List of monarchs of Naples

Kingdom of Naples (1282–1501)

House of Anjou

In 1382, the Kingdom of Naples was inherited by Charles III, King of Hungary, Great grandson of King Charles II of Naples. After this, the House of Anjou of Naples was renamed House of Anjou-Durazzo, when Charles III married his first cousin Margaret of Durazzo, member of a prominent Neapolitan noble family.

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Charles I
(Carlo I)
30 March 1282 7 January 1285   Son of Louis VIII of France King of Sicily, Naples and Albania
(Re di Sicilia, Napoli e Albania)
Charles II, the Lame
(Carlo II, lo Zoppo)
7 January 1285 5 May 1309   Son of Charles I King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
Robert I, the Wise
(Roberto I, il Saggio)
5 May 1309 20 January 1343   Son of Charles II King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
Joanna I
(Giovanna I)
20 January 1343 12 May 1382   Granddaughter of Robert I Queen of Naples
(Regina di Napoli)
Louis I
(Luigi I)
August 1348 26 May 1362   Husband of Joanna I

  Grandson of Charles II; member of the House of Anjou-Taranto
  Potential claimant to the throne through the male line if Joanna died childless, but he himself and his line also died out.

Jure uxoris King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
After Joanna's death without legitimate issue, the heirs would technically be her nieces, only one (Margaret) of whom would leave issue (with Charles, a member of the Durazzo branch of the house of Anjou). The next ones in line would be the Durazzo branch itself (the Taranto branch, of which Louis I was part, had been extinguished), whose prominent figure, Charles, was Joanna's enemy.
Charles III, the Short
(Carlo III, il Breve)
12 May 1382 24 February 1386   Great-grandson of Charles II

  Member of the House of Anjou-Durazzo

King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
Ladislaus I, the Magnanimous
(Ladislao I, il Magnanimo)
24 February 1386 Early 1390   Son of Charles III King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)

House of Valois-Anjou (disputed)

Joanna of Naples had refused to name her enemy Charles of Durazzo as heir to the Neapolitan throne despite him ending up succeeding her anyway. If Charles' line was ignored, the subsequent heirs would be the descendants of Margaret, Countess of Anjou, a daughter of Charles II of Naples; the line pointed to the kings of France of the House of Valois. Joanna chose this line, though she named as heir Louis of Valois-Anjou, a junior member of the dynasty, in order to avoid a personal union with France.

As Charles III had already seized the Neapolitan throne, initially the House of Valois-Anjou only had an empty claim. One of their members, Louis II, succeeded in ruling Naples for a time.

Time as claimant instead of actual rule will be shown in italic.

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Louis I of Anjou
(Luigi I)
1382 1384   Adopted son and heir of Joanna I
  Could not establish himself in Naples before his death
King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
Louis II
(Luigi II)
1384
1389
1417
1399
  Son of Louis I (adopted son of Joanna I)
  Crowned in 1389
  Actually ruled in Naples only from 1390 until 1399
King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
Louis III of Anjou
(Luigi III)
1417 1434   Son of Louis II
  He was recognised as Joanna II's heir in 1423.
King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)

House of Anjou (restored)

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Ladislaus I, the Magnanimous
(Ladislao I, il Magnanimo)
Late 1399 6 August 1414   Son of Charles III King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
Joanna II
(Giovanna II)
6 August 1414 2 February 1435   Daughter of Charles III Queen of Naples
(Regina di Napoli)

House of Valois-Anjou (restored)

Joanna II recognised Louis III of Anjou as heir in 1423, however he died in 1434 before succeeding to the throne. His brother René of Anjou succeeded to the claim and became king upon Joanna's death in 1435.

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
René I, the Good
(Renato I, il Buono)
2 February 1435 2 June 1442   Son of Louis II King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)

House of Trastámara

Before Louis of Anjou, Joanna II's adopted heir had been Alfonso, King of Aragon. He refused to be disinherited and conquered Naples from René of Anjou in 1442.

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Alfonso I, the Magnanimous
(Alfonso I, il Magnanimo)
2 June 1442 27 June 1458   Adopted son of Joanna II; conquered King of Aragon, Sicily and Naples
(Re di Aragona, Sicilia e Napoli)
Ferdinand I
(Ferdinando I)
27 June 1458 25 January 1494   Illegitimate son of Alfonso I King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
Alfonso II
(Alfonso II)
25 January 1494 23 January 1495   Son of Ferdinand I King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
Ferdinand II
(Ferdinando II)
23 January 1495 7 September 1496   Son of Alfonso II King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
Frederick I
(Federico I)
7 September 1496 1 August 1501   Son of Ferdinand I King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)

Union with France (1501–1504)

Upon his death in 1480, René of Anjou transferred his claim to his nephew, Charles IV of Anjou. Charles died in 1481 and willed his claim to Louis XI of France. His son Charles VIII attempted to take Naples by force, but failed and died childless in 1498.

Charles VIII was succeeded by his distant cousin Louis XII. Louis had no claim to the Neapolitan throne, but as successor to Charles VIII in France he nevertheless wanted to succeed him in Naples as well.

Naples was conquered in 1501 and became part of a personal union with the Kingdom of France. The local government was ruled by a French viceroy.

House of Valois-Orléans

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Louis III
(Luigi III)
2 August 1501 31 January 1504   Succeeded to Charles VIII on the French throne; conquered Naples

Union with Spain (1504–1647)

Naples became a personal union of the Kingdom of Aragon, under Ferdinand II. Over time, Aragon and the Kingdom of Castile merged to form the Monarchy of Spain, known colloquially as the "Kingdom of Spain", though the constituent crowns retained their own institutions, and were ruled officially as separate states in personal union rather than as a unified state. The local government was ruled by a Spanish viceroy. The royal houses were:

House of Trastámara

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Ferdinand III
(Ferdinando III)
31 January 1504 23 January 1516   Conquered Naples from Louis III
Joanna III
(Giovanna III)
23 January 1516 12 April 1555   Daughter of Ferdinand III

House of Habsburg

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Charles IV
(Carlo IV)
14 March 1516 25 July 1554   Son of Joanna III
Philip I
25 July 1554 13 September 1598   Son of Charles IV
Philip II
13 September 1598 31 March 1621   Son of Philip I
Philip III
31 March 1621 1647   Son of Philip II

Neapolitan Republic (1647–1648)

House of Guise

Officially a Republic, Naples was governed for a short time by the Duke of Guise, under the title of "Doge of Naples".

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Henry of Guise
(Enrico di Guisa)
22 October 1647 5 April 1648   Claimed a lineage with the House of Valois-Anjou Doge of Naples
(Doge di Napoli)

Union with Spain (1648–1713)

Naples returned a personal union of the Kingdom of Spain, under Philip IV. The local government was ruled by a Spanish viceroy. The royal houses were:

House of Habsburg

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Philip III
1648 17 September 1665   Son of Philip II
Charles V
17 September 1665 1 November 1700   Son of Philip III

House of Bourbon

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Philip IV 1 November 1700 11 April 1713   Great-nephew of Charles V

Kingdom of Naples (1713–1799)

House of Habsburg

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Charles VI 11 April 1713 1734/1735   Great-grandson of Philip II

House of Bourbon

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Charles VII
(Carlo VII)
2 June 1734 6 October 1759   Son of Philip IV;
confirmed King with a treaty (1738)
King of Spain, Naples and Sicily
(Re di Spagna, Napoli e Sicilia)
Ferdinand IV
(Ferdinando IV)
6 October 1759 23 January 1799   Son of Charles VII King of Naples and Sicily
(Re di Napoli e Sicilia)

Parthenopean Republic (1799)

Dictators

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party Ref.
1 Jean Étienne Championnet
(1762–1800)
21 January 1799 24 February 1799 Military
Championnet, that was appointed to defend the Roman Republic, but despite the French Directory's directives, he also conquered Naples, and created the Parthenopean Republic. After a short dictatorship, was deposed and imprisoned by France same.
2 Jacques MacDonald
(1765–1840)
24 February 1799 3 June 1799 Military [1]
After the Championnet's deposition, MacDonald ruled Naples for some months, when he moved his forces in the Northern Italy and Naples was reconquered by the Bourbons's loyalists.

Kingdom of Naples (1799–1816)

House of Bourbon

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Ferdinand IV
(Ferdinando IV)
13 June 1799 30 March 1806   Son of Charles VII King of Naples and Sicily
(Re di Napoli e Sicilia)

House of Bonaparte

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Joseph I
(Giuseppe I)
30 March 1806 8 July 1808   Conquered the Kingdom; appointed by Napoleon Bonaparte King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)

House of Murat

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Joachim I, the Dandy King
(Gioacchino I, il Re Franconi)
1 August 1808 22 May 1815   Brother-in-law of Joseph I King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)

House of Bourbon

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Ferdinand IV
(Ferdinando IV)
22 May 1815 8 December 1816   Son of Charles VII King of Naples and Sicily
(Re di Napoli e Sicilia)

See also

References

  1. Acton, Harold (1957). The Bourbons of Naples (1731-1825) (2009 ed.). London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 9780571249015.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.