List of human spaceflights to Mir

Mir (Russian: Мир, IPA: [ˈmʲir]; lit. Peace or World) was a Soviet and later Russian space station, operational in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001. With a mass greater than that of any previous space station, Mir was the first of the non-monolithic, third generation of space stations, constructed from 1986 to 1996 with a modular design. The station was the largest artificial satellite orbiting the Earth until its deorbit on 21 March 2001, a record now surpassed by the International Space Station (ISS). Mir served as a microgravity research laboratory in which crews conducted experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology and spacecraft systems in order to develop technologies required for the permanent occupation of space.[1][2]

Following the success of the Salyut programme, Mir represented the next stage in the Soviet Union's space station programme. The first module of the station, known as the core module or base block, was launched in 1986, and was followed by six further modules (Kvant-1 (1987), Kvant-2 (1989), Kristall (1990), Spektr (1995), the docking module (1995) and Priroda (1996)), all launched by Proton rockets (with the exception of the docking module). When complete, the station consisted of seven pressurised modules and several unpressurised components. Power was provided by several solar arrays mounted directly on the modules. The station was maintained at an orbit between 296 km (184 mi) and 421 km (262 mi) altitude and travelled at an average speed of 27,700 km/h (17,200 mph), completing 15.7 Earth orbits per day.[3][4][5]

Human spaceflights were vital to the operation of Mir, allowing crews and equipment to be carried to and from the space station. Mir was visited by a total of 39 manned missions, comprising 30 Soyuz flights (1 Soyuz-T, 29 Soyuz-TM) and 9 Space Shuttle flights. These missions carried both long-duration crew members flying principal expeditions (ranging from 70 days up to Valeri Polyakov's 14-month stay beginning in January 1994, which still holds the record for the longest continuous spaceflight by a single person) and short-term visitors (who spent about a week aboard the station). Many of the crew who visited Mir used different spacecraft to launch than they did to land; the first such examples were Aleksandr Viktorenko and Muhammed Faris who flew up in Soyuz TM-3 (launched 22 July 1987) and landed a week later in Soyuz TM-2 on 30 July 1987. The largest crew aboard Mir simultaneously (not including Shuttle-Mir missions) was 6, which first occurred with the launch of Soyuz TM-7 on 26 November 1988 and lasted for just over three weeks.

In this list, unmanned visiting spacecraft are excluded (see List of unmanned spaceflights to Mir for details), and long-duration crew members are listed in bold. Times are given in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). "Time docked" refers to the spacecraft and does not necessarily correspond to the crew.

1986 · 1987 · 1988 · 1989 · 1990 · 1991 · 1992 · 1993 · 1994 · 1995 · 1996 · 1997 · 1998 · 1999 · 2000
# Mission Launch date (UTC) Time docked Landing date (UTC) Launch crew Crew photo Crew patch Notes
1. Soyuz T-15 13 March 1986
~52 days
~20 days
16 July 1986
Leonid Kizim

Vladimir Solovyov

Delivered the first crew, flying expedition EO-1, to Mir, then undocked, flew to and docked with Salyut 7 before returning to Mir. Remains the only spacecraft to have visited two space stations during one mission.[2][6]
2. Soyuz TM-2 5 February 1987
~172 days 30 July 1987
Yuri Romanenko

Aleksandr Laveykin

Delivered the second crew, flying expedition EO-2, to Mir.[2][6]
3. Soyuz TM-3 22 July 1987
~158 days 29 December 1987
Aleksandr Aleksandrov

Aleksandr Viktorenko
Muhammed Faris

Delivered a third crew member, Aleksandrov, for EO-2, as well as the first Mir Intercosmos mission, EP-1, to the station. The EP-1 crew members, Viktorenko and Faris, returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-2 after 8 days.[2][6]
4. Soyuz TM-4 21 December 1987
~177 days 17 June 1988
Vladimir Titov

Musa Manarov
Anatoli Levchenko

Delivered the third expedition crew, EO-3, to Mir, in addition to Anatoli Levchenko, who returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-3 with the returning EO-2 crewmembers after 8 days.[2][6]
5. Soyuz TM-5 7 June 1988
~90 days 7 September 1988
Anatoly Solovyev

Viktor Savinykh
Aleksandr Aleksandrov

Delivered the second Mir Intercosmos mission, EP-2, to the station. All three crew returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-4 after 10 days.[2][6]
6. Soyuz TM-6 29 August 1988
~112 days 21 December 1988
Valeri Polyakov

Vladimir Lyakhov
Abdul Ahad Mohmand

Delivered a third crew member, Polyakov, for EO-3, in addition to the third Mir Intercosmos crew, EP-3, who returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-5 after 9 days.[2][6]
7. Soyuz TM-7 26 November 1988
~149 days 27 April 1989
Aleksandr Volkov

Sergei Krikalev
Jean-Loup Chrétien

Delivered the EO-4 and Aragatz crews to Mir, with Chrétien returning to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-6 after 25 days.[2][6]
8. Soyuz TM-8 5 September 1989
~165 days 19 February 1990
Aleksandr Viktorenko

Aleksandr Serebrov

Delivered the EO-5 crew to Mir.[2][6]
9. Soyuz TM-9 11 February 1990
~177 days 9 August 1990
Anatoly Solovyev

Aleksandr Balandin

Delivered the EO-6 crew to Mir.[2][6]
10. Soyuz TM-10 1 August 1990
~129 days 10 December 1990
Gennadi Manakov

Gennady Strekalov

Delivered the EO-7 crew to Mir.[2][6]
11. Soyuz TM-11 1 December 1990
~173 days 26 May 1991
Viktor Afanasyev

Musa Manarov
Toyohiro Akiyama

Delivered the EO-8 crew to Mir, in addition to the Japanese Kosmoreporter mission. Akiyama, who became the first Japanese citizen to fly in space, returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-10 after 8 days.[2][6]
12. Soyuz TM-12 18 May 1991
~142 days 10 October 1991
Anatoly Artsebarsky

/ Sergei Krikalev
Helen Sharman

Delivered the EO-9 crew to Mir, in addition to the British Project Juno mission. Sharman, the first Briton to travel into space whilst not holding American citizenship, returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-11 after 8 days.[2][6]
13. Soyuz TM-13 2 October 1991
~173 days 25 March 1992
/ Aleksandr Volkov

Toktar Aubakirov
Franz Viehböck

The last manned spaceflight ever launched by the Soviet Union, Soyuz TM-13 delivered a third crew member to Mir for EO-10, in addition to carrying the first Austrian to go into space as part of the Austromir '91 mission. Aubakirov and Viehböck returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TMA-12 after 8 days.[2][6]
14. Soyuz TM-14 17 March 1992
~143 days 10 August 1992
Aleksandr Viktorenko

Aleksandr Kaleri
Klaus-Dietrich Flade

The first manned spaceflight to be launched by the Russian Federation, Soyuz TM-14 delivered the EO-11 crew to Mir, in addition to Flade, flying the German Mir '92 mission, who returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-13 after 8 days.[2][6]
15. Soyuz TM-15 27 July 1992
~187 days 1 February 1993
Anatoly Solovyev

Sergei Avdeyev
Michel Tognini

Delivered the EO-12 crew to Mir, in addition to the French Antarès mission. Tognini returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-14 after 14 days.[2][6]
16. Soyuz TM-16 24 January 1993
~177 days 22 July 1993
Gennadi Manakov

Aleksandr Poleshchuk

Delivered the EO-13 crew to Mir. Became the only Soyuz spacecraft to dock at Kristall's distal APAS-89 port in order to check the port in preparation for the Shuttle-Mir flights which followed.[2][6]
17. Soyuz TM-17 1 July 1993
~195 days 14 January 1994
Vasili Tsibliyev

Aleksandr Serebrov
Jean-Pierre Haigneré

Delivered the EO-14 crew to Mir, in addition to the French Altair mission. Haigneré returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-16 after 21 days.[2][6]
18. Soyuz TM-18 8 January 1994
~180 days 9 July 1994
Viktor Afanasyev

Yury Usachev
Valeri Polyakov

Delivered the EO-15 crew to Mir, with Polyakov remaining in space for over 437 days, the current world record for longest single spaceflight.[2][6]
19. Soyuz TM-19 1 July 1994
~124 days 4 November 1994
Yuri Malenchenko

Talgat Musabayev

Delivered the EO-16 crew to Mir.[2][6]
20. Soyuz TM-20 3 October 1994
~166 days 22 March 1995
Aleksandr Viktorenko

Yelena Kondakova
Ulf Merbold

Delivered the EO-17 crew to Mir, in addition to the German Euromir '94 mission. Merbold returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-19 after 32 days.[2][6]
21. Soyuz TM-21 14 March 1995
~179 days 11 September 1995
Vladimir Dezhurov

Gennady Strekalov
Norman E. Thagard

Delivered the EO-18 crew to Mir, including Thagard, flying the first US long-duration mission of the Shuttle-Mir programme. The entire crew returned to Earth aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis at the conclusion of STS-71.[2][6]
22. STS-71
27 June 1995 4 days, 22 hours Robert L. Gibson

Charles J. Precourt
Ellen S. Baker
Bonnie J. Dunbar
Gregory J. Harbaugh
Anatoly Solovyev
Nikolai Budarin

Delivered Mir EO-19 crew

Returned Mir EO-18 crew

23. Soyuz TM-22 3 September 1995
~177 days 29 February 1996
Yuri Gidzenko

Sergei Avdeyev
Thomas Reiter

Delivered the EO-20 crew to Mir, including the German Euromir '95 mission.[2][6]
24. STS-74
12 November 1995 3 days, 2 hours Kenneth D. Cameron

James D. Halsell
Jerry L. Ross
William S. McArthur
Chris A. Hadfield

Delivered Mir Docking Module & Solar Array Package
25. Soyuz TM-23 21 February 1996
~192 days 2 September 1996
Yuri Onufrienko

Yury Usachev

Delivered the EO-21 crew to Mir.[2][6]
26. STS-76
22 March 1996 4 days, 23 hours Kevin P. Chilton

Richard A. Searfoss
Linda M. Godwin
Michael R. Clifford
Ronald M. Sega
Shannon W. Lucid

Delivered Lucid for Mir EO-21 crew

Deployed MEEP
1 spacewalk

27. Soyuz TM-24 17 August 1996
~195 days 2 March 1997
Valery Korzun

Aleksandr Kaleri
Claudie Haigneré

Delivered the EO-21 crew to Mir. Haigneré returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-23 after 16 days.[2][6]
28. STS-79
16 September 1996 4 days, 22 hours William F. Readdy

Terrence W. Wilcutt
Thomas D. Akers
Jerome Apt
Carl E. Walz
John E. Blaha

Delivered Blaha for Mir EO-22 crew
29. STS-81
12 January 1997 4 days, 22 hours Michael A. Baker

Brent W. Jett
John M. Grunsfeld
Marsha S. Ivins
Peter J.K. Wisoff
Jerry M. Linenger

Delivered Linenger for Mir EO-22 crew
30. Soyuz TM-25 10 February 1997
~183 days 14 August 1997
Vasili Tsibliyev

Aleksandr Lazutkin
Reinhold Ewald

Delivered the EO-23 crew to Mir. Ewald returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-24 after 20 days.[2][6]
31. STS-84
15 May 1997 4 days, 23 hours Charles J. Precourt

Eileen M. Collins
Carlos I. Noriega
Edward T. Lu
Jean-François Clervoy
Yelena Kondakova
Michael Foale

Delivered Foale for Mir EO-23 crew
32. Soyuz TM-26 5 August 1997
~196 days 19 February 1998
Anatoly Solovyev

Pavel Vinogradov

Delivered the EO-24 crew to Mir.[2][6]
33. STS-86
27 September 1997 5 days, 22 hours James D. Wetherbee

Michael J. Bloomfield
Scott E. Parazynski
Wendy B. Lawrence
Jean-Loup Chrétien
Vladimir Titov
David A. Wolf

Delivered Wolf for Mir EO-24 crew

Retrieved MEEP
1 spacewalk

34. STS-89
22 January 1998 4 days, 21 hours Terrence W. Wilcutt

Joe F. Edwards
Bonnie J. Dunbar
Michael P. Anderson
James F. Reilly
Salizhan Sharipov
Andrew S.W. Thomas

Delivered Thomas for Mir EO-24 crew
35. Soyuz TM-27 29 January 1998
~206 days 25 August 1998
Talgat Musabayev

Nikolai Budarin

Delivered the EO-25 crew to Mir.
Léopold Eyharts Eyharts returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-26 after 22 days.[2][6]
36. STS-91
2 June 1998 3 days, 23 hours Charles J. Precourt

Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie
Wendy B. Lawrence
Franklin R. Chang-Diaz
Janet L. Kavandi
Valery Ryumin

Returned Thomas from Mir EO-25 crew
37. Soyuz TM-28 13 August 1998
~196 days 28 February 1999
Gennady Padalka

Sergei Avdeyev
Yuri Baturin

Delivered the EO-26 crew to Mir. Baturin returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-27 after 12 days.[2][6]
38. Soyuz TM-29 20 February 1999
~186 days 28 August 1999
Viktor Afanasyev

Jean-Pierre Haigneré
Ivan Bella

Delivered the EO-27 crew to Mir. Bella returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-28 after 8 days.[2][6]
39. Soyuz TM-30 4 April 2000
~70 days 16 June 2000
Sergei Zalyotin

Aleksandr Kaleri

Final human spaceflight to Mir. Delivered the last crew, flying EO-28.[2][6]

See also


  1. Wade, Mark (17 October 2010). "Mir". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 23 December 2008.
  2. David Harland (30 November 2004). The Story of Space Station Mir. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc. ISBN 978-0-387-23011-5.
  3. Hall, R., ed. (2000). The History of Mir 19862000. British Interplanetary Society. ISBN 0-9506597-4-6.
  4. Hall, R., ed. (2001). Mir: The Final Year. British Interplanetary Society. ISBN 0-9506597-5-4.
  5. "Orbital period of a planet". CalcTool. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
  6. Rex Hall & David Shayler (2003). Soyuz: A Universal Spacecraft. Springer-Praxis. ISBN 978-1-85233-657-8.
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