List of military and civilian missions of the European Union
The European Union (EU) has undertaken a number of overseas missions and operations, drawing on civilian and military capabilities, in several countries across three continents (Europe, Africa and Asia), as part of its Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). The operation or mission in question will work in agreement and coordination with the EU delegations, until 2009 known as the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP).
The decision to deploy - together with any subsequent management of - the mission or operation in question, will ultimately be taken by the EU member states in the Foreign Affairs Council (FAC).
Military operations may be launched after four planning phases, through which the Operation Commander (Op. Cdr.), Military Staff (EUMS), Military Committee (EUMC), Political and Security Committee (PSC) and Council have different roles.
Command and control structure
The EU command and control (C2) structure, as directed by political bodies which are composed of member states's representatives and generally require unanimous decisions, as of April 2019:
- Liaison: Advice and recommendations Support and monitoring Preparatory work
|Political strategic level:|
|ISS||EUCO Pres. (EUCO)||Chain of command|
|INTCEN||HR/VP (PMG)||HR/VP (PSC) (******)|
DGEUMS (***) (EUMS)
|Military/civilian strategic level:|
Dir MPCC (***) (MPCC)
|JSCC||Civ OpCdr CPCC(*)|
|MFCdr (****) (MFHQ)||HoM (*)|
|CC(**) Land||CC(**) Air||CC(**) Mar||Other CCs(**)|
- *In the event of a CSDP Civilian Mission also being in the field, the relation with the Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC) and its Civilian Operation Commander (Civ OpCdr), as well as the subordinate Head of Mission (HoM), are coordinated as shown.
- **Other Comonent Commanders (CCs) and service branches which may be established
- ***The MPCC is part of the EUMS and Dir MPCC is double-hatted as DGEUMS. Unless the MPCC is used as Operation Headquarters (OHQ), either a national OHQ offered by member states or the NATO Command Structure (NCS) would serve this purpose. In the latter instance, Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe (DSACEUR), rather than Dir MPCC, would serve as Operation Commander (OpCdr).
- ****Unless the MPCC is used as Operation Headquarters (OHQ), the MFCdr would be known as a Force Commander (FCdr), and direct a Force Headquarters (FHQ) rather than a MFHQ. Whereas the MFHQ would act both on the operational and tactical level, the FHQ would act purely on the operational level.
- *****The political strategic level is not part of the C2 structure per se, but represents the political bodies, with associated support facilities, that determine the missions' general direction. The Council determines the role of the High Representative (HR/VP), who serves as Vice-President of the European Commission, attends European Council meetings, chairs the Foreign Affairs Council (FAC) and may chair the Political and Security Committee (PSC) in times of crisis. The HR/VP proposes and implements CSDP decisions.
- ******Same composition as Committee of Permanent Representatives (COREPER) II, which also prepares for the CSDP-related work of the FAC.
In the EU terminology, civilian CSDP interventions are called ‘missions’, regardless of whether they have an executive mandate such as EULEX Kosovo or a non-executive mandate (all others). Military interventions, however, can either have an executive mandate such as for example Operation Atalanta in which case they are referred to as ‘operations’ and are commanded at two-star level; or non-executive mandate (e.g. EUTM Somalia) in which case they are called ‘missions’ and are commanded at one-star level.
All CSDP missions and operations are given a prefix depending on the nature of the mission, which is either military or civilian.
- Capacity building mission (EUCAP)
- Military advisory mission (EUMAM)
- Aviation security mission (EUAVSEC)
- Rule of law mission (EULEX)
- Mission in support of the security sector reform (EUSSR)
- Integrated rule of law mission (EUJUST)
- Mission to provide advice and assistance for security sector reform (EUSEC)
- Monitoring mission (EUMM)
- Advisory mission (EUAM)
- Police mission (EUPOL, EUPM)
- Border assistance mission (EUBAM)
- Police advisory team (EUPAT)
- Terrestrial force (EUFOR)
- Naval force (EU NAVFOR)
- Training mission (EUTM)
The operations are named as if the multinational force conducting it is established specifically for the unique operation, which is often the case. The force may however also consist of permanent multinational forces such as the European Corps.
|31 March 2003||15 December 2003||European Union Military Operation in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia||EUFOR Concordia||Operation Concordia||400||?|
|12 June 2003||1 September 2003||European Union Military Operation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2003)||EUFOR Artemis||Operation Artemis||1800||?|
|2 December 2004||—||European Union Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina||EUFOR BiH||Operation Althea||600|
|12 June 2006||30 November 2006||European Union Military Operation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2006)||EUFOR RD Congo||N/A||2300||?|
|17 March 2008||15 March 2009||European Union Military Operation in Chad and the Central African Republic||EUFOR Tchad/RCA||N/A||3700||?|
|5 November 2008||—||European Union Naval Force Somalia||EU NAVFOR Somalia||Operation Atalanta||1200|
|10 April 2010||—||European Union Training Mission in Somalia||EUTM Somalia||N/A||100|
|18 February 2013||—||European Union Training Mission in Mali||EUTM Mali||N/A||500|
|10 February 2014||23 March 2015||European Union Military Operation in the Central African Republic||EUFOR RCA||N/A||600||?|
|22 June 2015||—||European Union Naval Force Mediterranean||EUNAVFOR Med||Operation Sophia||?|
|16 July 2016||—||European Union Training Mission in the Central African Republic||EUTM RCA||N/A||?|
|April 2014||—||European Union Capacity Building Mission in Mali||EUCAP Sahel Mali||N/A||?|
|July 2012||—||European Union Capacity Building Mission in Niger||EUCAP Sahel Niger||N/A||?|
|16 July 2012||—||European Union Capacity Building Mission in Somalia[lower-alpha 1]||EUCAP Somalia||EUCAP Nestor[lower-alpha 2]||?|
|March 2015||July 2016||European Union Military Advisory Mission in the Central African Republic||EUMAM RCA||N/A||?||?|
|February 2013||January 2014||European Union Aviation Security Mission in South Sudan[lower-alpha 3]||EUAVSEC South Sudan||N/A||?||?|
|9 December 2008||—||European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo||EULEX Kosovo||N/A||?|
|1 July 2005||31 December 2013||European Union Integrated Rule of Law Mission in Iraq||EUJUST LEX Iraq||N/A||?||?|
|12 February 2008||30 September 2010||European Union Mission in Support of Security Sector Reform in Guinea-Bissau[lower-alpha 4]||EUSSR Guinea-Bissau||N/A||?||?|
|16 July 2004||14 July 2005||European Union Rule of Law Mission in Georgia[lower-alpha 5]||EUJUST Georgia||EUJUST Themis||27||?|
|8 June 2005||2016||European Union Security Sector Reform Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo[lower-alpha 6]||EUSEC RD Congo||N/A||?||?|
|15 September 2005||15 December 2006||European Union Monitoring Mission in Aceh||AMM||N/A||?||?|
|1 October 2008||—||European Union Monitoring Mission in Georgia||EUMM Georgia||N/A||?|
|December 2014||—||European Union Advisory Mission in Ukraine||EUAM Ukraine||N/A||350+|
|22 November 2017||—||European Union Advisory Mission in Iraq||EUAM Iraq||N/A||?|
|12 April 2005||30 June 2007||European Union Police Mission in Kinshasa[lower-alpha 7]||EUPOL Kinshasa||N/A||?||?|
|1 July 2007||30 September 2014||European Union Police Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo[lower-alpha 8]||EUPOL RD Congo||N/A||?||?|
|15 December 2003||14 December 2005||European Union Police Mission in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia[lower-alpha 9]||EUPOL FYROM||EUPOL Proxima||200||?|
|1 January 2003||30 June 2012||European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina||EUPM BiH||N/A||774||?|
|15 June 2007||31 December 2016||European Union Police Mission in Afghanistan||EUPOL Afghanistan||N/A||?||?|
|1 January 2006||—||European Union Police Mission for the Palestinian Territories||EUPOL COPPS||N/A||?|
|1 December 2005||—||European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine||EUBAM Moldova and Ukraine||N/A||?|
|May 2013||—||European Union Integrated Border Assistance Mission in Libya||EUBAM Libya||N/A||?|
|25 November 2005||—||European Union Border Assistance Mission to Rafah||EUBAM Rafah||N/A||?|
|15 December 2005||14 June 2006||European Union Police Advisory Team in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia[lower-alpha 10]||EUPAT||N/A||?||?|
|18 July 2005||31 December 2007||European Union Support to African Union Mission in Sudan[lower-alpha 11]||AMIS EU Supporting Action||N/A||?||?|
|December 2002||—||Police Assistance Mission of the European Community to Albania||PAMECA||N/A||?||?|
- 1 April 2011: European Union Military Operation in Libya (EUFOR Libya): Proposed as a complement to NATO's aerial bombing campaign and no-fly zone in the Libyan Civil War.
Related topics of the Common Security and Defence Policy:
- Operations of the European Border and Coast Guard
- Defence forces of the European Union
- History of the Common Security and Defence Policy
Operations and exercises of the precursors of the Common Security and Defence Policy
Operations and exercises of the multinational forces made available to the CSDP in accordance with article 42.3 of the Treaty on European Union:
- List of operations of the European Maritime Force
- List of operations of the European Rapid Operational Force
- List of missions of the European Gendarmerie Force
- List of exercises of the European Maritime Force
- List of operations of the European Corps
Missions and exercises of other organisations:
- EUCAP Somalia enhances the Somalia’s maritime civilian law enforcement capacity by supporting federal and regional authorities in developing legislation, strengthening the criminal justice chain in the maritime domain and providing advice on policy to the Somali ministry of internal security and the Somali Police Force.  Since 2003, NATO has also operated its own counter-piracy mission off of the Horn of Africa as well.
- Name of the mission prior to 1 March 2016.
- Strengthening aviation security at Juba's airport.
- A mission for security sector reform in Guinea-Bissau with an initial mandate until 31 May 2009. Ended due to concerns over cooperation by Guinea-Bissau.
- This mission was launched on 16 July 2004 for a duration of 12 months, and was designed to support the Georgian authorities in challenges to the criminal justice system and reform process.
- The European Union mission is to provide advice and assistance for security sector reform in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Among EUSEC DR Congo's projects was the 'Modernisation de l’Administration des Forces Armées de la RDC' (Modernisation of the Administration of the FARDC) underway in December 2008, under which, amongst other projects, information technology training was being delivered. It appears that in December 2009, Secretary-General/High Representative Javier Solana issued a formal invitation for the United States government to offer a contribution to EUSEC RD Congo. EUSEC DR Congo was initially planned in 2005-06 to include eight EU advisors assigned to posts in the DRC's integrated military structure (Structure Militaire d'Integration (?)), the army general staff, the National Committee for Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (CONADER?), the Joint Operational Committee, and the Ministry of Defence. From 2007 to 2011 EUSEC personnel grew from 8 to 46, with about 30 locally employed staff. 34 locally employed staff were listed in 2011. In 2008 with 46 staff 26 were in Kinshasa and 20 in the eastern DRC. Two personnel have died due to illness.
- In October 2003, the Democratic Republic of Congo requested the EU for assistance in setting up an Integrated Police Unit. EUPOL Kinshasa monitored, mentored and advised the IPU once trained and operational under a Congolese chain of command, until the national elections in DRC held in 2005. The mission finished on 30 June 2007.
- Established as a successor to EUPOL Kinshasa with an initial mandate until 30 June 2008.
- This operation was launched on 15 December 2003 and covered an initial period of one year.
- Launched on 15 December 2005 as a follow-on mission to EUPOL Proxima. The EU monitors and mentors the country's police on priority issues in the field of border police, public peace and order and accountability, the fight against corruption and organised crime. It finished its mandate in May 2006.
- European Union support for the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS), the mission of the African Union in Darfur. NATO likewise provided support to AMIS from 2005 to 2007 Both EU and NATO missions ended with the handover to UNAMID on 31 December 2007. It included provision of airlift for 2,000 personnel, financial aid totalling more than EUR 500 million, the deployment of 15 military experts, 30 police officers, two military observers with AMIS, plus several military advisors sent to Addis Ababa to support the EU Special Representative.
- European Union External Action > EU Operations
- Benjamin Pohl (2013) The logic underpinning EU crisis management operations, European Security, 22(3): 307-325, DOI:10.1080/09662839.2012.726220, p. 311.
- "The EU Military Staff: A frog in boiling water?". 10 August 2017.
- EU Command and Control, p. 13, Military Staff
- European Union External Action > EUCAP NESTOR
- Global Governance Institute > Analysis of EUCAP NESTOR "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 April 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- NATO > Current Operations and Missions
- "EUCAP Nestor renamed as EUCAP Somalia – New website - EUCAP Somalia". Eucap-som.eu. March 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
- "EU to end Guinea-Bissau security mission". BBC News. 2 August 2010.
- USEC DR Congo The Council of the European Union
- Council of the European Union, Note Technique: Projet "Modernisation de l'Administration des FARDC" Formation en Technologies d’Information au profit des Forces Armées de la RDC, November 2008
- U.S. Embassy Brussels, EU: Help Us Reform Congo's Army, 09BRUSSELS1606, 1 December 2009, via United States diplomatic cables leak
- Sharon Wiharta, 'Peacebuilding: the new international focus on Africa,' SIPRI Yearbook 2006, Oxford University Press, p.154.
- SIPRI Yearbook 2007-2011.
- Missions & Operations Foreign & Commonwealth Office
- Brookes Tigner, JDW 9 January 2008.
- European Union External Action
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Military operations involving the European Union.|
- List of CSDP missions- Official Homepage
- EU Civilian and Military Missions 2003-14, London School of Economics
- PhD Thesis on Civilian CSDP - EU Civilian crisis management (University of Geneva, 2008, 441 p. in French)
- Benjamin Pohl (2013) The logic underpinning EU crisis management operations, European Security, 22(3): 307-325, DOI:10.1080/09662839.2012.726220.