List of heads of state of Argentina

Argentina has had many different types of heads of state as well as many different types of government. During pre-Columbian times, the territories that today form Argentina were inhabited by nomadic tribes without any defined government. During the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the King of Spain retained the ultimate authority over the territories conquered in the New World, appointing viceroys for local government. The territories that would later become Argentina were first part of the Viceroyalty of Peru and then the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. The May Revolution started the Argentine War of Independence by replacing the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros with the first national government. It was the Primera Junta, a junta of several members, which would grow into the Junta Grande with the incorporation of provincial deputies. The size of the juntas gave room to internal political disputes among their members, so they were replaced by the First and Second Triumvirate, of three members. The Assembly of the Year XIII created a new executive authority, with attributions similar to that of a head of state, called the Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. A second Assembly, the Congress of Tucumán, declared independence in 1816 and promulgated the Argentine Constitution of 1819. However, this constitution was repealed during armed conflicts between the central government and the Federal League Provinces. This started a period known as the Anarchy of the Year XX, when Argentina lacked any type of head of state.

President of the Argentine Nation
Presidente de la Nación Argentina
Presidential Standard
Incumbent
Alberto Fernández

since 10 December 2019
StyleExcelentísimo Señor (m) Excelentísima Señora (f)
ResidenceCasa Rosada (government office)
Quinta de Olivos (official residence)
Chapadmalal Residence (summer house)
Term lengthFour years, renewable once
Inaugural holderBernardino Rivadavia
Formationfirst: 1826 Constitution
current: 1853 Constitution, (amended in 1994).
Salary77,855.65 Argentine pesos[1] (as of February 2016)
WebsiteOffice of the President
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Argentina
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There was a new attempt to organize a central government in 1826. A new congress wrote a new constitution and elected Bernardino Rivadavia as president in the process.[2] Rivadavia was the first President of Argentina. However, he resigned shortly after and the 1826 Constitution was repealed. The Argentine provinces then organized themselves as a confederation without a central head of state. In this organization, the governors of Buenos Aires province took some duties such as the payment of external debt or the administration of the foreign relations in the name of all provinces.[3] Those governors were appointed by the Buenos Aires legislature, with the only exception of Juan Lavalle. Juan Manuel de Rosas kept the governor office for seventeen consecutive years until Justo José de Urquiza defeated him at the 1852 Battle of Caseros. Urquiza then called for a new Constitutional Assembly and promulgated the Argentine Constitution of 1853, which is the current Constitution of Argentina through amendments. In 1854, Urquiza became the first President of modern Argentina, acting both as head of government and head of state.[4] However, the Buenos Aires Province had rejected the Constitution and became an independent state until the aftermath of the 1859 Battle of Cepeda, although the internecine conflict continued. Only after the subsequent Battle of Pavón in 1861, the former bonaerense leader Bartolomé Mitre became the first president of an unified Argentine Republic.[5]

The succession line of constitutional presidents run uninterrupted until 1930, when José Félix Uriburu took government through a civic-military coup d'état. For many decades, there was an alternance between legitimate presidents and others that took government through illegitimate means. Those means included coups d'état, but also proscriptions of major political parties[6] and electoral fraud.[6][7] The last coup d'état occurred in 1976 and resulted in the National Reorganization Process, which ended in 1983. The retrospective recognition as presidents or heads of state of any de facto ruler that exercised its authority outside the Constitutional mandate is a controversial and relevant issue in Argentine politics.[8][9][10] However, their government actions were recognized as valid following the de facto government doctrine that used to legitimize them.[11] This doctrine was rejected by the 1994 amendment and would not be applicable for potential future coups. The current head of state is President Alberto Fernandez, who took office on 10 December 2019.

Affiliation keys

Abbreviation Party name (English) Party name (Spanish) Years
Unitarian Unitarian Unitarios 1826–1827, 1828–1829
Federal Federalist Federales 1827–1828, 1829–1861
Liberal Liberal Party Partido Liberal 1862–1868
Independent politician Político independiente 1868–1874
National National Party Partido Nacional 1874–1880
PAN National Autonomist Party Partido Autonomista Nacional 1880–1910, 1914–1916
PAN-Modernist National Autonomist Party – Modernist Line Partido Autonomista Nacional – Línea Modernista 1910–1914
UCR Radical Civic Union Unión Cívica Radical 1916–1930, 1958-1966, 1983–1989, 1999–2001
Military Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic Fuerzas Armadas de la República Argentina 1930–1932, 1943–1946, 1955–1958, 1966–1973, 1976–1983
Concordancia Concordancia Concordancia 1932–1943
PDN National Democratic Party Partido Demócrata Nacional 1932–1938, 1942–1943
UCR-A Antipersonalist Radical Civic Union Unión Cívica Radical Antipersonalista 1938–1942
Labour Labour Party Partido Laborista 1946–1952
UCR-JR Radical Civic Union Renewal Board Unión Cívica Radical Junta Renovadora 1946–1952
Independent Independent Party Partido Independiente 1946–1952
Peronist Peronist Party Partido Peronista 1952–1955
UCR-I Intransigent Radical Civic Union Unión Cívica Radical Intransigente 1958–1963
UCR-P People's Radical Civic Union Unión Cívica Radical del Pueblo 1963–1966
PJ Justicialist Party Partido Justicialista 1973–1976, 1989–1999, 2001–2015, 2019-present
FREJULI Justicialist Liberation Front Frente Justicialista de Liberación 1973–1976
FREJUPO Justicialist Front of Popular Unity Frente Justicialista de Unidad Popular 1989–1995
UCD Union of the Democratic Centre Unión del Centro Democrático 1995–1999
Alianza Alliance for Work, Justice and Education Alianza para el Trabajo, la Justicia y la Educación 1999–2001
FPV Front for Victory Frente para la Victoria 2003–2015
PRO Republican Proposal Propuesta Republicana 2015–2019
Cambiemos Cambiemos Cambiemos 2015–2019
FDT Everyone's Front Frente de Todos 2019–present

United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata (1810–1831)

Junta presidents (1810–1811)

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Notes
R.
Start End
Cornelio Saavedra
(1759–1829)
25 May 1810 18 December 1810 President of the Primera Junta, at the beginning of the Argentine War of Independence. He is regarded as the first president of a national government.[12] [13]
18 December 1810 26 August 1811 President of the Junta Grande. Left to serve in the Army of the North.
Domingo Matheu
(1765–1831)
26 August 1811 23 September 1811 President of the Junta Grande, from Saavedra's departure to the dissolution of it. [14]

Triumvirates (1811–1814)

First Triumvirate
23 September 1811 – 8 October 1812
23 September 1811 – 23 March 1812 23 March 1812 – 8 October 1812

Feliciano Chiclana
(1761–1826)

Manuel de Sarratea
(1774–1849)

Juan José Paso
(1758–1833)

Juan Martín de Pueyrredón
(1776–1850)
Second Triumvirate
8 October 1812 – 31 January 1814
8 October 1812 – 20 February 1813 20 February 1813 – 19 August 1813 19 August 1813 – 5 November 1813 5 November 1813 – 31 January 1814

Nicolás Rodríguez Peña
(1775–1853)

Antonio Álvarez Jonte
(1784–1820)

Gervasio Antonio de Posadas
(1757–1833)

Juan José Paso
(1758–1833)
José Julián Pérez
(1770–1840)

Juan Larrea
(1782–1847)

Supreme Directors (1814–1820)

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Notes
R.
Start End
Gervasio Antonio de Posadas
(1757–1833)
31 January 1814 9 January 1815 Chosen by the Assembly of the Year 1813. [15]
Carlos María de Alvear
(1789–1852)
9 January 1815 18 April 1815 Forced to resign by a mutiny. [16]


José de San Martín
(1778–1850)

Matías de Irigoyen
(1781–1839)

Manuel de Sarratea
(1774–1849)
18 April 1815 20 April 1815 Third Triumvirate. Interim government until the appointment of a new Supreme Director.
José Rondeau
(1773–1844)
20 April 1815 21 April 1815 Appointed successor of Alvear, could not take office because he was in command of the Army of the North [17]
Ignacio Álvarez Thomas
(1787–1857)
21 April 1815 16 April 1816 Acting, for Rondeau. Convened the Congress of Tucumán, that would declare Independence. [18]
Antonio González de Balcarce
(1774–1819)
16 April 1816 9 July 1816 Interim. [19]
Juan Martín de Pueyrredón
(1776–1850)
9 July 1816 9 June 1819 First Argentine Head of State after the Argentine Declaration of Independence. Supported the Crossing of the Andes. [20]
José Rondeau
(1773–1844)
9 June 1819 1 February 1820 Decisively defeated at the Battle of Cepeda by Federalist forces opposed to the 1819 centralist Constitution. [21]
Juan Pedro Aguirre
(1781–1837)
1 February 1820 11 February 1820 Interim. Dissolved the National Congress and endorsed the Buenos Aires Cabildo to choose a Governor for Buenos Aires Province instead of the previous post of Governor Mayor.

Governors of Buenos Aires Province managing international relations (1820–1826)

Between 1820 and 1826, the United Provinces functioned as a loose alliance of autonomous provinces put together by pacts and treaties (see Treaty of Pilar, Treaty of Benegas, Quadrilateral Treaty), but lacking any actual central government until the 1825 Constitutional Congress.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Notes
R.
Start End
Matías de Irigoyen
(1781–1839)
11 February 1820 18 February 1820 He had been Governor Mayor from 9 to 11 February 1820 and was promoted interim as Governor until the appointment of Manuel de Sarratea.
Manuel de Sarratea
(1774–1849)
18 February 1820 6 March 1820 The political crisis that existed in the country led to his government lacked support from both Buenos Aires and the other provinces. Thus he resigned shortly afterwards.
Juan Ramón Balcarce
(1773–1836)
6 March 1820 11 March 1820 Interim. Resigned.
Manuel de Sarratea
(1774–1849)
11 March 1820 2 May 1820 He returned to office after the end of the brief government of Balcarce. The circumstances did not improve and ended up resigning a second time.
Ildefonso Ramos Mexía
(1769–1854)
2 May 1820 20 June 1820
Ildefonso Ramos Mexía and Miguel Estanislao Soler 20 June 1820 23 June 1820 They took power simultaneously.
Miguel Estanislao Soler
(1783–1849)
23 June 1820 29 June 1820 He assumed de facto, after an armed uprising, but his government lasted a few days, when the Board of Representatives appointed Manuel Dorrego.
Manuel Dorrego
(1787–1828)
29 June 1820 20 September 1820 Interim.
Martín Rodríguez
(1771–1845)
20 September 1820 2 April 1824 He signed the Treaty of Benegas and the Quadrilateral.
Juan Gregorio de las Heras
(1780–1866)
2 April 1824 7 February 1826 He called a Constituent Congress that enacted several laws for which the Unitary Republic was proclaimed. He resigned because of that republic.

First presidential government (1826–1827)

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political
party
Notes
R.
Start End
Bernardino Rivadavia
(1780–1845)
8 February 1826 27 June 1827 Unitarian Elected by the Constituent Assembly of 1826, before the promulgation of the 1826 constitution.[2] Waged the Cisplatine War. Resigned as the Constitution was rejected by the provinces and the outcome of the war generated popular discontent. [2]:23–32
Vicente López y Planes
(1785–1856)
7 July 1827 18 August 1827 Elected as interim president by the Constituent Assembly of 1826. His mandate was limited to close the Assembly and call for elections for a new governor of Buenos Aires. [2]

Governors of Buenos Aires Province managing international relations (1827–1831)

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political
party
Notes
R.
Start End
Manuel Dorrego
(1787–1828)
18 August 1827 1 December 1828 Federal Ended the Cisplatine War. Deposed and executed by Juan Lavalle. [22]
Juan Lavalle
(1797–1841)
1 December 1828 26 June 1829 Unitarian Coup d'état. Defeated in battle, resigned under siege [23]
Juan José Viamonte
(1774–1843)
26 June 1829 6 December 1829 Federal Interim. [24]
Juan Manuel de Rosas
(1793–1877)
6 December 1829 4 January 1831 Federal First term. Convened the Federal Pact and waged war against the Unitarian League. [25]

Argentine Confederation (1831–1861)

Governors managing international relations (1831–1852)

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political
party
Notes
R.
Start End
Juan Manuel de Rosas
(1793–1877)
4 January 1831 5 December 1832 Federal Governor of Buenos Aires Province. First term. Convened the Federal Pact and waged war against the Unitarian League. Resigned. [25]
Juan Ramón Balcarce
(1773–1836)
5 December 1832 4 November 1833 Federal Governor of Buenos Aires Province. Ousted by the Revolution of the Restorers. [26]
Juan José Viamonte
(1774–1843)
4 November 1833 27 June 1834 Federal Governor of Buenos Aires Province. Interim. [27]
Manuel Vicente Maza
(1779–1839)
27 June 1834 7 March 1835 Federal Governor of Buenos Aires Province. Interim. [28]
Juan Manuel de Rosas
(1793–1877)
7 March 1835 3 February 1852 Federal Governor of Buenos Aires Province with the sum of public power. Waged the Argentine and Uruguayan Civil Wars, the War of the Confederation and the French and Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata. Designated "Supreme Chief of the Argentine Confederation" in 1851. Defeated by Justo José de Urquiza at the Battle of Caseros. Resigned. [29]
Vicente López y Planes
(1785–1856)
3 February 1852 6 April 1852 Governor of Buenos Aires Province. Interim. Governor of Buenos Aires Province without national powers until 26 July 1852.
Justo José de Urquiza
(1801–1870)
6 April 1852 31 May 1852 Federal Governor of Entre Ríos Province.

Provisional Director of the Argentine Confederation (1852–1854)

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political
party
Notes
R.
Start End
Justo José de Urquiza
(1801–1870)
31 May 1852 5 March 1854 Federal At the same time Governor of Buenos Aires Province between 26 July 1852 and 4 September 1852. The Province of Buenos Aires secedes from the Confederation as the State of Buenos Aires on 11 September 1852. Ratification of the Constitution of 1 May 1853 by all the provinces, except Buenos Aires. [30]

Presidents of the Confederation (1854–1861)

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Elections Political
party
Notes
Vice President R.
Start End
Justo José de Urquiza
(1801–1870)
5 March 1854 5 March 1860 1854 Federal Indirect elections. The reincoporation of the State of Buenos Aires was negotiated after the 1859 Battle of Cepeda in the Pact of San José de Flores. First constitutional President of Argentina. Salvador María del Carril [30]
Santiago Derqui
(1809–1867)
5 March 1860 5 November 1861 1860 Federal Indirect elections. On 18 October 1860, a Constitutional reform is adopted, proclaiming the Argentine Republic. Resigned after the failure of the Pact of San José de Flores and the national government lost in the Battle of Pavón to Buenos Aires. Juan Esteban Pedernera [31]
Juan Esteban Pedernera
(1796–1886)
5 November 1861 12 December 1861 Unitarian Vice President under Derqui, assumed the presidency after his resignation. Resigned on the dissolution of the national government. Vacant [31]

Argentine Republic (1861–present)

Presidents (1861–present)

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Elections Political
party
(Coalition)
Notes Vice President R.
Start End
Bartolomé Mitre
(1821–1906)
12 December 1861 12 April 1862 Liberal Governor of Buenos Aires Province de facto in charge of the National Executive Power after the Battle of Pavón and the resignation of Juan Esteban Pedernera. During the following months provinces give Mitre different powers.[note 1] Vacant [32]
12 April 1862 2 June 1862 After gaining support from the provinces he appointed himself by decree as "Governor of Buenos Aires Province in charge of the National Executive Power". [33]
2 June 1862 12 October 1862 The National Congress appoints the Governor of Buenos Aires Province, in this case Mitre, as the person in charge of the National Executive Power, until new elections are held. [34]
12 October 1862 12 October 1868 1862 Liberal
Nacionalist
Indirect elections with Mitre as the only candidate. First president of the unified country. Waged the War of the Triple Alliance. Marcos Paz
(Died 2 January 1868)
[35]
Vacant
Marcos Paz
(1811–1868)
12 June 1865 2 January 1868 Liberal Vice President under Mitre. Acting president as Mitre commanded the army in the War of the Triple Alliance. Died in office. Himself
Cabinet of Ministers 2 January 1868 18 January 1868 After the death of Marcos Paz, ministers coordinated by the Minister of the Interior dictated the acts of government until Mitre returned from Paraguay.
Members:
Vacant
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento
(1811–1888)
12 October 1868 12 October 1874 1868 Indirect elections. Ended the War of the Triple Alliance. Adolfo Alsina [35]
Nicolás Avellaneda
(1837–1885)
12 October 1874 12 October 1880 1874 National

PAN
Indirect elections. Federalization of Buenos Aires City in September 1880. Mariano Acosta [35]
Julio Argentino Roca
(1843–1914)
12 October 1880 12 October 1886 1880 PAN Indirect elections. First term. End of the Argentine Civil Wars. Francisco Bernabé Madero [36]
Miguel Ángel Juárez Celman
(1844–1909)
12 October 1886 6 August 1890 1886 PAN Indirect elections. Resigned following the Revolution of the Park. Carlos Pellegrini [37]
Carlos Pellegrini
(1846–1906)
6 August 1890 12 October 1892 PAN Vice President under Juárez Celman, assumed the presidency after his resignation. Finished the presidential period 1886–1892. Vacant [37]
Luis Sáenz Peña
(1822–1907)
12 October 1892 22 January 1895 1892 PAN Indirect elections. Government victory in the Revolution of 1893. Resigned. José Evaristo Uriburu [38]
José Evaristo Uriburu
(1831–1914)
22 January 1895 12 October 1898 PAN Vice President under Sáenz Peña, assumed the presidency after his resignation. Finished the presidential period 1892–1898. Vacant [38]
Julio Argentino Roca
(1843–1914)
12 October 1898 12 October 1904 1898 PAN Indirect elections. Second term. Norberto Quirno Costa [39]
Manuel Quintana
(1835–1906)
12 October 1904 12 March 1906 1904 PAN Indirect elections. Government victory in the Revolution of 1905. Died in office. José Figueroa Alcorta [40]
José Figueroa Alcorta
(1860–1931)
25 January 1906 12 March 1906 PAN Vice President under Quintana. Acting president during his illness. Himself [40]
12 March 1906 12 October 1910 Vice President under Quintana, assumed the presidency after his death. Finished the presidential period 1904–1910. Vacant
Roque Sáenz Peña
(1851–1914)
12 October 1910 9 August 1914 1910 PAN
Modernist
Indirect elections. Promoted the Sáenz Peña law, which allowed secret, universal and mandatory suffrage. Died in office. Victorino de la Plaza [41]
Victorino de la Plaza
(1840–1919)
9 August 1914 12 October 1916 PAN Vice President under Sáenz Peña, assumed the presidency after his death. Finished the presidential period 1910–1916. Vacant [41]
Hipólito Yrigoyen
(1852–1933)
12 October 1916 12 October 1922 1916 UCR Free indirect elections. First president elected under the Sáenz Peña law. First term. Maintained neutrality during World War I. Pelagio Luna
(Died 25 June 1919)
[42]
Vacant
Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear
(1868–1942)
12 October 1922 12 October 1928 1922 UCR Free indirect elections. Elpidio González [42]
Hipólito Yrigoyen
(1852–1933)
12 October 1928 6 September 1930 1928 UCR Free indirect elections. Second term, ousted from office by a coup d'état. Enrique Martínez [43]
Enrique Martínez
(1887–1938)
5 September 1930 6 September 1930 UCR Vice President under Yrigoyen. Acting president during his illness. Ousted from office by a coup d'état. Himself
José Félix Uriburu
(1868–1932)
6 September 1930 20 February 1932 Military First coup d'état in modern Argentine history. Beginning of the Infamous Decade. Called for elections. Enrique Santamarina
(Resigned 20 October 1930)
[44]
Vacant
Agustín Pedro Justo
(1876–1943)
20 February 1932 20 February 1938 1931 PDN
(Concordancia)
Indirect elections held with fraud and with the UCR barred from elections. Julio Argentino Pascual Roca [6]
[45]
Roberto María Ortiz
(1886–1942)
20 February 1938 27 June 1942 1937 UCR-A
(Concordancia)
Indirect elections held with fraud. Resigned for health reasons, died one month later. Ramón Castillo [7]
[46]
Ramón Castillo
(1873–1944)
3 July 1940 27 June 1942 PDN
(Concordancia)
Vice President under Ortiz. Acting president during his illness. Himself [7]
27 June 1942 4 June 1943 Vice President under Ortiz, assumed the presidency after his resignation. Deposed in a coup d'état. End of the Infamous Decade. Vacant
Arturo Rawson
(1885–1952)
4 June 1943 7 June 1943 Military Coup d'état. Beginning of the Revolution of '43. Ousted from office. [47]
[7]
Pedro Pablo Ramírez
(1884–1962)
7 June 1943 9 March 1944 Military Coup d'état. On 25 February 1944, Ramírez temporarily delegated powers to Edelmiro Farrell. Resigned. Sabá Sueyro
(Died 15 October 1943)
[7]
Edelmiro Julián Farrell
Edelmiro Julián Farrell
(1887–1980)
25 February 1944 9 March 1944 Military Vice President under Ramírez. Acting president. Himself [7]
9 March 1944 4 June 1946 Declared war to the Axis powers. Called for elections. End of the Revolution of '43.

Vacant
Juan Perón
(8 July 1944–10 October 1945)
Juan Pistarini
Juan Perón
(1895–1974)
4 June 1946 4 June 1952 1946 Labour
(UCR-JR)
(Independent)
Free indirect elections. First term. Reelection enabled by the Constitution of 1949. Hortensio Quijano
(Died 3 April 1952)
[48]
Vacant
4 June 1952 19 September 1955 1951 Peronist Free direct elections. Second term. First election to allow women's suffrage. Victory with 62.49% of votes, highest victory in Argentine elections. Ousted from office by a coup d'état.
Alberto Teisaire
(7 May 1954–16 September 1955)
Vacant
Eduardo Lonardi
(1896–1956)
20 September 1955 23 November 1955 Military Coup d'état. Beginning of the Revolución Libertadora. By decree appointed himself as "Provisional President of the Nation". [49]
23 September 1955 13 November 1955 Lonardi is sworn in as President. Ousted from office. Isaac Rojas
Pedro Eugenio Aramburu
(1903–1970)
13 November 1955 1 May 1958 Military Coup d'état. The 1949 Constitution is repealed and the 1853 Constitution is restored. End of the Revolución Libertadora. Called for elections with Peronism barred from elections. [49]
Arturo Frondizi
(1908–1995)
1 May 1958 29 March 1962 1958 UCR-I Indirect elections with Peronism barred from elections. Ousted from office by a coup d'état. Alejandro Gómez
(Resigned 18 November 1958)
[50]
Vacant
José María Guido
(1910–1975)
29 March 1962 12 October 1963 UCR-I Provisional President of the Senate exercising the Executive Power, as the civil procedures to replace the deposed president were followed and Vice President Alejandro Gómez had resigned in 1958. [51]
[50]
Arturo Umberto Illia
(1900–1983)
12 October 1963 28 June 1966 1963 UCR-P Indirect elections with Peronism barred from elections. Ousted from office by a coup d'état. Carlos Humberto Perette [52]
Junta of Commanders of the Armed Forces 28 June 1966 29 June 1966 Military Beginning of the Argentine Revolution.
Members:
  • Pascual Pistarini
  • Benigno Ignacio Varela
  • Adolfo Teodoro Álvarez.
Vacant
Juan Carlos Onganía
(1914–1995)
29 June 1966 8 June 1970 Military Coup d'état. Ousted from office. [52]
Junta of Commanders of the Armed Forces 8 June 1970 18 June 1970 Military Members:
Roberto M. Levingston
(1920–2015)
18 June 1970 23 March 1971 Military Appointed by the Military Junta. Ousted from office. [52]
Junta of Commanders of the Armed Forces 23 March 1971 26 March 1971 Military Members:
Alejandro Agustín Lanusse
(1918–1996)
26 March 1971 25 May 1973 Military Appointed by the Military Junta. End of the Argentine Revolution. Called for elections. Peronism ban lifted.
Héctor José Cámpora
(1909–1980)
25 May 1973 13 July 1973 March
1973
PJ
(FREJULI)
Free direct elections. Because no candidate was able to get 50% of the votes needed to win, a runoff should have taken place between Cámpora and Ricardo Balbín, but Balbín decided to withdraw his candidacy, making Cámpora president. First Peronist president after the ban. Cámpora annulled the ban that remained specifically over Juan Perón, and resigned along with his Vice President. Vicente Solano Lima [53]
Raúl Alberto Lastiri
(1915–1978)
13 July 1973 12 October 1973 PJ President of the Chamber of Deputies exercising the Executive Power. Alejandro Díaz Bialet, President of the Senate and ahead of Lastiri in the succession line, was on a diplomatic mission in Africa at that time. Vacant [54]
[53]
Juan Perón
(1895–1974)
12 October 1973 1 July 1974 Sept.
1973
PJ
(FREJULI)
Free direct elections. Third term. Died in office. Isabel Martínez de Perón [53]
Isabel Martínez de Perón
(1931–)
29 June 1974 1 July 1974 PJ
(FREJULI)
First Lady and Vice President under Juan Perón. Acting president during his illness. Herself [55]
1 July 1974 24 March 1976 Vice President of Juan Perón, assumed the presidency after his death. First female president in the Americas. Ousted from office by a coup d'état. Vacant
Ítalo Argentino Lúder
(1916–2008)
13 September 1975 16 October 1975 PJ Provisional President of the Senate exercising the Executive Power. Acting president during Isabel Perón illness.
Military Junta 24 March 1976 29 March 1976 Military Beginning of the National Reorganization Process.
Members:
Jorge Rafael Videla
(1925–2013)
29 March 1976 29 March 1981 Military Coup d'état. President of the Military Junta. Longest government of a de facto ruler. [56]
Roberto Eduardo Viola
(1924–1994)
29 March 1981 11 December 1981 Military Appointed by Videla as President of the Military Junta. Powers and duties suspended on 21 November 1981 due to health problems. Ousted from office. [56]
Horacio Tomás Liendo
(1924–2007)
21 November 1981 11 December 1981 Military Appointed by the Military Junta. Acting president during Viola suspension.
Carlos Lacoste
(1929–2004)
11 December 1981 22 December 1981 Military Appointed by the Military Junta. Interim president.
Leopoldo Galtieri
(1926–2003)
22 December 1981 18 June 1982 Military Appointed by the Military Junta. Waged the Falklands War. Ousted from office. [56]
Alfredo Oscar Saint Jean
(1926–1987)
18 June 1982 1 July 1982 Military Appointed by the Military Junta. Interim president.
Reynaldo Bignone
(1928–2018)
1 July 1982 10 December 1983 Military Appointed by the Military Junta. End of the National Reorganization Process. Called for elections. [56]
(Presidency)
Raúl Alfonsín
(1927–2009)
10 December 1983 8 July 1989 1983 UCR Free indirect elections. The 1989 presidential elections were anticipated. Resigned during the transition and gave power to Carlos Menem six months in advance. Víctor Hipólito Martínez [57]
(Presidency)
Carlos Menem
(1930–)
8 July 1989 8 July 1995 1989 PJ
(FREJUPO)
Free indirect elections. First term. The 1994 ammendment reduced the presidential term from 6 to 4 years and allowed a single consecutive reelection. Eduardo Duhalde
(Resigned 10 December 1991)
[58]
Vacant
8 July 1995 10 December 1999 1995 PJ
(UCD)
Free direct elections. Second term. His term was extended to 10 December 1999 according to the Tenth Temporary Provision of the Constitution of 1994. Carlos Ruckauf
(Presidency)
Fernando de la Rúa
(1937–2019)
10 December 1999 20 December 2001 1999 UCR
(Alianza)
Free direct elections. Faced a severe economic crisis. Resigned after the December 2001 riots. Because his Vice President Carlos Álvarez had resigned in October 2000, the Congress Assembled selected a new President. Carlos Álvarez
(Resigned 6 October 2000)
[59]
Vacant
Ramón Puerta
(1951–)
20 December 2001 22 December 2001 PJ Provisional President of the Senate exercising the Executive Power.
Adolfo Rodríguez Saá
(1947–)
22 December 2001 30 December 2001 PJ Elected by the Congress for three months, with instructions to call for elections. Resigned. [60]
Eduardo Camaño
(1946–)
30 December 2001 2 January 2002 PJ President of the Chamber of Deputies exercising the Executive Power.
Eduardo Duhalde
(1941–)
2 January 2002 25 May 2003 PJ Elected by the Congress, with instructions to complete De la Rúa's term. Called early elections for 27 April 2003. [60]
(Presidency)
Néstor Kirchner
(1950–2010)
25 May 2003 10 December 2007 2003 PJ
(FPV)
Free direct elections. Initially completed the remaining months of De la Rúa's term until 10 December 2003 then began his own mandate. Kirchner finished second to Carlos Menem in the first round and because no one was able to get 45% of the votes needed to win, a runoff should have taken place, but Menem decided to withdraw his candidacy, making Kirchner president. Daniel Scioli [61]
(Presidency)
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
(1953–)
10 December 2007 10 December 2011 2007 PJ
(FPV)
Free direct elections. First term. First female president of Argentina elected as head of the list. Julio Cobos [62]
10 December 2011 10 December 2015 2011 Free direct elections. Second term. By judicial ruling, her mandate ended 9 December 2015 at midnight. Amado Boudou [63]
Federico Pinedo
(1955–)
10 December 2015 PRO
(Cambiemos)
Provisional President of the Senate exercising the Executive Power. Acting president from 00:00 hs. until Macri's swearing in at 11:45 hs. Vacant [63]
(Presidency)
Mauricio Macri
(1959–)
10 December 2015 10 December 2019 2015 PRO
(Cambiemos)
Free direct elections. First president elected in a ballotage, defeating Daniel Scioli. Although his mandate begun on 10 December 2015 at 00:00 hs., it was only after he swore in the Congress at 11:45 hs. that he took office as President. Gabriela Michetti [63]
(Presidency)
Alberto Fernández
(1959–)
10 December 2019 Incumbent 2019 PJ
(FdT)
Free direct elections. Cristina Fernández de Kirchner

Timeline of head of states of Argentina by affiliation

2010
2020
2030
2040
2050
2060
2070
2080
2090
2100
2110

Timeline of head of states of Argentina by individual

Presidents of Argentina (1810–2019)

Living former Presidents by longevity

As of 18 December 2019, there are six living former presidents since Alberto Fernández was inaugurated as President of Argentina on 10 December 2019. The most recent death of a former president was that of Fernando de la Rúa (1999–2001), on 9 July 2019.

Living as of 18 December 2019
President Date of birth Presidency
Carlos Menem (1930-07-02) 2 July 1930 19891999
Isabel Martínez de Perón (1931-02-04) 4 February 1931 19741976
Eduardo Duhalde (1941-10-05) 5 October 1941 20022003
Adolfo Rodríguez Saá (1947-07-25) 25 July 1947 2001
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner (1953-02-19) 19 February 1953 20072015
Mauricio Macri (1959-02-08) 8 February 1959 20152019
Alberto Fernández (1959-04-02) 2 April 1959 2019present

See also

References

  1. Iván Ruiz and Maia Jastreblansky (February 11, 2016). "El primer sueldo de Mauricio Macri como Presidente: $131.421 brutos" [The first salary of Mauricio Macri as president: $ 131,421 gross] (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
  2. Mendelevich, p. 28
  3. Mendelevich, p. 33
  4. Mendelevich, p. 24
  5. Mendelevich, p. 46
  6. Mendelevich, p. 130—131
  7. Mendelevich, p. 136
  8. Braslavsky, Guido (25 September 2008). "Alfonsín vuelve a la Casa Rosada para inaugurar su propia estatua" [Alfonsín returns to the Casa Rosada to open his own statue] (in Spanish). Clarín (newspaper). Retrieved November 7, 2010.
  9. "Quieren quitar los nombres de militares de las calles" [They want to removemilitary names from the streets] (in Spanish). El Argentino. 21 November 2008. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
  10. Ginzberg, Victoria (19 January 2003). "Los protocolos y las decisiones políticas" [Protocols and political rulings] (in Spanish). Página/12. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
  11. Groisman, Enrique. "Los gobiernos de facto en el derecho argentino" [De facto governments in Argentine law] (PDF) (in Spanish). Centro de estudios políticos y constitucionales. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
  12. "Buenos Aires, diciembre 16 de 1829.- El primer comandante de Patricios, el primer presidente de un gobierno patrio, pudo sólo quedar olvidado en su fallecimiento por las circunstancias calamitosas en que el país se hallaba. Después que ellas han terminado, sería una ingratitud negar a ciudadano tan eminente el tributo de honor rendido a su mérito, y a una vida ilustrada con tantas virtudes, que supo consagrar entera al servicio de su patria. El gobierno, para cumplir un deber tan sagrado, acuerda y decreta: Artículo 1º: En el cementerio del Norte se levantará, por cuenta del gobierno, un monumento en que se depositarán los restos del brigadier general D. Cornelio Saavedra. Artículo 2º: Se archivará en la Biblioteca Pública un manuscrito autógrafo del mismo brigadier general, con arreglo a lo que previene el decreto de 6 de octubre de 1821. Artículo 3º: Comuníquese y publíquese. Rosas – Tomás Guido".
  13. Rosa, vol. II, p.199-306
  14. Rosa, vol. II, p. 306-319
  15. Rosa, Vol. III, p. 75-114
  16. Rosa, vol. III, p. 114-129
  17. Rosa, vol. III, p. 143
  18. Rosa, vol. III, p. 143-160
  19. Rosa, vol. III, p. 160
  20. Rosa, vol. III, p. 161-242
  21. Rosa, vol. III, p. 242-253
  22. Rosa, vol. V, p.73-97
  23. Rosa, vol. IV, p.97-117
  24. Rosa, vol. IV, p 127-129
  25. Rosa, vol. IV, p. 129-171
  26. Rosa. vol. IV, p. 186-196
  27. Rosa, vol. IV, p. 198-204
  28. Rosa, vol. IV, p. 206-213
  29. Rosa, vol. IV p. 219 – vol. V p. 489
  30. Mendelevich, p. 38-41
  31. Mendelevich, p. 42-45
  32. Diario de Sesiones de la Cámara de Diputados del Año 1862. Tomo Primero. Buenos Aires: La Tribuna. 1863. p. 43.
  33. Armagnague, Juan Fernando (1986). Historia del derecho: presidencias de Mitre, Sarmiento y Avellaneda. Mendoza: Ediciones Jurídicas Cuyo S.R.L. p. 17. ISBN 950-9099-09-0.
  34. Diario de Sesiones de la Cámara de Diputados del Año 1862. Tomo Primero. Buenos Aires: La Tribuna. 1863. p. 59.
  35. Mendelevich, p.46-52
  36. Mendelevich, p. 53-56
  37. Mendelevich, p. 57-65
  38. Mendelevich, p. 66-72
  39. Mendelevich, p. 73-79
  40. Mendelevich, p. 80-88
  41. Mendelevich, p. 89-101
  42. Mendelevich, p. 102-112
  43. Mendelevich, p. 113-125
  44. Mendelevich, p. 126-129
  45. Mendelevich, p. 130-135
  46. Mendelevich, p. 136–155
  47. Mendelevich, p. 145
  48. Mendelevich, p. 156-176
  49. Mendelevich, p. 177-186
  50. Mendelevich, p. 187-195
  51. Mendelevich, p. 193
  52. Mendelevich, p. 196-214
  53. Mendelevich, p. 215-228
  54. Mendelevich, p. 223
  55. Mendelevich, p. 229-235
  56. Mendelevich, p. 236-241
  57. Mendelevich, p. 242-245
  58. Mendelevich, p. 247-252
  59. Mendelevich, p. 253-262
  60. Mendelevich, p. 263-277
  61. Mendelevich, p. 278-282
  62. Mendelevich, p. 283-292
  63. "La jueza Servini declaró que el mandato de Mauricio Macri comienza a las 0 horas del día 10 de diciembre". Agencia de Noticias del Poder Judicial. 9 December 2015.

Notes

  1. Catamarca, Córdoba, Mendoza, Santa Fe, Salta, Santiago del Estero and Tucumán accept Mitre as the person in charge of the National Executive Power. Buenos Aires, San Juan and Jujuy only gave Mitre the authority to manage international relations, to convene the National Congress, and to rule on urgent internal business. Corrientes, La Rioja and San Luis only gave Mitre the authority to manage international relations and to convene the National Congress. Entre Ríos only gave Mitre the authority to convene the National Congress.

Bibliography

  • Mendelevich, Pablo (2010). El Final (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Ediciones B. ISBN 978-987-627-166-0.
  • Rosa, José María (1974). Historia Argentina (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Editorial Oriente S.A.
  • Abal Medina (h.), Juan; Suárez Cao, Julieta (August 2003). "Análisis crítico del sistema electoral argentino. Evolución histórica y desempeño efectivo". Revista de Ciencias Sociales (in Spanish). Bernal: National University of Quilmes. 14.
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