List of new religious movements

A new religious movement (NRM) is a religious, ethical, or spiritual group or community with practices of relatively modern origins. NRMs may be novel in origin or they may exist on the fringes of a wider religion, in which case they will be distinct from pre-existing denominations. Academics identify a variety of characteristics which they employ in categorizing groups as new religious movements. The term is broad and inclusive, rather than sharply defined. New religious movements are generally seen as syncretic, employing human and material assets to disseminate their ideas and worldviews, deviating in some degree from a society's traditional forms or doctrines, focused especially upon the self, and having a peripheral relationship that exists in a state of tension with established societal conventions.[1]:29[2][3]

An NRM may be one of a wide range of movements ranging from those with loose affiliations based on novel approaches to spirituality or religion to communitarian enterprises that demand a considerable amount of group conformity and a social identity that separates their adherents from mainstream society. Use of the term NRM is not universally accepted among the groups to which it is applied.[4] Scholars have estimated that NRMs now number in the tens of thousands worldwide, with most in Asia and Africa. Most have only a few members, some have thousands, and very few have more than a million.[5]:17 Academics occasionally propose amendments to technical definitions and continue to add new groups.[1]:vii–xv

List

List of new religious movements
Name Founder Year founded Type
3HO[6]:131Harbhajan Singh Khalsa[7]:1621969[7]:162Sikh[7]:162
Adidam, previously Free Daist Communion, Dawn Horse Fellowship, etc.[7]:146[8]:25–28[9]:2–3Adi Da[7]:1461972[7]:146Neo-Hindu-inspired[7]:146
Adonai-Shomo[8]:28Frederick T. Howland[10]:7071861[10]:707Adventist Communal[10]:707
Adonism[11]Franz Sättler[11]1925[11]Neo-pagan[11]
Adventures in Enlightenment, A Foundation[8]:28–29Terry Cole-Whittaker1985Religious Science
Aetherius Society[7]:3[8]:29–31[12]:25–26George King[7]:31954[7]:3UFO-Christian[7]:3
The African Church[12]:26Jacob Kehinde Coker[13]1901[13]Anglican
African initiated churches[12]:26–27MultipleSyncretistic Christian-Indigenous
African Theological Archministry, previously Order of Damballah Hwedo Ancestor Priests, Shango Temple, and Yoruba Temple[8]:31Walter Eugene King[10]:9341973[10]:934Voodoo[10]:934
Agasha Temple of Wisdom[8]:32Richard Zenor[10]:7641943[10]:764Spiritualism[10]:764
Agni Yoga (Roerichism)[6]:6[8]:32Helena Roerich, Nicholas Roerich[10]:876mid-1920s[10]:876Neo-Theosophical[10]:876
Ahmadiyya[6]:6[8]:32–33[12]:27–28Mirza Ghulam Ahmad[10]:9851889[10]:985Indian Islam[10]:985
Aladura[6]:7[12]:28–29Josiah Ositelu[10]1930[10]:517Pentecostal[10]:517
Alamo Christian Foundation, also known as Alamo Christian Church, Consecrated, Alamo Christian Ministries, and Music Square Church[6]:7[8]:33–34[12]:29Tony Alamo; Susan Alamo[7]:131969[7]:13Fundamentalist

Communal[7]:13

Altruria[8]:34–35Edward Biron Payne[10]:7071894[10]:707Christian

Communal[10]:707

American Buddhist Movement[8]:35–361980[10]:1116Western Buddhism[10]:1116
American Buddhist Society and Fellowship, Inc.[8]:36Robert Ernest Dickhoff[10]:11021945[10]:1102Tibetan Buddhism[10]:1102
American World Patriarchs[8]:37–38Uladyslau Ryzy-Ryski[10]:3091972[10]:309Eastern Orthodox[10]:309
Amica Temple of Radiance[8]:38Ivah Berg Whitten[10]:8761932[10]:876Neo-Theosophical[10]:876
Ananda Marga[6]:11[8]:41[12]:30–31[14]:370Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar[10]:10011955[10]:1001Neo-Hindu[10]:1001

Tantric

Ancient British Church in North America[8]:43Jonathan V. Zotique[10]:1142Homosexually Oriented[10]:1142
Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis[6]:11[8]:42–43[12]:31H. Spencer Lewis[10]:8411915[10]:841neo-Rosicrucianism[10]:841
Ancient Teachings of the Masters, also known as ATOM[8]:43Darwin Gross[10]:10541983[10]:1054Sant Mat[10]:1054
Anglo-Saxon Federation of America[6]:13[8]:43–44Howard B. Rand[10]:6511928[10]:651British Israelism[10]:651
Ansaaru Allah Community[8]:44As Siddid Al Imaan Al Haahi Al Mahdi[10]:986–987late 1960s[10]:986–987"Black Islam[10]:986–987
Anthroposophy (Anthroposophical Society)[8]:44–47[12]:33–34Rudolf Steiner[7]:201912[7]:20Western esotericism[15]:41
Antiochian Catholic Church in America[8]:47Gordon Mar Peter[10]:2411980s[10]:241Independent Catholic

Monophysite[10]:241

Antoinism[6]Louis-Joseph Antoine[6]1910[6]Christian Healing[6]
Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarean)[8]:47–48Samuel Heinrich Froehlich[10]:5481906[10]:548European Free-Church[10]:548
Apostolic Christian Church of America[8]:47–48Samuel Heinrich Froehlich[10]:5481830[10]:548European Free-Church[10]:548
Apostolic Church[6]:15Daniel Powell Williams[7]:231916[7]:23Pentecostal[7]:23
Apostolic Church of Christ (Pentecostal)[8]:48Johnnie Draft; Wallace Snow[10]:4641969[10]:464Apostolic Pentecostal[10]:464
Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church of God[6]:16William Thomas Phillips[10]:4651920[10]:465Apostolic Pentecostal[10]:465
Arcane School[12]:38Alice and Foster Bailey[10]:8571937[10]:857Neo-Theosophical[10]:857
Arica School[6]:17[12]:38–39Oscar Ichazo[10]:9711968[10]:971Sufism[10]:971
Arkeon[16] Vito Carlo Moccia[17] 1999[17] Reiki

Roman Catholicism[16]

Art of Living Foundation, also known as Association for Inner Growth and Ved Vignan Maha Vidya Preeth[10]:1004Ravi Shankar[10]:10041981[10]:1004Neo-Hindu[10]:1004
Arya Samaj[6]:18[12]:40–41Mul Shankara[10]:10041875[10]:1004Neo-Hindu[10]:1004
Aryan Nations, also known as Church of Jesus Christ Christian, Aryan Nations[12]:91Wesley Swift[10]:654late 1940s[10]:654British Israelism[10]:654
Ásatrú[18]Stephen McNallen[18]1970s[18]Neo-pagan[18]

Polytheistic reconstructionism

Assemblies of God[12]:41–42merger[19]:1061914[19]:106Pentecostal[19]:106
Assemblies of the Lord Jesus Christ[6]:18merger[10]:4661952[10]:466Apostolic Pentecostal[10]:466
Assembly of Christian Soldiers[6]:21Jessie L. Thrift[10]:11311971[10]:1131Ku Klux Klan[10]:1131
Association for Research and Enlightenment[6]:21[12]:42–43Edgar Cayce[7]:311931[7]:31Occult[7]:31
Association of Vineyard Churches[6]:316John Wimber[10]:4461982[10]:446Trinitarian Pentecostal[10]:446
Aum Shinrikyo, also known as Aleph[6]:23[12]:44–45[20][21]Shoko Asahara[10]:10731987[10]:1073Japanese Buddhism[10]:1073
Ausar Auset Society[6]:24R.A. Straughn[10]:842mid-1970s[10]:842neo-Rosicrucianism[10]:842
Azali or Azali Babi[22]:246Subh-i-Azal1863Babism
Bábism[23]:180[24][8]:58Báb (Ali Muhammad Shirazi)[24]1844[24]Shia Islam-Millenarian[24]
Bahá'í Faith[6]:25–26[25]:243–248[12]:48–49[9]:58–56Bahá'u'lláh (Mírzá Ḥusayn-'Alí Nuri)[10]:9921863[10]:992Bábism[26]
Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship[12]:50–51Bawa Muhaiyaddeen[10]:9721971[10]:972Sufism[10]:972
Bethel Ministerial Association[6]:32Albert Franklin Varnell[10]:4661934[10]:466Apostolic Pentecostal[10]:466
Bible Presbyterian Church[6]:33Carl McIntire[10]:3701938[10]:370Reformed Presbyterian[10]:370
Bible Way Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ[6]:34[8]:77schism[10]:4661957[10]:466Apostolic Pentecostal[10]:466
The Blackburn Cult, also known as the Divine Order of the Royal Arms of the Great Eleven[27]:35May Otis Blackburn[27]:11922[27]:1Neo-pagan

New Thought[27]:1

Brahma Kumaris[6]:37[12]:56–57[28]Dada Lekhraj[10]:10061936[10]:1006Neo-Hindu[10]:1006
Brahmo Samaj, also known as the religion Adi Dharm[29][30]:1028–1030Ram Mohan Roy1828Neo-Hindu
Brahmoism (Brahmo Dharma)[29]:43–57Debendranath Tagore1848/1850Neo-Hindu
Branch Davidians[6]:38[12]:59Victor T. Houteff[10]:6171930[10]:617Seventh Day Adventist[10]:617
Branhamism[31]:37–40William M. Branham[31]:37–401951[31]:37–40Pentecostal[31]:37–40
Breatharians also known as Inedia[12]:60–61Wiley Brooks[32]:301970s[32]:30Hinduism-influenced[32]:30
The Brethren (Jim Roberts group), also known as The Body of Christ and The Garbage Eaters[10]:1131–1132Jimmie T. Roberts[10]:1131–1132c. 1970[10]:1131–1132Unclassified Christian Churches[10]:1131–1132
British Israelism, also called Anglo-Israelism[6]:39–40[12]:61–62
Bruderhof, also known as the Hutterian Brethren and Hutterian Society of Brothers[12]:63–64Eberhard Arnold[33]:709c. 1920[10]:709Communal[10]:709
Brunstad Christian Church[6]:269–270Johan Oscar Smith[34]1905[34]evangelical

non-denominational Christian

Builders of the Adytum[6]:41–42[12]:67–68Paul Foster Case[10]:8911922[10]:891Ritual magic[10]:891
Candomblé[6]:43–44[12]:68–6919th century[7]:61Syncretistic

Neo-African Divination[7]:61

Cao Dai, also known as Dai Dao Tam Ky Pho Do[6]:44[12]:69–70Ngô Văn Chiêu

Lê Văn Trung[7]:61

1919[7]:61Syncretistic

Vietnamese Millenarian[7]:61

Cargo cults[6]:45[12]:70Syncretistic

Nativist[7]:62

CAUSA International[12]:72Sun Myung Moon[10]:837–8381970[10]:837–838Unification Church[10]:837–838
Celestial Church of Christ[12]:73Samuel Oshoffa[7]:641947[7]:64Nativist

Pentecostal[7]:64

The Centers Network[12]:73–74
Chabad-Lubavitch[6]:206,368[12]:70Shneur Zalman of Liadi.late 18th centuryChasidic
Charismatic Movement[12]:781950s[31]:70Pentecostal
Chen Tao, also called God's Salvation Church and God Saves the Earth Flying Saucer Foundation[12]:78–79Hon-Ming Chen[35]1955UFO religion
Cheondoism, also called Chendogyo[12]:80–81Choe Je-u
Cherubim and Seraphim, also known as Sacred Cherubim and Seraphim Society and Eternal Sacred Order of Cherubim and Seraphim[12]:79Moses Orimolade Tunolase[7]:65c. 1925[7]:65African Pentecostal[7]:65
Christ Apostolic Church[12]:82–83Joseph Ayo Babalola[10]:4791941[10]:479Pentecostal[10]:479
Christadelphians, also called Thomasites[6]:50[12]:81–82John Thomas[31]:481844[10]:107Baptist family[10]:107

Restorationism

The Christian Community, also known as the Christian Community Church and Christengemeinschaft[12]:83Rudolf Steiner
Friedrich Rittelmeyer[7]:70
1922[7]:70Anthroposophy[7]:70
Christian Identity[6]:138[12]:841982[10]:652British Israelism[10]:652
Christian Reformed Church in North America[12]:86Gijsbert Haan[10]:3651857[10]:365Reformed Presbyterian[10]:365
Christian Science[10]:741[12]:86–87.Mary Baker Eddy[10]:7411876[10]:741Christian

Faith healing

New Thought[36]

Christian World Liberation Front, also known as the Spiritual Counterfeits Project[12]:87–88Jack Sparks

Fred Dyson Pat Matrisciana[7]:76

1969[7]:76Christian Fundamentalist-Millenarian[7]:76
Church of All Worlds[6]:58[12]:88–89Tim Zell

Lance Christie[10]:909

1962[10]:909Witchcraft

Neo-pagan[10]:909

Church of Aphrodite[6]:58Gleb Botkin[10]:9111939[10]:911Witchcraft

Neo-Pagan[10]:911

Church of Bible Understanding[6]:59[12]:89–90Stewart Traill[7]:791971[7]:79Adventist

Fundamentalist[7]:79

Church of Daniel's Band[6]:611893[10]:395Non-Episcopal Methodism[10]:395
Church of Divine Science[25]:326Malinda Cramer1888New Thought

Faith healing

Church of God in Christ[6]:62Charles H. Mason[7]:851908[7]:85Pentecostal[7]:85
The Church of God (Jerusalem Acres)[6]:62Grady R. Kent[10]:4371957[10]:437White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[10]:437
Church of God Mountain Assembly[6]:63, 65J.H. Parks,
Steve N. Bryant,
Tom Moses,
and William O. Douglas
1906[10]:437White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[10]:437
Church of God of Prophecy[6]:62–63Ambrose Tomlinson[10]:4381903[10]:438White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[10]:438
Church of God with Signs Following[37]:300–301George Went Hensley[10]:4891920s[10]:489Holiness Pentecostal[10]:489
Church of Israel[6]:65Dan Gayman[10]:6531974[10]:653British Israelism[10]:653
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsJoseph Smith1830Latter-day Saint Movement-Millenarian
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite)[38] Joseph Smith
James Strang[38]
1844[38] Latter Day Saint movement
The Church of Light[8]:210–211[39]:105–106C.C. Zain[8]:210–211[39]:105–1061932[8]:210–211[39]:105–106neo-Hermetism[8]:210–211[39]:105–106
Church of Satan[25]:401–410[12]:91–92Anton LaVey[9]:508–5091966[9]:508–509Satanism[9]:508–509
Church of the SubGeniusJ.R. "Bob" Dobbs1979UFO religion

Apocalypticism

Church of the Creator[10]:668Rev. Dr. Grace Marama URI1969Liberal family[10]:668
Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster[40][41] or PastafarianismBobby Henderson2005
Church of the Living Word, also known as The Walk[12]:92–93John Robert Stevens[7]:3861954[7]:386Fundamentalist

Occult[7]:386

Church of the Lord (Aladura)[12]:93Josiah Ositelu[10]:5171930[10]:517Pentecostal Family[10]:517
Church of World Messianity[6]:94, 371[12]:94Mokichi Okada[10]:11201934[10]:1120Shinto[10]:1120

Health healing

Church Universal and Triumphant[6]:281[12]:94–95Mark Prophet

Elizabeth Clare (Wolf) Prophet[7]:97

1958[7]:97Theosophical

Occult[7]:97

Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles, also known as CARP[12]:71Sun Myung Moon[42][43]1955[43]Unification Church[43]
Commandment Keepers: Holy Church of the Living God[6]:74[8]:180Arnold Josiah Ford[10]:9511924[10]:951Black Judaism[10]:951
Community Chapel and Bible Training Center[6]:75Donald Lee Barnett[10]:4961967[10]:496Latter Rain

Pentecostal[10]:496

Concerned Christians[12]:96Monte Kim Miller[44]
Conservative Judaism[6]:76[12]:97Sabato Morais

Marcus Jastrow H. Pereira Mendes[10]:943

1887[10]:943Mainline Judaism[10]:943
Core Shamanism, The Foundation for Shamanic Studies[9]:580[45]Michael Harner1980thNeoshamanism
Covenant of the Goddess[6]:98[12]:48–49merger[10]:9151975[10]:915Goddess

Witchcraft

Neo-pagan[10]:915

Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans[6]:99[12]:99Margot Adler[10]:9151987[10]:915Witchcraft

Neo-pagan[10]:915

The Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord[6]:78[12]:99–100James D. Ellison[10]:654mid-1970s[10]:654British Israelism[10]:654
Creativity[46]Ben Klassen[46]early-1970'sPantheism

Agnostic Atheism White Racialism.[46]

Crossroads Movement[12]:1001970s[37]:100
Cyberchurches[12]:103non-denominational Christian
Dalit Buddhist Movement, also known as the Neo-Buddhist movement or Navayana Buddhist movement B. R. Ambedkar 1956 Neo-Buddhism (Navayana)
Dances of Universal Peace[47]Samuel L. Lewis
Dianic Wicca[6]:84merger[10]:9161971[10]:916Witchcraft

Neo-pagan[10]:916

DiscordianismGreg Hill, Kerry Wendell Thornley[48]1963Absurdism
Eckankar[6]:91Paul Twitchell[10]:10561971[10]:1056Derived from Sant Mat but denies connection[10]:1056
Elan Vital (formerly Divine Light Mission)[6]:85–86[28]:126[49]:156Shri Hans Ji Maharaj[10]:10551920s[10]:1055Sant Mat[10]:1055
EminRaymond Armin1971New Age
End Time Survivors Jesus Christians[50]David McKay[51]Fundamentalist Millennialism
Esoteric Nazism[52]:17Occult

Western esotericism[15]

est (Erhard Seminars Training)[1]:44[28]:126–127[53]Werner Erhard[54]:1931971[31]:108[55]:167,171–172Human Potential Movement[5]:35[31]:107–108[56] Self religions[57]
Evangelical Methodist Church[6]:97J.H. Hamblen[10]:3961946[10]:396Non-Episcopal Methodist[10]:396
Family Federation for World Peace and Unification[58]Sun Myung Moon[58]1994[58]Unification Church[58]
Falun Gong[59]Li Hongzhi[10]:11261992[10]:1126Qigong movement
Family International, previously known as the Children of God, the Family of Love and the Family[7]:133[28]:126[60]David Berg[7]:1331968[7]:133Fundamentalist,[7]:133 Jesus movement[60]

countercultural evangelical[9]:185

Fellowship of Isis[6]:103Olivia Robertson[10]:8881976[10]:888Neo-pagan

Goddess[10]:888

Feraferia[61]Frederick Adams[61]1967[61]Neo-pagan

Goddess[61]

Findhorn Foundation[6]:104Eileen Caddy

Peter Caddy Alexis Edwards Roger Benson[7]:138

1963[7]:138Christian-Anthroposophistical-neo-Rosicrucian[7]:138
Fire Baptized Holiness Church of God of the Americas[6]:104W.E. Fuller[10]:4821898[10]:482Black Trinitarian Pentecostal[10]:482
First Satanic Church[62]:701Karla LaVey1997Satanism
Followers of Christ[10]:1137Marion Reece (or Riess)[10]:1137[63]late 19th century[10]:1137Unclassified[10]:1137 Pentecostal[63]
Fourth Way[25]:259–266[15]:42George Gurdjieffc. 1913Esoteric Sufism

Western esotericism[15]:42

Fraternitas Rosae Crucis[6]:108Paschal Beverly Randolph[10]:8431858[10]:843neo-Rosicrucianism[10]:843
Fraternity of the Inner Light[9]:217–219Dion Fortune1924neo-Hermeticism

Esoteric Christianity[9]:217–219

Freedomites[6]:272
Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO)[64] now known as Triratna Buddhist CommunitySangharakshita (Dennis Lingwood)1967[64]Neo-Buddhism
Fundamentalist Christianity[6]:113–114Christian
General Church of the New Jerusalem[6]:117schism[10]:7631890[10]:763Swedenborgianism[10]:763
The Genesis II Church of Health and HealingJim Humble2009 or 2010[65]UFO-New Age inspired

Pseudoscience[66][67][68]

Ghost Dance[6]:119Neo-pagan

Native American religion

Global Peace Foundation[69]Hyun Jin Moon[70]2007[69]Unification Church[69]
Grail Movement[6]:122–123Oskar Ernst Bernhardt[10]:7861924[10]:786Syncretistic Christian

New Age

Channeling[10]:786

Hanuman Foundation[6]:129Richard Alpert (Ram Dass)[31]:511980[10]:1013Neo-Hindu[10]:1013
Heaven's Gate[71]Marshall Herff Applewhite

Bonnie Lu Nettles[71]

1973[71]New Age

UFO religion[71]

Himalayan Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy[6]:133Swami Rama[10]:10141971[10]:1014Hindu[10]:1014
Huna[8]:406–407Max Freedom Long1936New Thought

Hawaiian religion

I AM Activity[6]:138Guy Ballard, Edna Anne Wheeler Ballard[10]:873early 1930sNeo-Theosophical[10]:873
Iglesia Ni Cristo[72]Felix Y. Manalo[73]1914[73]Restorationism

Unitarianism

Isha Foundation[74]Jaggi Vasudev1992Hindu
Independent Fundamental Churches of America[6]:142R. Lee Kirkland[7]:1791922[7]:179Unaffiliated Fundamentalist[7]:179
Insight Meditation Society[6]:143Jack Kornfield

Sharon Salzberg

Joseph Goldstein[10]:1067

1976[10]:1067Theravada Buddhism[10]:1067
International House of Prayer also known as (IHOP or IHOPKC)Mike Bickle1999Charismatic Movement

Post-tribulational Historic premillennialism

International Church of the Foursquare Gospel[6]:108Aimee Semple McPherson[10]:4511923[10]:451White Trinitarian Pentecostal[10]:451
International Community of Christ also known as Church of the Second Advent (CSA) and Jamilians[31]:139Eugene Douglas Savoy[31]:1391972[31]:139New Age[31]:139
Ivanovism (the Ivanovites)[75]:128–145Porfiry Ivanov1933Neo-pagan

Slavic Native Faith

Jediism[76]:622000s[76]:62Star Wars-inspired

New Age[76]:62

Jehovah's Witnesses[6]:150, 152–153Charles Taze Russell[10]:6371870[10]:637Adventist

Bible Students[10]:637

Jesus Army, also known as "Jesus Fellowship Church" and "Bugbrooke Jesus Fellowship"[6]:153Noel Stanton[14]:149–1631977[14]:149–163Fundamentalist

Communal[14]:149–163

Jesus Movement[6]:153[77]late 1960s[7]:196Fundamentalist[7]:196
Jews for Jesus[6]:155Moishe Rosen[7]:1971970[7]:197Fundamentalist[7]:197
John Frum[6]:1551936[7]:197Syncretistic

Millenarian[7]:197

Kabbalah Centre[9]:292–293Philip Berg[9]:292–2931970s[9]:292–293New Age[9]:292–293
Kemetic Orthodoxy[78]Tamara Siuda[78]1988[78]Kemetic[78]
Kerista[6]:158John Presmont[10]:7301956[10]:730Communal—After 1960[10]:730
Kofuku-no-Kagaku (The Institute for Research in Human Happiness)[79]Ryuho Okawa1986Japanese
KopimismIsak Gerson2012Internet religion
Konkokyo[6]:161Bunjiro Kawate[10]:11221859[10]:1122Shinto[10]:1122
Krishnamurti Foundations[80]Jiddu Krishnamurti1928Neo-Theosophical

Universalism

Kripalu Center (Kirpalu)[6]:161Amrit Desai[10]:10191966[10]:1019Hindu[10]:1019
Lama Foundation[6]:164Steve Durkee[10]:7311967[10]:731Communal[10]:731
Latter Day Saint movement (Mormonism)[6]:190, 192Joseph Smith[31]:1871830[31]:187Christian restorationism
Latter Rain Movement[6]:165George Hawtin

Percy Hunt[7]:209

1946[7]:209Millenarian Pentecostal[7]:209
Laymen's Home Missionary Movement[6]:165Paul S. L. Johnson[10]:639c. 1920[10]:639Adventist

Bible Students[10]:639

Lectorium Rosicrucianum[6]:165–166Jan van Rijckenborgh; Zwier Willem Leene; Catharose de Petri[9]:338–3391924[10]:844neo-Rosicrucianism[10]:844
The Living Word Fellowship[81]John Robert Stevens[10]:5061951[10]:506Latter Rain Pentecostal[10]:506
Local Church movement[6]:169, 171Ni Shu-tsu (Watchman Nee)[10]:609–6101920s[10]:609–610Independent Fundamentalist

Other Bible Students[10]:609–610

Love Family, also known as the Church of Jesus Christ at Armageddon and Love Israel[12]:90–91Paul Erdman[7]:2161969[7]:216Communalism[7]:216
Lucis Trust[6]:172–173Alice A. Bailey[7]:2171923[7]:217Neo-Theosophical[7]:217
Madkhalism[82][83]Rabee Al-Madkhali[84][85]early 1990s[86][87][88]Islam[89][90]
Mahikari[6]:176Kotama Okada[10]:11231959[10]:1123Shinto[10]:1123
Maranatha Campus Ministries[6]:178Bob Weiner[7]:2231972[7]:223Pentecosrtal[7]:223
Mazdaznan[6]:181Otoman Zar-Adusht Ha'nish[10]:9911902[10]:991Zoroastrianism[10]:991
Meher Baba followers[49]Merwan Sheriar Irani[10]:9911921[10]:991Hindu-inspired[10]:991
Messianic Judaism[6]:184Christianity
Million Man March[91]Louis Farrakhan[91]1995[91]Nation of Islam[91]
Mita Congregation[6]:186Juanita García Peraza[10]:4621940[10]:462Deliverance Pentecostal[10]:462
Modekngei (Ngara Modekngei)[92]Tamadad from Cholc. 1915Syncretistic Christian-Indigenous
Monastic Order of Avallon[93]Henri Hillion de Coatmoc'han[93]1972[93]Neo-pagan[93]
Moody Church[6]:186Dwight L. Moody[10]:6021864[10]:602Fundamentalist

Evangelical[10]:602

Moorish Science Temple of America[6]:186, 188Timothy Drew[10]:9881925[10]:988Black Islam[10]:988
Moral Re-Armament[6]:188, 190Frank N. D. Buchman[7]:2331921[7]:233
Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness[6]:194John-Roger Hinkins[10]:10541971[10]:1054Sant Mat[10]:1054
Namdhari[6]:196Balak Singh[7]:243mid-19th century[7]:243Sikh[7]:243
Nation of Islam[94]Elijah Muhammad[7]:245mid-1930s[7]:245Black Islam[7]:245

UFO religion

Nation of Yahweh[95]:217[6]:200Hulon Mitchell, Jr.[10]:952–9531970s[10]:952–953Black Judaism[10]:952–953
National Spiritualist Association of Churches[6]:197Harrison D Barrett, James M. Peebles, Cora L. Richmond[10]:7721893[10]:772Spiritualism[10]:772
Native American Church, also known as Peyotism[6]:2021906[10]:809Native American religion

Entheogen Groups[10]:809

Native Ukrainian National Faith, also known as RUNVira or Sylenkoism[75]:130Lev Sylenkomid-1960sNeo-pagan

Slavic Native Faith

New Acropolis (Nouvelle Acropole)[9]:441–442[96]:217Jorge Ángel Livraga Rizzi1957Neo-Theosophical

Western esotericism

New Apostolic Church[6]:205Heinrich Geyer[10]:11391863[10]:1139Catholic Apostolic Church

Unclassified Christian Churches[10]:1139

New Kadampa Tradition[97]:310–311Geshe Kelsang Gyatso[10]:1112mid-1970s[10]:1112Tibetan Buddhism[10]:1112
The New Message from God[98]Marshall Vian Summers1992[99]UFO religion
New Reformed Orthodox Order of the Golden Dawn[6]:2071969[10]:923Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn

Witchcraft

Neo-pagan[10]:923

New Thought[6]:208[25]:325–330Phineas Parkhurst Quimby[7]:258mid-19th century[7]:258Metaphysical[7]:258

Faith healing

Oahspe Faithists[100]John Ballou Newbrough1882UFO religion
Odinism[101]Orestes Brownson[101]1848[101]Neo-pagan[101]
Oomoto[6]:216Mrs. Nao Deguchi[7]:2661899[7]:266Shinto-Millenarian[7]:266
Open Bible Standard Churches[6]:217merger[10]:4541935[10]:454White Trinitarian Pentecostal[10]:454
Opus Dei[28]:126[9]:427–428[102][103]:3, 122–123[104][105][106]:251Saint Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer[9]:427–4281928[9]:427–428Roman Catholic[9]:427–428
Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.)[7]:270Carl Kellner;[7]:270[9]:430Theodor Reuss[9]:430 1895;[7]:270 1906[9]:430Western esotericism

neo-Hermetism

Thelema[9]:430

Pentecostal Church of God[6]:2251919[19]:109Pantecostal[19]:109
Pentecostalism[6]:224–225Holiness movement
Peoples Temple[6]:226[107]Jim Jones[10]:8321955[10]:832Psychic-New Age[10]:832
Philosophical Research Society[6]:228Manly Palmer Hall[10]:8491934[10]:849Occult[10]:849
Pilgrims of Arès[108]Michel Potay[108]1974[108]
Plymouth Brethren[6]:228–229[12]:61John Nelson Darby[7]:2811830[7]:281evangelical

Millenarian[7]:281

Potter's House also known as Christian Fellowship Ministries (CFM), The Door, Victory Chapel, Christian Center, Crossroads Chapel, etc.[31]:51–52Wayman Mitchell[31]:51–521970[31]:51–52Pentecostal[31]:51–52
Radha Soami Satsang Beas[6]:234Seth Shiv Dayal Singh[10]:10591861[10]:1059Sant Mat[10]:1059
Raëlism[6]:234Claude Vorilhon (Rael)[10]:8061973[10]:806UFO religion[10]:806
Rainbow Family[6]:234, 236Barry Adams[10]:732late-1960s[10]:732Communal[10]:732
Rajneesh movement, also Osho movement[6]:236, 238Rajneesh Chandra Mohan[10]:10511966[10]:1051Indian religions[10]:1051
Ramakrishna Mission, also known as Ramakrishna movement or Vedanta Society[109]:57–58[6]:314Swami Vivekananda1897Neo-Hindu

Neo-Vedanta[7]:382

Ramtha[110]J. Z. Knight[111]1977[112]New Age[110]
Rastafari[6]:241,243[113]Leonard Howell, Joseph Hibbert, Archibald Dunkley, Robert Hinds[10]:9541935[10]:954Black Judaism[10]:954
Reformed Druids of North America[6]:2441960s[7]:299Neo-pagan[7]:299
Reiki, also Usui Shiko Ryoho System of Healing[9]:528–529Mikao Usui1922Energy medicine

Japanese Buddhism

Religious Science[6]:245–246Ernest Holmes[7]:3011948[7]:301New Thought[7]:301
Ringing Cedars' Anastasianism[114]:442Vladimir Megre1997Neo-pagan

Slavic Native Faith

Risshō Kōsei Kai[6]:248Nikkyo Niwano

Myoko Naganuma[115]

1938[115]Nichiren Buddhist[115]
The Rosicrucian Fellowship[6]:249Carl Louis von Grasshof[10]:8451909[10]:845neo-Rosicrucianism[10]:845
Sacred Name Movement[6]:251Clarence Orvil Dodd1930sAdventist

Church of God (Seventh-Day)

Sadharan Brahmo Samaj[29]:43–57Anandamohan Bose, en:Sivanath Sastri, Umesh Chandra Dutta1878Brahmoism
Sahaja Yoga[116]Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi[10]:10291970[10]:1029Neo-Hindu[10]:1029
Saiva Siddhanta Church[6]:251Subramuniy[10]:10291957[10]:1029Hindu[10]:1029
The Salvation Army[6]:252, 254William Booth[10]:4191865[10]:419Holiness movement[10]:419
Saminism Movement, Samin movement[117]:207–240Samin Surosentiko1889Abrahamic religions

Nativist

Sant Nirankari Mission[6]:210Baba Buta Singh Ji1929Sikh
Santa Muerte Cult[118]2000sSyncretic Folk Catholic
Scientology[25]:385–392[28]:126[119][120][121]L. Ron Hubbard[10]:8161955[10]:816UFO-Psychic

New Age[10]:816

Seicho-no-Ie[9]:568–569[79]Masaharu Taniguchi, Fenwicke Holmes1930Religious Science-Shinto
Self-Realization Fellowship[6]:261Paramahansa Yogananda[10]:10311935[10]:1031Neo-Hindu[10]:1031
Semitic Neopaganism[122]Raphael Patai[122]1960s[122]Neo-pagan

Feminism[122]

Seventh-day Adventist Church[6]:262Ellen G. White[10]:6211860[10]:621Adventist[10]:621
Seventh-day Adventist Reform Movement[6]:262–263schism[10]:622–6231925[10]:622–623Seventh Day Adventists[10]:622–623
Shakers[6]:263, 265Ann Lee[10]:7241750s[10]:724Communal—Before 1960[10]:724
Shengdao, also Tongshanshe[123]Peng Tairong (Ruzun)early 20th centuryChinese salvationist
Shepherd's Rod, also known as the Davidians, officially, the Davidian Seventh-day Adventist Association[8]:189Victor T. Houteff[10]:6191935[10]:619Seventh Day Adventists[10]:619
Shiloh Youth Revival Centers[6]:266John J. Higgins, Jr.[10]:7341969[10]:734Communal—After 1960[10]:734
Shinji Shumeikai, also Shumei[79]Mihoko Koyama1970Church of World Messianity

Faith healing

Shinnyo-en[6]:266–267Shinjo Ito

Tomoji Ito[10]:1081

1936[10]:1081Japanese Buddhism[10]:1081
Shinreikyo[6]:266Kanichi Otsuka[10]:1123post–World War II[10]:1123Shinto[10]:1123

Syncretistic

Shri Ram Chandra Mission[124]Shri Ram Chandraji Maharaj[124]1945[124]Hindu[124]
Sivananda Yoga Vedanta Centres[6]:268–269Kuppuswami Iyer[10]:10351935[10]:1035Neo-Hindu[10]:1035
Slavic Native Faith, also known as Rodnovery[75]:112–127Władysław Kołodziej, Jan Stachniuk1920–30sNeo-pagan

Polytheistic reconstructionism

Soka Gakkai International[6]:271[125]Tsunesaburo Makiguchi[10]:10821930[10]:1082Nichiren Buddhism[10]:1082
Spiritualism, Spiritism[25]:331–338[126]:248Kate and Margaret Fox1848Psychic-Mediumship

Metaphysical

Subud (Susila Budhi Dharma)[6]:279[25]:267–274[9]:607–608Muhammed Subuh[10]:9811933[10]:981Kejawèn

Sufism[10]:981

Sufi Ruhaniat International[6]:279Samuel L. Lewis[7]:3421968[7]:342neo-Sufism[7]:342
Sukyo Mahikari[6]:281Sekiguchi Sakae[7]:3441978[7]:344Mahikari Syncretistic[7]:344
Summum[6]:281Claude Rex Nowell[10]:11411975[10]:1141Unclassified Christian Churches[10]:1141
Syntheism[127]Alexander Bard[127]2012[127]Pantheist

Humanist

Netocratic

The Satanic Temple[128][129][130]Lucien Greaves

Malcolm Jarry[131]

2012[132]Satanism

Nontheistic[129]

Tenrikyo[6]:287–288Miki Nakayama[10]:11241838[10]:1124Shinto[10]:1124
Tensegrity[9]:581[45]Carlos Castaneda1995Neoshamanism[9]:581

New Age

Terasem[133]Martine Rothblatt2004Transhumanism
Thelema, also known as the A∴A∴ order[15]:41–42Aleister Crowleyearly 1900sOccult

neo-Hermetism

Western esotericism[15]:41–42

Theosophical Society, also known since 1882 as Theosophical Society Adyar[25]:315–324[9]:624–625[134]Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Henry Steel Olcott, William Quan Judge[134]1875Occult

Eastern and Western esotericism[9]:624–625[15]:40–41

Theosophical Society Pasadena[25]:315–324[134]:blz. 427William Quan Judge1895Theosophical
Tolstoyan primitivism[135]:672Leo Tolstoy[135]:6721901[135]:672Christian anarchism

Pacifism[135]:672

Toronto Blessing[136]Randy Clark[14]:122–1231994[14]:122–123Pentecostal[14]:122–123
Transcendental Meditation (TM)[6]:292–293, 295–296Maharishi Mahesh Yogi[10]:10451958[10]:1045Neo-Hindu[10]:1045
Triratna Buddhist Community (formerly FWBO)[64]Sangharakshita (Dennis Lingwood)1967[64]Neo-Buddhism
True Buddha School[137]Lu Sheng-yen[137]Late 1980sTibetan Buddhism

Taoism[137]

True Gnostic Church[138] Azrael Ondi-Ahman (Archie D. Wood)[138] 1979[139]
Twelve Tribes[6]:212, 334–335Gene and Marsha Spriggs[10]:7371972[10]:737Messianic Jewish Communal—After 1960[10]:737
Two by Twos, also known as Cooneyites, Christian Conventions, the Workers and Friends, the Truth, etc.[6]:298William Irvine[12]:3301897[140]Independent fundamentalist family[10]:611
Umbanda[6]:299Zélio Fernandino de Moraes[141]1920[141]Spiritism[141]
Unarius Academy of Science[6]:300, 302–303Ernest Norman, Ruth Norman1954UFO Religion
Unification Church, also known as the Moonies[6]:300, 302–303Sun Myung Moon[7]:3651954[7]:365Syncretistic Christian[7]:365
Unitarian Universalism[37]:335consolidation[31]:308–3101961[31]:308–310Unitarian Universalism[31]:308–310
United Holy Church of America[6]:304Isaac Cheshier[10]:4871900[10]:487Black Trinitarian Pentecostal[10]:487
United House of Prayer for All People[6]:304–305Marcelino Manoel de Graca[7]:3711925[7]:371African American Pentecostal[7]:371
United Israel World Union[6]:305David Horowitz[10]:9591944[10]:959Other Jewish Groups[10]:959
United Lodge of Theosophists[6]:305Robert Crosbie[10]:8551909[10]:855Theosophical[10]:855
United Pentecostal Church International[6]:287–306merger[10]:4761945[10]:476Apostolic Pentecostals[10]:476
Unity Church[6]:306–307Charles Fillmore and Myrtle Fillmore[7]:3731889/1903[7]:373New Thought-Christian[7]:373
Universal Great Brotherhood[6]:310Serge Raynaud de la Ferriere[10]:883late 1940s[10]:883Other Theosophical Groups[10]:883
Universal Life Church[6]:311Kirby Hensley[10]:6801962[10]:680Liberal Family[10]:680
Universal White Brotherhood[142]Peter Deunov[10]:8801900[10]:880Other Theosophical Groups[10]:880

Esoteric Christianity

Urantia Foundation[31]:319–322William S. Sadler[31]:319–3221934[31]:319–322UFO religion[31]:319–322

Psychic New Age[10]:839 Christian occultist[7]:380

Vajradhatu[6]:313Chögyam Trungpa[10]:11151973[10]:1115Tibetan Buddhism[10]:1115
Vale do Amanhecer[143]Tia Neiva[143]1959[143]Spiritualism[143]
Volunteers of America[6]:316Ballington Booth

Maud Booth[10]:420

1896[10]:420Holiness movement[10]:420
The Way International[6]:318Victor Paul Wierwille[10]:6081942[10]:608Independent fundamentalist family[10]:608
The Way of the Livingness (Universal Medicine)[144]Serge Benhayon[144]1999[144]Neo-Theosophical[145] and/or "Socially harmful cult".[146]
White Eagle Lodge[6]:319Lady Elizabeth Carey[10]:8841943[10]:884Other Theosophical Groups[10]:884
Wicca[25]:339–346[15]:55Gerald Gardner[31]:338c. 1949[31]:338Neo-pagan

Witchcraft[25]:339–346

Occult[31]:338

Women's Federation for World Peace[147]:203–205Hak Ja Han[147]:203–2051992[147]:203–205Unification Church[147]:203–205
Wotansvolk[148]David Lane1990sneo-völkisch paganism
The Word Foundation[6]:320Harold W. Percival[10]:856c. 1904[10]:856Theosophical[10]:856
World Peace and Unification Sanctuary Church[149][150]Hyung Jin Moon

Yeon Ah Lee Moon

2015Unification Church-based

ultra-Orthodox/Fundamentalism

Yiguandao[9][123]:702–703Wang Jueyi; Chang Thien Ranlate 19th centuryChinese salvationist-Millenarian

See also

References

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  2. Nelson 1987, p. 107.
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    • Saliba 2003, p. 88. "Many of the new religions attract individuals by the promise of peace of mind, spiritual well-being, gratifying experiences, and material success. In so doing they stress their concern for the individual and highlight one's personal worth and self-development. This is especially so in human growth movements such as Scientology, The Forum (previously known as Erhard Seminar Training [EST]), and qualsi-religious encounter groups."
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