List of examples of lengths

This is a list of examples of lengths, in metres in order to give an understanding of lengths.

Shorter than 1 ym

1 ym to 1 zm

1 zm to 1 am

1 am to 1 fm

1 fm to 1 pm

1 picometre

Lengths between 10−12 and 10−11 m (1 and 10 pm).

10 picometres

Lengths between 10−11 and 10−10 m (10 pm and 100 pm).

100 picometres

Lengths between 10−10 and 10−9 m (100 pm and 1 nm).

10 nanometres 1x10−9m

To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10−8 and 10−7 m (10 and 100 nm).

  • 10 nm = 10 nanometres = 10−8 metres
  • 10 nm — lower size of tobacco smoke[13]
  • 10 nm Shortest extreme ultraviolet wavelength or longest X-ray wavelength[14]
  • 11 nm — the average half-pitch of a memory cell speculated to be manufactured in 2015.
  • 16 nm — technology is projected to be reached by semiconductor companies in the 2013 timeframe
  • 18 nm — diameter of tobacco mosaic virus[15] (Generally, viruses range in size from 20 nm to 450 nm.)
  • 20 nm — width of bacterial flagellum[16]
  • 20 nm to 80 nm — thickness of cell wall in Gram-positive bacteria[17]
  • 22 nm — Smallest feature size of production microprocessors in September 2009[18]
  • 22 nm — the average half-pitch of a memory cell expected to be manufactured at around the 2011–2011 time frame.
  • 30 nm — lower size of cooking oil smoke[13]
  • 32 nm — the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured at around the 2009–2010 time frame.
  • 45 nm — the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured at around the 2007–2008 time frame.
  • 50 nm — upper size for airborne virus particles[13]
  • 50 nm — flying height of the head of a hard disk[19]
  • 65 nm — the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured at around the 2005–2006 time frame.
  • 90 nm — the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured at around the 2002–2003 time frame.
  • 100 nm — larger than 90% of the particles of wood smoke (ranges from 7 to 3000 nanometres)[13]

100 nanometres

Lengths between 10−7 and 10−6 m (100 nm and 1 µm).

  • 100 nm — greatest particle size that can fit through a surgical mask[20]
  • 100 nm — 90% of particles in wood smoke are smaller than this.
  • 120 nm — greatest particle size that can fit through a ULPA filter
  • 120 nm — diameter of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [21]
  • 125 nm — standard depth of pits on compact discs (width: 500 nm, length: 850 nm to 3.5 µm)
  • 180 nm — typical length of the rabies virus
  • 200 nm — typical size of a Mycoplasma bacterium, among the smallest bacteria
  • 300-400 nm — near ultraviolet wavelength
  • 300 nm — greatest particle size that can fit through a HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter (N100 removes up to 99.97% at 0.3 micrometres, N95 removes up to 95% at 0.3 micrometres)
  • 400–420 nm — wavelength of violet light
  • 420–440 nm — wavelength of indigo light
  • 440–500 nm — wavelength of blue light
  • 500–520 nm — wavelength of cyan light
  • 520–565 nm — wavelength of green light
  • 565–590 nm — wavelength of yellow light
  • 590–625 nm — wavelength of orange light
  • 625–700 nm — wavelength of red light
  • 700–1400 nm — wavelength of near-infrared radiation

1 micrometre

A clickable mosaic of objects

at scales within direct human experience, from the micrometric (106 m, top left) to the multi-kilometric (105 m, bottom right).

To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists some items with lengths between 10−6 and 10−5 m (between 1 and 10 micrometres, or µm).

10 micrometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this page lists lengths between 10−5 and 10−4 m (10 µm and 100 µm).

100 micrometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this page lists lengths between 10−4 and 10−3 m (100 µm and 1 mm).

  • 100 µm – 1/10 of a millimetre
  • 100 µm – 0.00394 inches
  • 100 µm – average diameter of a strand of human hair[27]
  • 100 µm – thickness of a coat of paint
  • 100 µm – length of a dust particle
  • 120 µm – diameter of a human ovum
  • 170 µm – length of the largest mammalian sperm cell (rat)[29]
  • 181 µm – maximum width of a strand of human hair[27]
  • 100–400 µm – length of Demodex mites living in human hair follicles
  • 200 µm – typical length of Paramecium caudatum, a ciliate protist
  • 250–300 µm – length of a dust mite[30]
  • 340 µm – length of a single pixel on a 17-inch monitor with a resolution of 1024×768
  • 500 µm – typical length of Amoeba proteus, an amoeboid protist
  • 500 µm – MEMS micro-engine
  • 560 µm - thickness of the central area of a human cornea[31]
  • 760 µm – thickness of a credit card

1 millimetre

To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10−3 and 10−2 m (1 mm and 1 cm).

  • 1.0 mm — 1/1000 of a metre
  • 1.0 mm — 0.03937 inches or 5127 (exactly)
  • 1.0 mm — side of square of area 1 mm2
  • 1.0 mm — diameter of a pinhead
  • 1.5 mm — length of average flea
  • 2.54 mm — distance between pins on old DIP (dual-inline-package) electronic components
  • 5 mm — length of average red ant
  • 5.56×45mm NATO — standard ammunition size
  • 7.62×51mm NATO — common military ammunition size

1 centimeter

A clickable mosaic of objects

at scales within direct human experience, from the micrometric (106 m, top left) to the multi-kilometric (105 m, bottom right).

Lengths between 10−2 and 10−1 m (1and 10 cm).

1 decimetre

Lengths between 10 and 100 centimetres (10−1 and 1 metre).

Conversions

10 centimetres (abbreviated to 10 cm) is equal to

Wavelengths

Human-defined scales and structures

  • 10.16 cm = 1.016 dm — 1 hand used in measuring height of horses (4 inches)
  • 12 cm = 1.2 dm — diameter of a Compact Disc (CD) (= 120 mm)
  • 15 cm = 1.5 dm — length of a Bic pen with cap on
  • 22 cm = 2.2 dm — diameter of a typical soccer ball
  • 30.48 cm = 3.048 dm — 1 foot
  • 30 cm = 3 dm — typical school-use ruler length (= 300 mm)
  • 60 cm = 6 dm — standard depth (front to back) of a domestic kitchen worktop in Europe (= 600 mm)
  • 90 cm = 9 dm — average length of a rapier, a fencing sword[35]
  • 91.44 cm = 9.144 dm — one yard
  • Cigarettes 100 mm (4 in) in length

Nature

  • 10 cm = 1 dm — diameter of the human cervix upon entering the second stage of labour
  • 15 cm = 1.5 dm — approximate size of largest beetle species
  • 29 cm = 2.9 dm — length of average human foot
  • 29.98 cm = distance light travels in one nanosecond
  • 31 cm = 3.1 dm — wingspan of largest butterfly species Ornithoptera alexandrae
  • 50 to 65 cm — a pizote's tail
  • 66 cm — length of the longest pine cones (produced by the sugar pine[36])

Longer

  1. 1 metre
  2. 1 decametre
  3. 1 hectometre
  4. 1 kilometre
  5. 1 myriametre
  6. 100 kilometres
  7. 1 megametre
  8. 10 megametres
  9. 100 megametres

1 gigametre

Click on the thumbnail image to jump to the desired order of length magnitude: top-left is 1e6m, lower-right is 1e17m. (Image description)

Lengths starting at 109 metres (1 gigametre (Gm) or 1 million kilometres).

Distances shorter than 109 metres

Longer

  1. 10 gigametres
  2. 100 gigametres
  3. 1 terametre
  4. 10 terametres
  5. 100 terametres
  6. 1 petametre
  7. 10 petametres
  8. 100 petametres
  9. 1 exametre
  10. 10 exametres
  11. 100 exametres
  12. 1 zettametre
  13. 10 zettametres
  14. 100 zettametres
  15. 1 yottametre
  16. 10 yottametres
  17. 100 yottametres
  18. 1 kilometer
  19. MegaMameter (MMm)

See also

Notes

  1. m is an abbreviation of metre; cm of centimetre; dm of decimetre; m2 is short for square metre; m3 is short for cubic metre

References

  1. Carl R. Nave. "Cowan and Reines Neutrino Experiment". Retrieved 2008-12-04. (6.3×10−44 cm2, which gives an effective radius of about 2×10−23 m)
  2. Carl R. Nave. "Neutron Absorption Cross-sections". Retrieved 2008-12-04. (area for 20 GeV about 1×10−41 m2 gives effective radius of about 2×10−21 m; for 250 GeV about 1.5×10−40 m2 gives effective radius of about 7×10−21 m)
  3. Randolf Pohl; Aldo Antognini; François Nez; Fernando D. Amaro; François Biraben; João M. R. Cardoso; Daniel S. Covita; Andreas Dax; Satish Dhawan; Luis M. P. Fernandes; Adolf Giesen; Thomas Graf; Theodor W. Hänsch; Paul Indelicato; Lucile Julien; Cheng-Yang Kao; Paul Knowles; Eric-Olivier Le Bigot; Yi-Wei Liu; José A. M. Lopes; Livia Ludhova; Cristina M. B. Monteiro; Françoise Mulhauser; Tobias Nebel; Paul Rabinowitz; et al. (8 July 2010). "The size of the proton". Nature. 466 (7303): 213–216. Bibcode:2010Natur.466..213P. doi:10.1038/nature09250. PMID 20613837.
  4. Carl R. Nave. "Scattering Cross Section". Retrieved 2009-02-10.
  5. NIST. CODATA Value: classical electron radius. Retrieved 2009-02-10
  6. Mark Winter (2008). "WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements / Hydrogen / radii". Archived from the original on 18 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
  7. Mark Winter (2008). "WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements / Helium / radii". Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
  8. http://rdmag.com/Community/Blogs/RDBlog/Twists-and-turns-keep-TEM-on-top/
  9. Mark Winter (2008). "WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements / Sulfur / Radii". Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
  10. Mark Winter (2008). "WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements / Periodicity / Van der Waals radius / periodicity". Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
  11. "Resolution of an Electron Microscope". Archived from the original on 2009-03-16. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
  12. Graham T. Smith (2002). Industrial metrology. Springer. p. 253. ISBN 978-1-85233-507-6.
  13. Annis, Patty J. October 1991. Kansas State University. Fine Particle POLLUTION. Figure 1. (tobacco smoke: 10 to 1000 nm; virus particles: 3 to 50 nm; bacteria: 30 to 30000 nm; cooking oil smoke: 30 to 30000 nm; wood smoke: 7 to 3000 nm)
  14. Introduction to the Electromagnetic Spectrum and Spectroscopy
  15. Stryer, Lubert (1988). Biochemistry. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-1843-X.
  16. Kojima S, Blair D (2004). "The bacterial flagellar motor: structure and function of a complex molecular machine". Int Rev Cytol. International Review of Cytology. 233: 93–134. doi:10.1016/S0074-7696(04)33003-2. ISBN 978-0-12-364637-8. PMID 15037363.
  17. Microbiology Text.com
  18. http://www.physorg.com/news172852816.html accessed 2009.09.21
  19. "Hard drive basics: Capacities, RPM speeds, interfaces and mechanics". Help With PCs.
  20. Electrospray versus Nebulization for Aerosolization and Filter Testing with Bacteriophage Particles. In-Depth Article. Retrieved September 15, 2010. Aerosol Science and Technology, Volume 43, Issue 4 April 2009, pages 298 - 304.
  21. Sinha, Sanjeev; Bhoveshwaranath, G; Gupta, Sneha. "Antiretroviral Drugs and Drug Therapy of HIV/AIDS". In Seth, SD; Seth, Vimlesh (eds.). Textbook Of Pharmacology. p. X.111.
  22. Smith, D.J. (2009). "Human sperm accumulation near surfaces: a simulation study" (PDF). Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 621: 295. Bibcode:2009JFM...621..289S. doi:10.1017/S0022112008004953. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
  23. DNA From The Beginning, section 6: Genes are real things., "Amination" section, final slide
  24. Gordon Ramel. "Spider Silk". Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-04. garden spider silk has a diameter of about 0.003 mm ... Dragline silk (about .00032 inch (.008 mm) in Nephila)
  25. IST - Innovative Sintering Technologies Ltd. "Fibreshape applications". Retrieved 2008-12-04. Histogram of cotton thickness
  26. Morton Lippmann (2000). Environmental Toxicants: Human Exposures and Their Health Effects. John Wiley and Sons. p. 453. ISBN 0-471-29298-2. Retrieved 2008-12-04. 20 µm .. 5 µm
  27. The diameter of a human hair ranges from 17 to 181 µm. Ley, Brian (1999). Elert, Glenn (ed.). "Diameter of a human hair". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 2018-12-08.
  28. "Apple – iPhone 4S – See everything clearly with the Retina display". Apple Inc. Official Website. Apple Inc. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
  29. Lindemann, Charles. "Sperm Facts". Dr. Charles Lindmann's Lab. Oakland University.
  30. Lyon, William F. "House Dust Mites". Ohio State University Extension. HYG-2157-97. Archived from the original on 2 November 2001.
  31. Liu, Z.; Huang, A. J.; Pflugfelder, S. C. (July 1999). "Evaluation of corneal thickness and topography in normal eyes using the Orbscan corneal topography system". Br J Ophthalmol. 83 (7): 774–8. doi:10.1136/bjo.83.7.774. PMC 1723104. PMID 10381661.
  32. "USGA: Guide to the Rules on Clubs and Balls". USGA. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  33. "Official Rules". MLB. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  34. "Credit Card Dimensions". Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  35. http://www.2-clicks-swords.com/article/what-is-a-rapier.html
  36. Bohun B. Kinloch, Jr. & William H. Scheuner. "Pinus lambertiana". Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
  37. Sun Fact Sheet
  38. Neuroscience: The Science of the Brain "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-02-02. Retrieved 2011-06-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) p.44
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