List of human evolution fossils

The following tables give an overview of notable finds of hominin fossils and remains relating to human evolution, beginning with the formation of the tribe Hominini (the divergence of the human and chimpanzee lineages) in the late Miocene, roughly 7 to 8 million years ago.

As there are thousands of fossils, mostly fragmentary, often consisting of single bones or isolated teeth with complete skulls and skeletons rare, this overview is not complete, but does show some of the most important finds. The fossils are arranged by approximate age as determined by radiometric dating and/or incremental dating and the species name represents current consensus; if there is no clear scientific consensus the other possible classifications are indicated.

Most of the early fossils shown are not considered direct ancestors to Homo sapiens but are closely related to direct ancestors and are therefore important to the study of the lineage. After 1.5 million years ago (extinction of Paranthropus), all fossils shown are human (genus Homo). After 11,500 years ago (11.5 ka, beginning of the Holocene), all fossils shown are Homo sapiens (anatomically modern humans), illustrating recent divergence in the formation of modern human sub-populations.

Late Miocene (7.2 – 5.5 million years old)

The chimpanzee–human divergence likely took place during about 10 to 7 million years ago.[1] The list of fossils begins with Graecopithecus, dated some 7.2 million years ago, which may or may not still be ancestral to both the human and the chimpanzee lineage. For the earlier history of the human lineage, see Timeline of human evolution#Hominidae, Hominidae#Phylogeny.

Name Age Species Year
Country Site Discovered by Now located at
El Graeco 7.2 Ma Graecopithecus freybergi 2017 (1944) Greece, Bulgaria Pyrgos Vassilissis, Azmaka Böhme (Tübingen), Spassov (BAS) Met, Athens; Tübingen, Germany
TM 266 (Toumai) 7 Ma[2] Sahelanthropus tchadensis 2001 Chad Djurab Desert Michel Brunet, Alain Beauvilain, Fanone Gongdibe, Mahamat Adoum and Ahounta Djimdoumalbaye N'Djamena (Chad), BEAC
BAR 1000'00 6 Ma[3] Orrorin tugenensis 2000 Kenya Lukeino Martin Pickford, Kiptalam Cheboi, Dominique Gommery, Pierre Mein, Brigitte Senut,
ALA-VP 1/20[4] 5.65±0.15 Ma Ardipithecus kadabba 1997 Ethiopia Middle Awash Yohannes Haile-Selassie

Pliocene (5.3 – 2.58 million years old)

Image Name Age Species Year
Country Discovered by Now located at
Lothagam mandible (KNM-LT 329) [5] 5.25±0.25 Ma Australopithecus(?) 1967 Kenya A.D. Lewis[6]
Ardi 4.4 Ma[7] Ardipithecus ramidus 1994 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
KNM-LT 329 4.6±0.4 Ma[8] Australopithecus anamensis 1967 Kenya Arnold Lewis, Bryan Patterson[9][10][11]
KNM-TH 13150 4.7±0.55 Ma[12] Australopithecus anamensis 1984 Kenya Kiptalam Cheboi[9]
KNM-KP 271 4 Ma[13] Australopithecus anamensis 1965 Kanapoi, Kenya Bryan Patterson[9]
Laetoli Footprints 3.7 Ma Bipedal hominin 1976 Tanzania Mary Leakey
LH 4 3.4±0.5 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1974 Laetoli, Tanzania Mary Leakey[14]
KSD-VP-1/1 (Kadanuumuu) 3.58 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 2005 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
KT-12/H1 (Abel) 3.5 Ma Australopithecus bahrelghazali 1995 Chad Mamelbaye Tomalta and Michel Brunet N'Djamena (Chad), BEAC
KNM-WT 40000 (Flat Faced Man)[15] 3.5 Ma Kenyanthropus platyops 1999 Lake Turkana (West Lake Turkana), Kenya Justus Erus and Meave Leakey[16]
BRT-VP-3/14 3.4±0.1 Ma Australopithecus deyiremeda 2015 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie[17]
Stw 573 (Little foot) 3.3 Ma Australopithecus prometheus(?) 1994 Sterkfontein, South Africa Ronald J. Clarke
DIK-1 (Selam) 3.3 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 2000 Ethiopia Zeresenay Alemseged
AL 288-1 (Lucy) 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1974 Ethiopia Tom Gray, Donald Johanson, Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb National Museum of Ethiopia
AL 200-1 3.1±0.1 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1975 Afar Region, Ethiopia Donald Johanson Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb
AL 129-1 3.1±0.1 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1973 Afar Region, Ethiopia Donald Johanson
AL 444-2[18] 3 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1992 Afar Region, Ethiopia Yoel Rak
[19] LD 350-1 2.775±0.025 Ma[20] Homo(?) 2013 Ethiopia Chalachew Seyoum


Lower Paleolithic: 2.58 – 0.3 million years old

Name Age Species Date
Country Discovered by Now located at
Taung 1
(Taung Child)
2.5 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1924 South Africa Raymond Dart
KNM-WT 17000
(The Black Skull)
2.5 Ma Paranthropus aethiopicus 1985 Kenya Alan Walker
BOU-VP-12/130[21] 2.5 Ma Australopithecus garhi 1997 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
UR 501 (Uraha jawbone) 2.4±0.1 Ma Homo rudolfensis[22] 1991 Malawi Tyson Msiska, Timothy Bromage, Friedemann Schrenk
STS 71[23] 2.6±0.2 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 Sterkfontein, South Africa Robert Broom and John T. Robinson
STS 52 2.3 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 Sterkfontein, South Africa Robert Broom
STS 5 (Mrs. Ples)
(STS 14)[24]
2.05 Ma[25] Australopithecus africanus 1947 Sterkfontein, South Africa Robert Broom
TM 1517[26] 2 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1938 South Africa Gert Terblanche
MH1 (Karabo)[27][28] 1.98 Ma[29] Australopithecus sediba 2008 Malapa, South Africa Lee R. Berger
KNM-ER 1813 1.9 Ma Homo habilis 1973 Kenya Kamoya Kimeu
KNM-ER 1470 1.9 Ma Homo rudolfensis 1972 Kenya Bernard Ngeneo[30]
OH 24
1.8 Ma Homo habilis 1968 Tanzania Peter Nzube
SK 48 1.8 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1948 Swartkrans, South Africa Robert Broom
OH 8[32] 1.8 Ma Homo habilis 1960 Olduvai, Tanzania
D2700 (Dmanisi Skull 3) 1.81±0.04 Ma[33] Homo erectus 2001 Dmanisi, Georgia David Lordkipanidze and Abesalom Vekua
D3444 (Dmanisi Skull 4) 1.81±0.04 Ma Homo erectus 2003 Dmanisi, Georgia David Lordkipanidze
D4500 (Dmanisi Skull 5) 1.81±0.04 Ma Homo erectus 2005 (published in 2013) Dmanisi, Georgia David Lordkipanidze
KNM-ER 62000–62003[34] 1.84±0.06 Ma Homo rudolfensis 2012 Koobi Fora, Kenya Meave Leakey's team
OH 5
(Zinj or
nutcracker man)
1.75 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1959 Tanzania Mary Leakey
OH 7 1.75 Ma Homo habilis 1960 Tanzania Jonathan Leakey
StW 53 1.75±0.25 Ma[35] variously A. africanus, H. habilis, H. gautengensis 1976 Sterkfontein, South Africa A. R. Hughes
SK 847[36] 1.75±0.25 Ma Homo habilis 1949 Swartkrans, South Africa
1.75±0.25 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1994 South Africa André Keyser
KNM-ER 1805 1.74 Ma Homo habilis 1973/4 Kenya Paul Abell
Yuanmou Man 1.7 Ma
or 0.6-0.5 Ma (disputed)[38]
Homo erectus 1965 China Fang Qian
KNM-ER 406 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1969 Kenya Richard Leakey
KNM-ER 732[39] 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1970 Kenya Richard Leakey
KNM-ER 23000[40] 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1990 Koobi Fora, Kenya Benson Kyongo
KNM-WT 17400[41][42] 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei Not known[43] Lake Turkana (West Lake Turkana) Kenya unknown[43] National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenia)
SK 46[44] 1.65±0.15 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1949 Swartkrans, South Africa Robert Broom
KNM-ER 3733 1.63±0.15 Ma[45] Homo ergaster (aka African Homo erectus) 1975 Kenya
KNM-WT 15000
(Turkana Boy)
1.6 Ma Homo ergaster (aka African Homo erectus) 1984 Lake Turkana (West Lake Turkana), Kenya Kamoya Kimeu Kenya National Museum
Peninj Mandible 1.5 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1964 Tanzania Richard Leakey
KNM-ER 992 1.5 Ma Homo ergaster (aka African Homo erectus) 1971 Kenya Richard Leakey
Mojokerto 1
(Mojokerto child)
1.46±0.03 Ma Homo erectus 1936 Indonesia Andojo, G.H.R. von Koenigswald
KNM-ER 3883 1.5±0.1 Ma Homo erectus 1976 Kenya Richard Leakey
KGA 10-525[46][47] 1.4 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1993 Konso-Gardula, Ethiopia A. Amzaye
OH 9
(Chellean Man)
1.4 Ma Homo erectus 1960 Olduvai, Tanzania Louis Leakey
Atapuerca Jawbone[49] 1.2 Ma Homo sp. 2008 Spain Eudald Carbonell Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
Kocabas 1.1 Ma[50] Homo erectus [51] 2002 Turkey M. Cihat Alçiçek
Daka 1.0 Ma Homo erectus 1997 Ethiopia Henry Gilbert
Sangiran 4 1 Ma Homo erectus 1939 Indonesia G.H.R. von Koenigswald
Sangiran 2 1.15±0.45 Ma Homo erectus 1937 Indonesia G.H.R. von Koenigswald
Madam Buya[52] 1.0±0.4 Ma Homo heidelbergensis or Homo erectus 1997 Eritrea Ernesto Abbate National Museum of Eritrea
ATD6-15 and ATD6-69

(Niño de la Gran Dolina 342)

0.9 Ma[53] Homo antecessor or Homo erectus 1994 Spain Bermúdez & Arsuaga Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
Trinil 2
Java Man
0.85±0.15 Ma Homo erectus 1891 Indonesia Eugène Dubois Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden
Ternifine 2-3 now Tighennif[55] 0.7 Ma Homo erectus 1954 Algeria C. Arambourg & B. Hoffstetter
Sangiran 17[56] 0.7 Ma Homo erectus 1969 Indonesia S. Sartono
Peking Man 0.73±0.05 Ma[57] Homo erectus 1921 China Davidson Black Lost/stolen
Bodo[58] 0.6 Ma Homo heidelbergensis or Homo erectus 1976 Ethiopia A. Asfaw
Mauer 1
(Heidelberg Man)
0.5 Ma Homo heidelbergensis 1907 Germany Daniel Hartmann
Saldanha man[59] 0.5 Ma Homo rhodesiensis 1953 South Africa
Boxgrove Man 0.5 Ma[60] Homo heidelbergensis 1994 UK Natural History Museum
Arago 21
(Tautavel Man)
0.45 Ma Homo erectus 1971 France Henry de Lumley
Ceprano Man[61][62]
0.45±0.5 Ma Homo cepranensis
/Homo heidelbergensis
1994 Ceprano, Italy Italo Biddittu Servizio di antropologia, Soprintendenza ai beni culturali, Regione Lazio, Italy
Gawis cranium 0.35±1.5 Ma Homo erectus/Homo sapiens 2006 Ethiopia Asahmed Humet
Skull 5 (Miguelón) 0.4 Ma Homo heidelbergensis 1992 Spain Bermúdez, Arsuaga & Carbonell Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
Aroeira 3 0.4 Ma Homo heidelbergensis 2014 Portugal João_Zilhão Museu Nacional de Arqueologia, Lisbon
Salé[63][64][65] 0.4 Ma Homo rhodesiensis 1971 Morocco A quarry worker
Swanscombe Man[66] 0.4 Ma Homo Neanderthalensis 1935, 1936, 1955 Swanscombe Alvan T Marston, John J Wymer and Adrian Gibson Natural History Museum
Ndutu[67] 0.35 Ma Homo rhodesiensis 1973 Tanzania A.A. Mturi
Steinheim Skull 0.35 Ma Homo heidelbergensis 1933 Germany
Dinaledi Chamber hominins 0.325±0.09 Ma[68] Homo naledi 2013 South Africa Rick Hunter and Steven Tucker University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

Middle Paleolithic: 300,000 – 50,000 years old

Name Age Species Year
Country Discovered by Now located at
Jebel Irhoud 1–5 286±32 ka[69] Homo sapiens 1991 Morocco
Samu 275±25 ka Homo heidelbergensis 1964 Hungary László Vértes
[70] Dali Man 260±20 ka.[71] Homo erectus
or Homo heidelbergensis
or early Homo sapiens
1978 China Shuntang Liu
Florisbad Skull 259±35 ka early Homo sapiens
or Homo heidelbergensis
or Homo helmei
1932 South Africa T. F. Dreyer, G. Venter
Galilee Man 250±50 ka Homo heidelbergensis 1925 Israel Francis Turville-Petre
Saccopastore 1 250 ka[72] Homo neanderthalensis 1929 Italy Mario Grazioli
Ngandong 7 250 ka Homo erectus 1931 Indonesia C. ter Haar and G. H. R. von Koenigswald
Bontnewydd (Pontynewydd) 230 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1981 UK
Apidima 1
(LAO 1/S1)
210 ka[73] Homo sapiens 1978 Apidima Cave / Greece Theodore Pitsios[74]
Petralona 1 200±40 ka[75] Homo heidelbergensis (uncertain) 1960 Greece
Omo remains 195±5 ka[76] Homo sapiens 1967 Ethiopia Richard Leakey
[77] Hexian cranial vault (PA 830)[78] 195±16 ka Homo erectus 1980 Hexian, China
Laterite Baby c. 190 ka[79] H. erectus or H. sapiens 2001 Tamil Nadu, India P Rajendran
Misliya-1 187±13 ka[80] Homo sapiens 2002 Israel Israel Hershkovitz
Apidima 2
(LAO 1/S2)
170 ka[73] Homo neanderthalensis 1978 Apidima Cave / Greece Theodore Pitsios[74]
Penghu 1 160±30 ka or 40±30 ka[81] Homo tsaichangensis[82][83][84] c. 2008 Taiwan National Museum of Natural Science
Herto remains[85] 160 ka Homo sapiens 1997 Ethiopia Tim White
Xiahe mandible 160 ka[86] Denisovan 1980 China
Altamura Man 151±21 ka[87] Homo neanderthalensis 1993 Italy in situ
[88] LH 18 120±30 ka Homo sapiens 1976 Ngaloba beds at Laetoli, Tanzania Mary Leakey[89]
Tabun C1[90] 120 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1967 Israel Arthur Jelinek
Denisova 8 110 ka[91][92] Homo sp. Altai 2010 Russia
Krapina 3[93] 113.5±13.5 ka[94] Homo neanderthalensis 1899 Croatia Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger
Broken Hill 1
(Kabwe 1, Rhodesian Man)
c. 110 ka(?) Homo rhodesiensis (Homo heidelbergensis) 1921 Zambia Tom Zwiglaar
Qafzeh 6[95] 95±5 ka[94] Homo sapiens 1930 Israel R. Neuville, M. Stekelis
Qafzeh 9 100-90 ka[94] Homo sapiens[96] 1933 Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Scladina 103±23 ka[94] Homo neanderthalensis 1993 Belgium
Skhul 5 100±20 ka Homo sapiens 1933 Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Skhul 9 100±20 ka Homo sapiens Israel
[97] Klasies River Caves 100±25 ka Homo sapiens 1960 South Africa Ray Inskeep, Robin Singer, John Wymer, Hilary Deacon
Eve's footprints 117 ka Homo sapiens 1995 South Africa David Roberts & Lee R. Berger
[98] Denny[99][100] 90 ka Hybrid – (Homo neanderthalensis/Homo sapiens denisova) 2012 Denisova Cave / Siberia / Russia Viviane Slon & Svante Pääbo Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Leipzig, Germany)
Obi-Rakhmat 1[101] 75 ka[94] Homo neanderthalensis 2003 Uzbekistan
Teshik-Tash Skull[102] 70 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1938 Uzbekistan A. Okladnikov
La Ferrassie 1 70 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1909 France R. Capitan and D. Peyrony
Shanidar 1 70±10 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1961 Iraq Ralph Solecki
La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 60 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1908 France A. and J. Bouyssonie and L. Bardon
Kebara 2 (Moshe)[103] 60 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1983 Israel Lynne Schepartz
[104] Amud 7 55±5 ka Homo neanderthalensis Israel
LB 1 (Hobbit) 55±5 ka Homo floresiensis 2003 Liang Bua, Indonesia Peter Brown
Manot 1 55 ka Homo sapiens 2008 Israel [105]
La Quina 5 52.5±7.5 ka[94] Homo neanderthalensis France
La Quina 18 52.5±7.5 ka[94] Homo neanderthalensis France
Tam Pa Ling Cave[106] 54.5±8.5 ka[106][107] Homo sapiens 2009 Laos

Upper Paleolithic: 50,000 – 11,500 years old

Name Age Species Date
Country Discovered by Now located at
Mungo Man 50±10 ka Homo sapiens 1974 Australia
Mt. Circeo 1[108] 50±10 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1939 Italy Prof. Blanc
SID-00B 49.2±2.5 ka[109] Homo neanderthalensis 1994 Sidrón Cave, Spain
Kents Cavern 4 maxilla 43.5±2.5 ka Homo sapiens 1927 UK
Amud 1[110] 41 ka[111] Homo neanderthalensis 1961 Israel Hisashi Suzuki
Neanderthal 1[112] 40 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1856 Germany Johann Carl Fuhlrott
Denisova hominin (X-Woman) 40 ka Homo sp. Altai 2008 Russia Johannes Krause, et al.
hominin toe bone 40 ka Homo sp. Altai (possible Neanderthal-Denisovan hybrid) 2010 Russia
Oase 1 42-37 ka[113] Homo sapiens (EEMH x Neanderthal hybrid) 2002 Romania
Kostenki-14 (Markina Gora) 40-37 ka[114] Homo sapiens (EEMH) 1954 Russia
SID-20[115] 37.30±0.83 ka[109] Homo neanderthalensis 1994 Sidrón Cave, Spain
Balangoda man 37 ka Homo sapiens 2012 Sri Lanka
Hofmeyr Skull 36 ka Homo sapiens 1952 South Africa
Wadjak 1[116] 33±4.5 ka[117] Homo sapiens (proto-Australoid[118]) 1888 Indonesia
Red Lady of Paviland 33 ka Homo sapiens 1823 UK William Buckland
Yamashita-Cho Man 32 ka Homo sapiens 1962 Japan
Engis 2 40±10 ka[94][119] Homo neanderthalensis 1829 Belgium Philippe-Charles Schmerling
Gibraltar 1 40±10 ka[94] Homo neanderthalensis 1848 Gibraltar Captain Edmund Flint
Le Moustier 40±10 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1909 France
Denisovan tooth 40±10 ka Homo sp. Altai 2000 Russia
Cro-Magnon 1 30 ka Homo sapiens (EEMH) 1868 France Louis Lartet
WLH-50 29±5 ka Homo sapiens 1982 Australia
Predmost 3[120] 26 ka Homo sapiens 1894 Czech Republic K.J. Maska
[121] Lapedo Child 24.5 ka Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens 1998 Portugal João Zilhão
[121] Eel Point 24 ka Homo sapiens 1997
MA-1 (Mal'ta boy) 24 ka Homo sapiens (ANE) 1920s
[122] Minatogawa 1 17±1 ka Homo sapiens 1970 Japan Anthropology Museum, Tokyo University
Tandou[123][124] 17 ka Homo sapiens 1967 Australia Duncan Merrilees
Gough's Cave[125][126] 14.7 ka Homo sapiens 2010 UK
Iwo Eleru Skull 13 ka[127] Homo sapiens 1965 Nigeria
"Kotias"[128] 13 ka Homo sapiens (CHG) Kotias Klde cave, Georgia
Arlington Springs Man 13 ka[129] Homo sapiens 1959 United States Phil Orr
Chancelade find 14.5±2.5 ka[130] Homo sapiens 1888 France
Villabruna 1 14 ka Homo sapiens (WHG) 1988 Italy
Bichon man 13.7 ka Homo sapiens (WHG) 1956 Switzerland
Red Deer Cave 13±1.5 ka Uncertain, possibly Homo sapiens 1979 China Darren Curnoe?

Holocene (11,500 – 5,000 years old)

Name Age Culture /
Luzia 11.5 ka[131] Paleo-Indian 1975 Brazil
[132] Cerro Sota 2[133] 11 ka 1936 Chile
"Satsurblia" 10 ka Caucasian Epipaleolithic (CHG)[128] Georgia
Kow Swamp 1 13–9 ka 1968 Australia
Talgai Skull[134] 10±1 ka 1886 Australia
La Brea Woman 10 ka Paleo-Indian 1914 United States
Combe Capelle 9.6 ka (7600 BC)[135] European Mesolithic 1909 France
Cheddar Man 9 ka (7000 BC) British Mesolithic 1903 UK
Kennewick Man 9 ka (7000 BC) Archaic period (North America) 1996 United States
Tepexpan man 8±3 ka Paleo-Indian 1947 Mexico
Loschbour man[136] 8 ka (6000 BC) European Mesolithic (WHG) 1935 Luxembourg
Minnesota Woman 7.9±0.1 ka Paleo-Indian 1931 Minnesota, United States
Lothagam 4b (Lo 4b)[137] 7.5±1.5 ka[138] 1965-1975 Kenya
Ötzi 5.3 ka (3300 BC) European Neolithic 1991 Ötztal Alps, Italy

Abbreviations used in fossil catalog name

See also

Further reading

  • Gibbons, Ann. The First Human: The Race to Discover our Earliest Ancestor. Anchor Books (2007). ISBN 978-1-4000-7696-3
  • Hartwig, Walter Carl (2002-04-11). Hartwig, Walter (ed.). The Primate Fossil Record. Cambridge University Press (2002). Reprinted 2004. ISBN 978-0-521-08141-2.
  • Johanson, Donald & Wong, Kate. Lucy's Legacy: The Quest for Human Origins. Three Rivers Press (2009). ISBN 978-0-307-39640-2
  • Jones, Steve; Martin, Robert D.; Pilbeam, David R (Editors). (1994). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human evolution. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-46786-5CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) (Note: this book contains very useful, information dense chapters on primate evolution in general, and human evolution in particular, including fossil history).
  • Leakey, Richard & Lewin, Roger. Origins Reconsidered: In Search of What Makes us Human. Little, Brown and Company (1992). ISBN 0-316-90298-5
  • Lewin, Roger. Bones of Contention: Controversies in the Search for Human Origins. Penguin Books (1987). ISBN 0-14-022638-9
  • Morwood, Mike & van Oosterzee, Penny. A New Human: The Startling Discovery and Strange Story of the 'Hobbits' of Flores, Indonesia. Smithsonian Books (2007). ISBN 978-0-06-089908-0
  • Oppenheimer, Stephen. Out of Eden: The Peopling of the World. Constable (2003). ISBN 1-84119-697-5
  • Roberts, Alice. The Incredible Human Journey: The Story of how we Colonised the Planet. Bloomsbury (2009). ISBN 978-0-7475-9839-8
  • Shreeve, James. The Neanderthal Enigma: Solving the Mystery of Modern Human Origins. Viking (1996). ISBN 0-670-86638-5
  • Stringer, Chris. The Origin of Our Species. Allen Lane (2011). ISBN 978-1-84614-140-9
  • Stringer, Chris & Andrews, Peter. The Complete World of Human Evolution. Thames & Hudson (2005). ISBN 0-500-05132-1
  • Stringer, Chris & McKie, Robin. African Exodus: The Origins of Modern Humanity. Jonathan Cape (1996). ISBN 0-224-03771-4
  • van Oosterzee, Penny. The Story of Peking Man. Allen & Unwin (1999). ISBN 1-86508-632-0
  • Walker, Allan & Shipman, Pat. The Wisdom of the Bones: In Search of Human Origins. Weidenfeld & Nicolson (1996). ISBN 0-297-81670-5
  • Wade, Nicholas. Before the Dawn: Recovering the Lost History of our Ancestors. Penguin Press (2006). ISBN 978-0-7156-3658-9
  • Weiss, M.L., & Mann, A.E. (1985). 'Human Biology and Behaviour: An anthropological perspective (4th ed.). Boston: Little Brown. ISBN 978-0-673-39013-4CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) (Note: this book contains very accessible descriptions of human and non-human primates, their evolution, and fossil history).
  • Wells, Spencer (2004). The Journey of Man : A Genetic Odyssey. New York, NY: Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-8129-7146-0.


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