridge University Press. p. 3.
- "Catholic University of Leuven". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
Catholic University of Leuven, Flemish Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, French Université Catholique de Louvain, renowned institution of higher learning founded in 1425 in Leuven (Louvain), Brabant (now in Belgium).
- "Université de Louvain" [University of Louvain]. Encyclopædia Universalis (in French). Retrieved 11 August 2019.
- "Top 25 universities over 400 years old". Times Higher Education. 10 February 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
Rank 5; KU Leuven; 1425 (...) Rank 22; Université catholique de Louvain; 1425
- "La matricule de l'Université de Louvain (1817-1835)", in : Album Carlos Wyffels, Bruxelles, 1987, p. 177
- Pundeff, Marin (September 1968). "The University of Sofia at Eighty". Slavic Review. 27 (3): 438–446. doi:10.2307/2493343. JSTOR 2493343.
- Study International, Consolidation of two elite Paris universities confirmed for 2018
- The Pie News, Mega university planned for Paris's Left Bank
- "L'université de Montpellier à l'épreuve de la fusion – Journal La Marseillaise". Lamarseillaise.fr. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Université (20 June 2014). "Université de Montpellier » Histoire de l'Université". Umontpellier.fr. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Guy Clapperton (22 September 2015). "The new campus on the Rock – part 2". New Statesman. Progressive Digital Media. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- "about us". National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
- "Study in Romanian – Learn & Live Freely". Study-in-romania.ro. Archived from the original on 11 June 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "Short history". Alexandru Ioan Cuza University. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
- "Timeline". Alexandru Ioan Cuza University. Archived from the original on 11 August 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
- "University of Bucharest – EN Home Page". University of Bucharest. 1 January 1980. Archived from the original on 29 March 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "A significant history". Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca. Archived from the original on 8 August 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- "Istanbul Technical University". Itu.edu.tr. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- Walter Rüegg (2004). A History of the University in Europe. 3, Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800–1945). Cambridge University Press. p. 680. ISBN 9781139453028.
- Nicholas Phillipson (1988). Thomas Bender (ed.). Commerce and Culture: Edinburgh, Edinburgh University, and the Scottish Enlightenment. The University and the City: From Medieval Origins to the Present. Oxford University Press. p. 100. ISBN 9780195067750.
- Michael Lynch (2005). Jos. M. M. Hermans, Marc Nelissen (ed.). Edinburgh. Charters of Foundation and Early Documents of the Universities of the Coimbra Group. Leuven University Press. pp. 42–43. ISBN 9789058674746.
- "Our History". University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- Walter Rüegg (2004). A History of the University in Europe. 3, Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800–1945). Cambridge University Press. p. 684. ISBN 9781139453028.
- Durham University Undergraduate Prospectus 2015. Durham University. p. 6.
We are the third oldest university in England and one of the world's leading centres of scholarship and learning
- "Our history and values". Retrieved 30 September 2015.
Henry VIII and Oliver Cromwell's attempts to formally establish a University for the North in Durham were subsumed by politics and North-South rivalries, and it was not until 1832, as the Prince-Bishopric declined lost his powers, was Durham finally endowed with the Castle and lands and granted degree awarding powers by the king as England's third University
- Parliament, Great Britain (1844). Acts Relating to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners for England. p. 389.
- Chitty, Joseph (1837). A Collection of Statutes of Practical Utility. p. 225.
nothing herein contained shall affect or interfere with the rights and privileges granted by charter or Act of Parliament to the University of Durham
- Chitty, Joseph (1837). A Collection of Statutes of Practical Utility. p. 148.
that the Bishop of Durham do in future hold the castle of Durham in trust for the University of Durham
- "About Durham University – Royal Charter". Durham University. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- The Statutes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. His Majesty's Statute and Law Printers. 1837. p. 277.
- "History". University of London. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
The University of London was founded by Royal Charter on 28 November 1836 and is the third oldest university in England.
- University of London – The Historical Record, 1836–1912. University of London. 1912. pp. 7–24.
- (London), King's College (1830). The charter and by-laws of King's College, London.
- "Living in London". University College London. Archived from the original on 27 November 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
London offers a scene and status unrivalled by any other city. UCL, England's third oldest university, is at the heart of what has been described as 'the knowledge capital of the world'.
- Undergraduate Prospectus 2015. University College London. p. 7.
- "About King's". King's College London.
- "University College London". Penny Cyclopaedia. Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge: 23–28. 1843.
- "UCL granted degree awarding powers". University College London. 27 September 2005. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
- "King's Governance". King's College London. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
- "History and Heritage". Queen's University Belfast. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
Queen's University Belfast was founded by Royal Charter in 1845. One of three Queen's Colleges in Ireland, with the others being in Cork and Galway, it became a university in its own right in 1908.
- Walter Rüegg (2004). A History of the University in Europe. 3, Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800–1945). Cambridge University Press. p. 687. ISBN 9781139453028.
- "The University of Wales Trinity Saint David celebrates Founders Day". University of Wales Trinity Saint David. 17 November 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "University of Wales Trinity Saint David Receives Royal Approval". 23 July 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "End of an era for Lampeter, the oldest university in Wales". The Guardian. 17 April 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "Fears for the future survival of Wales' oldest university". Wales Online. 7 August 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- Walter Rüegg (2004). A History of the University in Europe. 3, Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800–1945). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139453028.
- "St David's College, Lampeter v Ministry of Education 1951" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 May 2003. Retrieved 30 December 2014.(PDF)
- "Early Days". Aberystwyth University. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "Investing over £100m in your future". Aberystwyth University. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
Together they will ensure that Wales's oldest university will be well placed to survive the challenges of the twenty-first century – Aberystwyth's third century of existence.
- "College by the sea to College on the hill". Aberystwyth University. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "Historia". Federal University of Amazona (in Portuguese). Retrieved 12 August 2019.
- "Historia" (in Spanish). Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "History". University of the Virgin Islands. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- "Bermuda joins the UWI Family". University of the West Indies. Archived from the original on 16 July 2010.
- Kirby Walsh (2003). Deeper Imprint: The Footsteps of Archbishop Arthur Gordon Peters. Cape Breton University Press. pp. 26–27. ISBN 9780920336953.
- "History". University of King's College. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "History". University of Greenland. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
- "Institut Frecker". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- "History". Harvard University. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Historical Facts". Harvard University. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Cool facts". College of William and Mary. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Penn's Heritage". University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Celebrating 25 Years of University Education in the Northern Territory". Charles Darwin University. Retrieved 13 August 2019.