List of emerging technologies

Emerging technologies are those technical innovations which represent progressive innovations within a field for competitive advantage.[1]


Emerging technology Status Potential applications Related articles
Agricultural robot[2] Research and development, trial projects Agricultural drone
Closed ecological systems[3][4][5] Research and development, working demonstrators (e.g. Biosphere 2) Agriculture, scientific research, space colonization Greenhouse, Biosphere 2, Eden Project, Bioshelter, Seawater greenhouse, Perpetual harvest greenhouse system
Cultured meat Research and development[6][7] Humane, resource-efficient, healthier and cheaper meat[7] New Harvest
Vertical farming Research, development, experiments, and diffusion[8][9][10] Crop and meat production


Emerging technology Status Potential applications Related articles
Neural-sensing headset (trans-cranial neural sensing and characterization).[11] Research and development Assisting pilots Brain–computer interface, neuroprosthetics
Ion drive


Emerging technology Status Potential applications Related articles
Claytronics Hypothetical, experiment
Four-dimensional printing Research and development
Molecular assembler Hypothetical, experiment Replicator (Star Trek), Von Neumann universal constructor
Utility fog Hypothetical, experiment


Emerging technology Status Potential applications Related articles
Arcology Research, development, commercialization
Domed city In progress in Dubai[12] Mall of the World project that is being scaled down Weather-controlled city, colonization of other bodies

Materials science

Emerging technology Status Potential applications Related articles
Aerogel Hypothetical, experiments, diffusion, early uses[13] Improved insulation, insulative glass if it can be made clear, sleeves for oil pipelines, aerospace, high-heat & extreme cold applications
Amorphous metal Experiments Armor
Bioplastic Some products developed
Conductive polymers Research, experiments, prototypes Lighter and cheaper wires, antistatic materials, organic solar cells Jacquard weaving
Cryogenic treatment Research, experiments, prototypes Oil and gas Blowout preventers (BOP), jet engines, power turbines, locomotives, electric vehicles, gears and bearings
Dynamic Armor Prototypes Better protection for ships from shaped charge weapons
Fullerene Experiments, diffusion Programmable matter
Graphene Hypothetical, experiments, diffusion, early uses[14][15] Components with higher strength to weight ratios, transistors that operate at higher frequency, lower cost of display screens in mobile devices, storing hydrogen for fuel cell powered cars, sensors to diagnose diseases, more efficient batteries[16]
Lab-on-a-chip Some commercialization
High-temperature superconductivity Cryogenic receiver front-end (CRFE) RF and microwave filter systems for mobile phone base stations; prototypes in dry ice; Hypothetical and experiments for higher temperatures[17] No loss conductors, frictionless bearings, magnetic levitation, lossless high-capacity accumulators, electric cars, heat-free integral circuits and processors
Magnetic nanoparticles In development
Magnetorheological fluid developed and researched Magnetorheological damper heavy motor damping, operator seat/cab damping in construction vehicles, seismic dampers positioned in building absorbing detrimental shock waves and oscillations within the structure making them earthquake-proof, enhance body armour fluid bullet resistant, Humvees, and various other all-terrain vehicles employ dynamic MR shock absorbers/dampers. Magnetorheological finishing was used in the construction of the Hubble Space Telescope's corrective lens, shock absorbers of a vehicle's suspension are filled with magnetorheological fluid. Electrorheological fluid
High-temperature superfluidity Superfluid gyroscopes already exist but work at very low temperatures High-precision measure of gravity, navigation and maneuver devices, possible devices to emit gravitomagnetic field, frictionless mechanical devices
Metamaterials Hypothetical, experiments, diffusion[18] Microscopes, cameras, metamaterial cloaking, cloaking devices
Metal foam Research, commercialization Space colonies, floating cities
Multi-function structures[19] Hypothetical, experiments, some prototypes, few commercial Wide range, e.g., self health monitoring, self healing material, morphing
Nanomaterials: carbon nanotubes Hypothetical, experiments, diffusion, early uses[20][21] Stronger, lighter materials, space elevator Potential applications of carbon nanotubes, carbon fiber
Programmable matter Hypothetical, experiments[22][23] Wide range, e.g., claytronics, synthetic biology
Quantum dots Research, experiments, prototypes,[24] commercialized Quantum dot laser, quantum dot display, future use as programmable matter in display technologies (TV, projection), optical data communications (high-speed data transmission), medicine (laser scalpel)
Silicene Hypothetical, research
Superalloy Research, diffusion Aircraft jet engines
Synthetic diamond Research, commercialization Electronics
Time crystals Research experiments[25] Quantum computers with stable qubits
Translucent concrete Commercialization Construction of skyscrapers, towers, and sculptures like Europe Gate
Hypereutectic alloy Research, commercialization Metals Hypereutectic piston
Super-plastic alloy Research, commercialization Metals Superplasticity


Emerging technology Status Potential applications Related articles
Drone display In use Artistic uses, advertising Swarm robotics
Flexible display Research, In use Displays over curved surfaces, Electronic scrolls, Wearable technology Electronic Paper
3D displays, Volumetric display Research, Working prototypes, commercialization[26] Television, computer interfaces, cinemas, 3-dimensional imagery Autostereoscopic display, stereoscopic display, volumetric display, Holographic display, Light Field display, Nintendo 3DS, Swept-volume display
Different types of 2D displays Research, development, commercial comparison of display technology, Ferroelectric liquid crystal display, Field emission display, Interferometric modulator display, Telescopic pixel display, MicroLED, OLED
Laser video displays first commercial Laser TV in 2008, Mitsubishi LaserVue TV Displays with very wide colour gamut Laser TV, Comparison of display technology
Holography (holographic display, computer-generated holography) Diffusion[27][28][29]
Optical transistor Some prototypes
Screenless display (Virtual retinal display, Bionic contact lens, Augmented reality, virtual reality) Hypothetical, experiments Augmented reality could allow the user to reference the blue prints like in a construction yard, in a 3D manner; Delivers the user constant up to date information on the stock market, the user's corporation, and meeting statuses, visual disabilities Head-mounted display, Head-up display, adaptive optics, EyeTap, Google Glass, Microsoft HoloLens, AR cloud[30]


Emerging technology Status Potential applications Related articles
Biometrics Diffusion
Digital scent technology Diffusion Smell-O-Vision, iSmell
Electronic nose Research, commercialization[31][32] Detecting spoiled food, chemical weapons and cancer
E-textiles Research, diffusion[33]
Flexible electronics Commercialization, research, development, some prototypes Flexible and folding electronic devices (such as smartphones), Flexible solar cells which are lightweight, can be rolled up for launch, and are easily deployable Nokia Morph, Flexible organic light-emitting diode
Memristor Working prototype[34][35] Smaller, faster, lower power consuming storage, analogue electronics, programmable logic,[36] signal processing,[37] neural networks,[38] control systems,[39] reconfigurable computing,[40] brain-computer interfaces[41] and RFID,[42] pattern recognition[43]
Molecular electronics Research and development
Nanoelectromechanical systems Research and development
Solid-state transformer In development, some prototypes
Spintronics Working prototypes[44] Data storage, computing devices MRAM
Thermal copper pillar bump Working prototypes in discrete devices Electric circuit cooling; micro-fluidic actuators; small-device thermoelectric power generation Ultra high definition holographic disc, Metal–insulator transition
Three-dimensional integrated circuit In development, commercialised Memory and data processing
Twistronics In development


Emerging technology Status Potential applications Related articles
Airborne wind turbine Research[45][46][47] Producing electricity KiteGen
Americium battery Estimated of working battery in 5–10 years from 2019.[48]
Artificial photosynthesis Research, experiments[49] growing interest in a macroscience global project[50] Improve natural photosynthesis, so roads buildings and vehicles convert sunlight and water into hydrogen and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates Sustainocene, Renewable energy, Nanotechnology
Concentrated solar power Growing markets in California, Spain, Northern Africa[51] Producing electricity DESERTEC, BrightSource Energy, Solar Millennium
Cryogenic treatment Subsea and deep water oil and gas exploration; wind and fossil fuel electric power generation, nuclear power Oil and gas blowout preventers (BOP), jet engines, power turbines, locomotives, electric vehicles, gears and bearings
Electric double-layer capacitor Diffusion, continued development[52] Regenerative braking; energy storage: generally faster charging, longer lasting, more flexible, greener
Energy harvesting Experiments Constant energy source for mobile, wearable and ubiquitous devices Humavox
Flywheel energy storage Some commercial examples
Fusion power Hypothetical, experiments Producing electricity, heat, fusion torch recycling with waste heat ITER, NIF, Polywell, Dense plasma focus, Muon-catalyzed fusion, Wendelstein 7-X
Generation IV reactor Research, experiments Producing electricity, heat, transmutation of nuclear waste stockpiles from traditional reactors
Gravity battery Small-scale examples
Grid energy storage Increasing use
Home fuel cell Research, commercialisation[53][54][55] Off-the-grid, producing electricity Autonomous building, Bloom Energy Server
Hypercapacitor Research[56]
Lithium-air battery Research, experiments[57] Laptops, mobile phones, long-range electric cars; storing energy for electric grid
Lithium iron phosphate battery Commercialization
Lithium–sulfur battery Research and development
Magnesium battery Early commercialization
Magnonics Research Data storage
Molten salt reactor Research, experiments Producing electricity, heat
Nanowire battery Experiments, prototypes[58][59] Laptops, mobile phones, long-range electric cars; storing energy for electric grid
Nantenna Research[60][61][62] Producing electricity
Ocean thermal energy conversion Prototype
Solid-state battery Niche uses Hybrid cars
Smart grid Research, diffusion[63][64][65] Smart meter, SuperSmart Grid
Space-based solar power Hypothetical
Thorium fuel cycle Research started in the 1960s, still ongoing Producing electricity, heat
Vortex engine Power generation.
Wireless energy transfer Prototypes, diffusion, short range consumer products[66][67] Wirelessly powered equipment: laptop, cell phones, electric cars, etc. WiTricity, resonant inductive coupling
Zero-energy building Expansion All homes Passive house


Emerging technology Status Potential applications Related articles
Computer-generated imagery Developing Films, photos Deepfake, StyleGAN, DeepDream
Immersive virtual reality Hypothetical, limited commercialization An artificial environment where the user feels just as immersed as they usually feel in consensus reality. Virtusphere, 3rd Space Vest, haptic suit, immersive technology, simulated reality, holodeck (fictional)
Ultra-high-definition television Commercialized

IT and communications

Emerging technology Status Potential applications Related articles
5G cellular communications Research and development, Early commercialization Smartphones, Tablets
6G cellular communications[68] Conceptual Smartphone
Ambient intelligence Hypothetical
Artificial brain Research[69] Treatment of neurological disease, artificial intelligence Blue Brain Project, Human Brain Project
Artificial general intelligence Hypothetical, experiments;[70][71][72] Creating intelligent devices and robots; AI can counsel (or even take charge) in scientific projects, government, army, corporate governance, film and books creation, inventions etc. Progress in artificial intelligence, technological singularity, applications of artificial intelligence
Atomtronics Hypothetical
Augmented reality Diffusion Google Glass, Windows Mixed Reality, Microsoft HoloLens, Mixed reality, Smartglasses, Pokémon Go
Blockchain or distributed ledger technology[73] Diffusion Eliminating or lowering transaction costs; distributed, open and transparent record keeping; non-hierarchical networked systems; cryptography[74] Bitcoin, Digital currency, Cryptocurrency, e-democracy
Carbon nanotube field-effect transistor Research and development Extending Moore's law
Civic technology Research and development, projects Smart cities, more responsive government Civic technology, Smart city, e-democracy, open data, intelligent environment
Cryptocurrency Diffusion Money supply, World reserve currency Bitcoin, Digital currency
DNA digital data storage Experiments Mass data storage
Exascale computing Projects
Gesture recognition Diffusion
Internet of Things Diffusion
Emerging memory technologies In development T-RAM, memristor, Z-RAM, TTRAM, CBRAM, SONOS, RRAM, Racetrack memory, NRAM, Phase-change memory, FJG RAM, Millipede memory, Skyrmion, Programmable metallization cell, 3D XPoint, Ferroelectric RAM, Magnetoresistive random-access memory, nvSRAM
Emerging magnetic data storage technologies In development (HAMR, BPM); diffusion (SMR) Greatly improved storage density compared to current HDDs, can be combined SMR, HAMR, BPM, MAMR, TDMR, CPP/GMR, PMR, Hard disk drive
Fourth-generation optical discs (3D optical data storage, Holographic data storage) Research, prototyping[75] Storing and archiving data previously erased for economic reasons Blu-ray Disc, Optical storage
General-purpose computing on graphics processing units Diffusion of non standardized methods Order of magnitude faster processing of parallelizable algorithms
Exocortex Diffusion of primitive amplifications; working prototypes of more; Hypothetical, experiments on more substantial amplification
Li-Fi Demos, requires standardization
Machine translation Diffusion[76][77] Easier and cheaper cross-cultural communication
Machine vision Research, prototyping, commercialization[69] Biometrics, controlling processes (e.g., in driverless car, automated guided vehicle), detecting events (e.g., in visual surveillance), interaction (e.g., in human-computer interaction), robot vision Computer vision, pattern recognition, digital image processing
Mobile collaboration and e-learning Development, commercialization[78] Extends the capabilities of video conferencing for use on hand-held mobile devices in real-time over secure networks. For use in diverse industries such as manufacturing, energy, healthcare.[79] Telework
Multimodal contactless biometric face/iris systems Deployed at various airports and federal security checkpoints[80] Unimodal facial recognition scanners
Nanoradio Research & Development, diffusion
Navigation Doppler lidar Under development[81]
Neuromorphic engineering Research & development
Optical computing Hypothetical, experiments; some components of integrated circuits have been developed[82] Smaller, faster, lower power consuming computing
Quantum computing Hypothetical, experiments,[83] commercialization[84] Much faster computing, for some kinds of problems, chemical modeling, new materials with programmed properties, Hypothetical of high-temperature superconductivity and superfluidity
Quantum cryptography Commercialization[85] Secure communications
Quantum radar Prototypes
Radio-frequency identification Diffusion of high cost[86][87][88] Smartstores – RFID based self checkout (keeping track of all incoming and outgoing products), food packaging, smart shelves, smart carts. See: potential uses
Semantic Web or answer machine Research, limited use Making the web machine-readable by annotating data on the web based on its meaning Corporate Semantic Web, Semantic Web Services, Semantic Web Stack, Web 3.0
Smart speaker Commercialization Home automation, communication with people and machines Amazon Echo, Google Home, HomePod
Software-defined radio Development, commercialization Cognitive radio, Mesh networks, Software defined antenna GNU Radio, List of software-defined radios, Universal Software Radio Peripheral
Speech recognition Research, development, commercialization
Subvocal recognition Research, development, commercialization
Virtual Reality Diffusion Entertainment, education Oculus Rift, HTC Vive, PlayStation VR
X-ray communication Demonstrations [89]
Hybrid forensics[90] Research, commercialization digital forensics, electronic discovery, malware detection, IT compliance


Emerging technology Status Potential applications Related articles
Artificial uterus Hypothetical, research space travel, extracorporeal pregnancy, Reprogenetics, same-sex procreation
Body implants, prosthesis Trials, from animal (e.g., brain implants) to human clinical (e.g., insulin pump implant), to commercial production (e.g. pacemaker, joint replacement, cochlear implant) Brain implant, retinal implant Prosthetics, prosthetics in fiction, cyborg
Cryonics Hypothetical, research, commercialization (e.g. Cryonics Institute) Life extension
De-extinction Research, development, trials Animal husbandry, pets, zoos Recreating the woolly mammoth species
Human DNA vaccination Clinical trials
Enzybiotics Successful first trials
Genetic engineering of organisms and viruses Research, development, commercialization[91][92] Creating and modifying species (mainly improving their physical and mental capabilities), bio-machines, eliminating genetic disorders (gene therapy), new materials production,[93] healthier and cheaper food, creating drugs and vaccines, research in natural sciences, bioremediation,[94] detecting arsenic,[95] CO2 reducing superplant,[96] Biopunk, Genetically modified food, superhuman, human enhancement, transhumanism, gene doping, designer baby, genetic pollution
Hibernation or suspended animation Research, development, animal trials[97] Organ transplantation, space travel, prolonged surgery, emergency care
Immunotherapy – immuno oncology Commercialized, research and development Oncology – cancer therapeutics (mono and combination cancer therapy) using targeted and innate immune responses. Checkpoint inhibitors (anti-pd-1, anti pd-L1, ctla-4), CAR-T, IDO inhibitors, Oncolytic virus/virotherapy (see below)
Life extension, Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence Research, experiments, animal testing[98][99] Increased life spans Immortality, biological immortality
Nanomedicines Research, experiments, limited use[100][101]
Nanosensors Research and development
Omni Processor Research and development; some prototypes
Oncolytic virus Human trials (Talimogene laherparepvec, reolysin, JX-594), commercialisation (H101) Cancer therapy, imaging Oncolytic virus
Personalized medicine, full genome sequencing Research, experiments[102] Personalized medical procedures, genome sequencing during drug trials Personal genomics
Phage therapy First trial uses
Plantibody clinical trials
Regenerative medicine Some laboratory trials[103] Life extension
Robotic surgery Research, diffusion[104][105][106]
Senolytic Under investigation
Stem cell treatments Research, experiments, phase I human trial spinal cord injury treatment (GERON), cultured cornea transplants[107][108] Treatment for a wide range of diseases and injuries Stem cell, stem cell treatments, Skin cell gun,
Synthetic biology, synthetic genomics Research, development, first synthetic bacteria created May 2010[109][110] Creating infinitely scalable production processes based on programmable species of bacteria and other life forms BioBrick, iGEM, synthetic genomics
Tissue engineering Research, diffusion[111][112][113][114] Organ printing, Tooth regeneration
Tricorder Research and development Diagnosing medical conditions Medical tricorder
Virotherapy Research, human trials Gene therapy, cancer therapy Virotherapy, Oncolytic Virus
Vitrification or cryoprotectant Hypothetical, some experiments[115] Organ transplantation, cryonics


Emerging technology Status Potential applications Related articles
Brain-computer interface Research and commercialization Faster communication and learning and "more real" entertainment (generation of feelings and information in brain on-demand). Control emotions in the mentally ill[116] Experience machine, Neuralink, Stent-electrode recording array
Brain-reading, Neuroinformatics Research[117][118]
Electroencephalography Research, diffusion[119] Controlling electronic devices via brain waves BrainGate
Head transplant Success in animal experiments, including 2-headed result; human surgery as early as 2019 Treat debilitating disease or horrible disfigurement Brain transplant, hand transplantation, organ transplantation
Neuroprosthetics Visual prosthesis, brain implant, exocortex, retinal implant, neurograin[120]
Sonogenetics[121] Research; experimentation


Emerging technology Status Potential applications Related articles
Caseless ammunition Field tests and some niche markets Warfare Lightweight Small Arms Technologies
Cloaking device Successful experiments cloaking small objects under some conditions[122] Cloaking microscope tips at optical frequencies Metamaterial cloaking
Directed energy weapon Research, development, some prototypes[123] Warfare Laser Weapon System
Electrolaser Research and development
Electromagnetic weapons Research and development[124][125] Warfare Coilgun, Railgun
Electrothermal-chemical technology Research and development Tank, artillery, and close-in weapon systems
Force field Hypothetical, experiments[126] Military and law enforcement, space travel Plasma window
Green bullet Development Environment-friendly ammunition
Laser weapon Research and development, trials Tracking and destruction of rockets, bombs, drones etc.[127] Advanced Tactical Laser, High Energy Liquid Laser Area Defense System
MAHEM In development
Particle beam weapon Research and development Warfare Strategic Defense Initiative
Plasma weapon Research
Pure fusion weapon Hypothetical
Sonic weapon Research and development
Stealth technology Research and development Electronic countermeasures Plasma stealth, Stealth aircraft, Radar-absorbent material
Vortex ring gun Research and development Crowd control
Wireless long-range electric shock weapon Expansion Law enforcement guns


Emerging technology Status Potential applications Related articles
Anti-gravity Hypothetical and experiments[128][129]
Artificial gravity Research, development Space Travel
Asteroid mining Hypothetical, NASA has announced plans to capture and redirect an asteroid.[130] Commerce, resource supply
Hypertelescope Hypothetical Astronomy
StarChip Research
Stasis Chamber Experimental, Research and development[131] Interplanetary space travel, interstellar space travel, medical
Solar gravitational lens Hypothetical Deep space observation FOCAL
Inflatable space habitat Developed, prototypes built and tested Space habitats Bigelow Aerospace
Miniaturized satellite Development, early commercialization, diffusion Inexpensive satellites, constellations for low data rate communications, using formations to gather data from multiple points, in-orbit inspection of larger satellites.
Reusable rocket technology for orbital rockets Several companies, including Blue Origin and SpaceX, are developing the technologies. Expendable launch vehicles may become cost prohibitive except for national government or military missions. New Glenn, SpaceX Starship


Emerging technology Status Potential applications Related articles
Android, gynoid Research, development, prototypes, diffusion, commercializing[132] Disabled, infant and older people care, housekeeping, sex-worker, flight-attendant, model, hostess, waiter, security guard
Gastrobot Some prototypes
Molecular nanotechnology, nanorobotics Hypothetical, experiments[133] Machines (desktop, industrial) that can make anything given the materials (e.g. Rotimatic), cheap planetary terraforming
Powered exoskeleton Research, development, prototypes, diffusion, commercializing[134] Heavy lifting, paralysis, muscle related diseases, warfare, construction, firefighting, care for the elderly and disabled. LOPES (exoskeleton), ReWalk, Human Universal Load Carrier, fictional armor Iron Man's armor, Future Force Warrior
Self-reconfiguring modular robot Hypothetical, experiments, early prototypes As a universal physical machine, SRCMR may change the way we make many physical structures and machines Robot, swarm robotics, autonomous research robot
Swarm robotics Hypothetical, experiments[135] Autonomous construction, space construction Swarm intelligence, autonomous robotics, nanorobotics, particle swarm optimization, multi-agent systems, behavior-based robotics
Unmanned vehicle Research and development, diffusion, commercial Transport of goods (e.g. food), mass surveillance, eavesdropping, oceanography, commercial aerial livestock monitoring, wildfire mapping, pipeline security, home security, road patrol and anti-piracy, patrol the nation's borders, scout property, and hunt down fugitives, oil, gas and mineral exploration and production, geophysical surveys, geomagnetic surveys, scientific research in areas too dangerous for pilots like a hurricane tornado hunter, firefighting,[136] military operations and peacekeeping operations, search and rescue, explosives and bomb disposal, gatekeeper and checkpoint operations, urban street presence, police raids in urban settings. Unmanned aerial vehicle, AeroVironment, AeroVironment Global Observer, AeroVironment Nano Hummingbird, Unmanned combat air vehicle, Unmanned ground vehicle, Unmanned space vehicle, Unmanned surface vehicle, Unmanned underwater vehicle, Autonomous underwater vehicle


Emerging technology Status Potential applications Related articles
Airless tire Research, development, early prototypes[137][138] Safer tires Tweel
Alternative fuel vehicle Commercialization, diffusion Reducing air pollution, decreasing oil consumption Electric vehicle, Hydrogen vehicle, Compressed air vehicle
Beam-powered propulsion Hypothetical Laser propulsion
Electro hydrodynamic propulsion Research, development, prototypes[139][140] Better flying transportation, efficient propulsion in air Electrohydrodynamics
Flexible wings (X-53 Active Aeroelastic Wing, Adaptive Compliant Wing), fluidic flight controls Experiments, prototypes[141][142][143][144][145] Controlling aircraft, ships Aircraft flight control system, BAE Systems Demon, fluidics
Flying car Early commercialization, prototypes[146][147] More effective transportation Terrafugia Transition, Moller M400 Skycar, Urban Aeronautics X-Hawk, AeroMobil
Fusion rocket Research, development[148] Fast Interplanetary Travel, with limited Interstellar applications
Hoverbike Working prototypes, early commercialization Package delivery, search and rescue
Hovertrain, Ground effect train Research, development[149][150] Trains with higher speed Aérotrain, Duke Hospital PRT, Hovercraft
High Altitude Platforms Experimentation Communications
Jet pack or backpack helicopter Early commercialization, prototypes[151] More effective transportation
Maglev train, Vactrain Research, early commercialization[152][153][154] Trains with higher speed Transrapid, Shanghai Maglev Train, Linimo
Magnetic levitation Research, development, Commercialization (Maglev Train) High temperature superconductivity, cryogenics, low temperature refrigerators, superconducting magnet design and construction, fiber reinforced plastics for vehicles and structural concretes, communication and high power solid-state controls, vehicle design (aerodynamics and noise mitigation), precision manufacturing, construction and fabrication of concrete structures,[155] maglev car, maglev based spacecraft launch Vactrain, Levicar
Mass driver Prototypes
Float to Orbit Hypothetical Space launch
Nuclear photonic rocket Hypothetical interplanetary travel
Personal rapid transit Early commercialization, diffusion[156][157] More effective transportation Morgantown PRT, ULTra
Photon rocket Hypothetical local interstellar travel
Photonic laser thruster Prototypes
Physical Internet Research[158]
Scooter-sharing system Commercialization Increased density[159] Bird (company)
Vactrain Research, development Faster way to get somewhere ET3 Global Alliance, Hyperloop
Propellant depot Research, development enabling deep-space missions with more massive payloads, satellite life extension, ultimately lowering the cost per kg launched to space
Pulse detonation engine Testbed demos Fast Interplanetary Travel, with some possible Interstellar Travel applications
Reusable launch system Research, early commercialization Surface-to-orbit transport SpaceX reusable launch system development program, BFR
Space elevator Research, development[160] Non-rocket spacelaunch, Orbital ring, Sky hook, Space fountain
Spaceplane Research, development[161][162][163] Hypersonic transport A2, Skylon
Supersonic transport Commercialization existed, diffusion Airliner with higher speed Concorde, Tupolev Tu-144
Vehicular communication systems Research and development, some diffusion Vehicle safety obstacle inform others warnings on entering intersections, traffic management, accommodating ambulances, fire trucks, and police cars to a specific situation such as hot pursuits and bad weather, driver assistance systems, Aautomated highways. Artificial Passenger, Dedicated short-range communications, Intelligent transportation system

See also

Disruptive innovation, Industrial Ecology, List of inventors, List of inventions, Sustainable development, Technology readiness level, Anthropogenics Diffusion of innovations
Casuistry, Computer ethics, Engineering ethics, Nanoethics, Bioethics, Neuroethics

Further reading


  1. International Congress Innovation and Technology XXI: Strategies and Policies Towards the XXI Century, & Soares, O. D. D. (1997). Innovation and technology: Strategies and policies. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
  2. A review of automation and robotics for the bio-industry. Journal of Biomechatronics Engineering Vol. 1, No. 1, (2008) 37–54
  3. NASA – Investigation of a Closed Ecological System.
  4. Ben Armentrout, and Heidi Kappes. Studies in Closed Ecological Systems: Biosphere in a Bottle
  5. Frieda B. Taub Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics Vol. 5, (1974), pp. 139–160
  6. "Is in vitro meat the future?". The Times. 9 May 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  7. "Artificial meat: Hamburger junction". The Economist. 25 February 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  8. "Vertical farming – Does it really stack up?". Te Economist. 9 December 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  9. "Vertical Farming – Can Urban Agriculture Feed a Hungry World?". Spiegel. 22 July 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  10. "Vertical Harvest of Jackson Hole Will Grow Organic Produce Even in Winter". Inhabitat. 6 June 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
  11. C. Epstein – published by AIN online 3 December 2015 [Retrieved 4 December 2015]
  12. "World's first climate-controlled domed city to be built in Dubai. (PHOTOS)".
  13. "Sto AG, Cabot Create Aerogel Insulation". Construction Digital. 15 November 2011. Archived from the original on 31 December 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  14. "Is graphene a miracle material?". BBC Click. 21 May 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  15. "Could graphene be the new silicon?". The Guardian. 13 November 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  16. "Applications of Graphene under Development".
  17. "The 'new age' of super materials". BBC News. 5 March 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
  18. "Strides in Materials, but No Invisibility Cloak". The New York Times. 8 November 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  19. NAE Website: Frontiers of Engineering Archived 28 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
  20. "Carbon nanotubes used to make batteries from fabrics". BBC News. 21 January 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
  21. "Researchers One Step Closer to Building Synthetic Brain". Daily Tech. 25 April 2011. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
  22. "Pentagon Developing Shape-Shifting 'Transformers' for Battlefield". Fox News. 10 June 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  23. "Intel: Programmable matter takes shape". ZD Net. 22 August 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  24. "'Quantum dots' to boost performance of mobile cameras". BBC News. 22 March 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  25. Richerme, Phil (18 January 2017). "Viewpoint: How to Create a Time Crystal". Physics. 10.
  26. "3D display technology is no headache, claim researchers". The Engineer. 5 April 2011. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
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  28. "Holographic video takes step forward with updated display". The Independent. 5 November 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
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  30. "Augmented Reality Is The Operating System Of The Future. AR Cloud Is How We Get There". Forbes. 21 February 2019. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  31. "Tuberculosis breakthrough as scientists get funds for 'electronic nose'". The Guardian. 7 November 2011. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  32. "Now, a mobile phone that can smell". The Times of India. 7 November 2011. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  33. "Electronic Cotton". IEEE Spectrum. January 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
  34. "Remapping Computer Circuitry to Avert Impending Bottlenecks". The New York Times. 28 February 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
  35. "Memristor revolution backed by HP". BBC News. 2 September 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
  36. U.S. Patent 7,203,789
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  40. U.S. Patent 7,902,857
  41. U.S. Patent 7,902,867
  42. U.S. Patent 8,113,437
  43. Corinto, Fernando; Ascoli, Alon; Gilli, Marco (2012). Memristor Models for Pattern Recognition Systems. Springer. pp. 245–267. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-4491-2_13. ISBN 978-94-007-4490-5.
  44. "Scientists developing spintronic computer chips". The Times of India. 14 April 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
  45. "Getting wind farms off the ground". The Economist. 7 June 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
  46. "Wind turbines take to the skies". BBC News. 3 June 2010. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
  47. "Airborne Wind Turbines". The New York Times. 9 December 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
  48. "Americium Power Source". 1 January 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  49. "Solar 'Artificial Leaf' Is Unveiled by Researchers". Reuters. 29 March 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  50. Faunce TA, Lubitz W, Rutherford AW, MacFarlane D, Moore, GF, Yang P, Nocera DG, Moore TA, Gregory DH, Fukuzumi S, Yoon KB, Armstrong FA, Wasielewski MR, Styring S. Energy and Environment Case for a Global Project on Artificial Photosynthesis. Energy and Environmental Science (2013) DOI: 10.1039/c3ee00063j (accessed 2 June 2013)
  51. "California approves Tessera solar plant". Reuters. 28 October 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
  52. "Ultracapacitors Gain Traction as Battery Alternative". Reuters. 30 March 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
  53. "MIT develops way to bank solar energy at home". Reuters. 31 July 2008. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
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