List of current and former capitals of subdivisions of China

This is a list of the current and former capitals of country subdivisions of China. The history of China and its administrative divisions is long and convoluted; hence, this chart will cover only capitals after the completion of the Mongol conquest of China in 1279, because the modern province (shěng ) was first created during the Mongol Yuan dynasty. A selection of country subdivisions and their capitals before 1279 can be found in the article History of the political divisions of China. Years may not line up perfectly during periods of turmoil (e.g. at the end of each dynasty).

The list includes current and former provinces, as well as other first-level units that have been used over the course of China's recent history, such as autonomous regions, military command zones during the Qing dynasty, and so forth. Unless otherwise specified, a given administrative unit can be assumed to be a province with its present name. Historical names of provinces and entities that are not provinces will be specified as they arise.

Excluded from the list:

Many of the capitals given in this chart have had multiple historical names during different dynasties. In some cases, different names were used concurrently for the same city. This chart gives only the modern names for the sake of simplicity.

For the sake of simplicity, the chart will not attempt to be exhaustive in its descriptions of border changes.

National entities since 1279:

Year 1271–13681368–16441616–19121912–19491949–present
Government Yuan dynastyMing dynastyQing dynastyRepublic of China (on mainland China)People's Republic of China (on mainland China)
Republic of China (on Taiwan)

List of capitals:

Province (or equivalent)CapitalWhenRemarks
Anhui During the Yuan dynasty, modern Anhui was split between the Secretariat (中書省) of the central government, the province of Jianghuai, and (from 1291) the province of Henanjiangbei.
N/A1366–1644As part of Zhili up to 1421; as part of Nanzhili after 1421. Administered directly by the central government, instead of a province.
N/A1645–1661Part of Jiangnan Province, formed out of former Nanzhili in 1645. Split into Jiangsu and Anhui in 1661.
Nanjing1661–1760Nanjing is now the capital of neighbouring Jiangsu province.
Anqing1760–1853
Hefei1853–1862During the Taiping Rebellion.
Anqing1862–1946
Hefei1946–1949
Hefei (north)1949–1952As North Anhui and South Anhui administrative regions.
Wuhu (south)
Hefei1952–present
FujianFuzhou, Quanzhou1278–1299Between 1278 and 1299, separate provinces in the Fujian area were repeatedly split out and remerged back into Jiangzhe Province.
N/A1299–1356Part of Jiangzhe Province until Fujian Province was split out of it.
Fuzhou1356–1938
Yong'an1938–1945During the Second Sino-Japanese War
Fuzhou1945–presentIn 1949, the PRC built "Fujian Provincial People's Government". The ROC's "Fujian Provincial Government" moved to Kinmen.
Kinmen (ROC)1949–1956After the ROC's relocated to Taiwan.
Hsintien (ROC)1956–1996In Taiwan Province, ROC enforced military governance in Kinmen and Matsu
Kinmen (ROC)1996–2018Demilitarized
N/A (ROC)2019–presentFujian Provincial Government defunct
GansuZhangye1286–1368
N/A1368–1667Part of Shaanxi Province.
Lanzhou1667–presentGansu was called Gongchang 1667–1670.
Guangdong Before 1369, modern Guangdong was split between the provinces of Jiangxi, Huguang, and (from 1364) Guangxi.
Guangzhou1369–presentIncluded modern Hainan until 1988.
Guangxi Mostly found within Huguang Province before 1364.
Guilin1364–1912Included parts of modern Guangdong until 1369.
Nanning1912–1936
Guilin1936–1950
Nanning1950–presentGuangxi Province became Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in 1958.
Guizhou Mostly found within the provinces of Huguang, Sichuan, and Yunnan before 1413.
Guiyang1413–present
Hainan Part of Huguang before 1364; part of Guangxi from 1364 to 1369; part of Guangdong after 1369.
N/A1369–1988Part of Guangdong Province.
Haikou1988–present
Hebei Administered by the Secretariat (中書省) of the central government before 1368. Briefly split between Henan and Shandong provinces, 1368–1369.
Beiping1369–1421As Beiping Province.
N/A1421–1669As Beizhili up to 1645; as Zhili after 1645. Administered directly by the central government, instead of a province.
Baoding1669–1902As "Zhili". Converted into a province in 1911 as "Zhili Province"
Tianjin1902–1928
Beiping1928–1930
Tianjin1930–1935
Baoding1935–1958
Tianjin1958–1966
Baoding1966–1968
Shijiazhuang1968–present
Heilongjiang N/A1264–1368Part of Liaoyang Province. "Liaoyang" was the final name of the province after several changes between 1264–1287.
Mongols, Manchus, and Ming China military garrisons in the area during the Ming dynasty.
Aigun1683–1690Area of control of the General of Heilongjiang. Became Heilongjiang Province in 1907.
Nenjiang1690–1699
Qiqihar1699–1907
Qiqihar1907–1931
N/A1931–1945Part of Manchukuo.
Bei'an1945–1949As Heilongjiang Province (northwestern part of modern Heilongjiang)
JiamusiAs Hejiang Province (northeastern part of modern Heilongjiang)
QiqiharAs Nenjiang Province (southwestern part of modern Heilongjiang)
MudanjiangAs Songjiang Province (southeastern part of modern Heilongjiang)
Qiqihar1949–1954As Heilongjiang Province (western part of modern Heilongjiang)
HarbinAs Songjiang Province (eastern part of modern Heilongjiang)
Harbin1954–presentNew Heilongjiang formed from Songjiang + old Heilongjiang in 1954
Henan Administered by the Secretariat (中書省) of the central government for the most part before 1291.
Kaifeng1291–1954Initially as Henanjiangbei Province, which included parts of modern Jiangsu, Anhui, Hubei provinces. Given approximately modern borders and modern name in 1368.
Zhengzhou1954–present
Hubei During the Yuan dynasty, modern Hubei was split between the province of Huguang, (from 1291) Henanjiangbei, and Sichuan.
N/A1277–1664Part of Huguang Province.
Wuchang1664–1927
Wuhan1927–presentWuhan is the amalgamation of Wuchang, Hankou and Hanyang.
HunanN/A1277–1664Part of Huguang Province.
Changsha1664–present
Inner Mongolia See the history section of Inner Mongolia for the administrative entities of that region before 1947.
Ulaanhot1947–1950As Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Hohhot1950–present
Jiangsu Before 1356, modern Jiangsu was split between the Secretariat (中書省) of the central government, the province of Jianghuai,(from 1289) Jiangzhe, (from 1291) the province of Henanjiangbei, and (from 1354) the province of Huainanjiangbei.
N/A1366–1644As part of Zhili up to 1421; as part of Nanzhili after 1421. Administered directly by the central government, instead of a province.
N/A1645–1661Part of Jiangnan Province, formed out of former Nanzhili in 1645. Split into Jiangsu and Anhui in 1661.
Nanjing, Suzhou1661–1912?
Nanjing1912?–1928
Zhenjiang1928–1949
Yangzhou (north)1949–1952As North Jiangsu and South Jiangsu administrative regions.
Wuxi (south)
Nanjing1952–present
JiangxiNanchang1277–presentIncluded parts of modern Guangdong until 1369.
Jilin N/A1264–1368Part of Liaoyang Province. "Liaoyang" was the final name of the province after several changes between 1264–1287.
Mongols, Manchus, and Ming China military garrisons in the area during the Ming dynasty.
Ningguta1662–1757Area of control of the General of Ningguta (up to 1757) or the General of Jilin (from 1757). Became Jilin Province in 1907.
Jilin City1757–1907
Jilin City1907–1931
N/A1931–1945Part of Manchukuo.
Jilin City1945–1954
Changchun1954–present
Liaoning N/A1264–1368Part of Liaoyang Province. "Liaoyang" was the final name of the province after several changes between 1264–1287.
Partially under Shandong province during the Ming dynasty, until Manchu conquest c. 1618.
Shenyang1662–1907Area of control of the General of Shengjing. Became Fengtian Province in 1907.
Shenyang1907–1931Fengtian Province from 1907 to 1929; Liaoning Province from 1929 onwards.
N/A1931–1945Part of Manchukuo.
Shenyang1945–1949As Liaoning Province (central part of modern Liaoning)
TonghuaAs Andong Province (eastern part of modern Liaoning; southern part of modern Jilin)
LiaoyuanAs Liaobei Province (northern part of modern Liaoning; western part of modern Jilin)
Jinzhou1949–1954As Liaoxi Province (western part of modern Liaoning)
DandongAs Liaodong Province (eastern part of modern Liaoning; southern part of modern Jilin). Dandong was then known as "Andong"
Shenyang1954–present
Ningxia Mostly part of Gansu Province (up to c. 1370); part of Shaanxi Province (up to 1667); part of Gansu Province (1667 onwards)
Yinchuan1928–1954Ningxia Province split out of Gansu in 1928.
N/A1954–1958Part of Gansu Province.
Yinchuan1958–presentNingxia Hui Autonomous Region split out of Gansu in 1958.
Qinghai Historically Oyirad Mongols in the north, Amdo and Kham Tibetans in the south. Overseen by commissioner stationed at Xining (then part of Gansu Province) during Qing dynasty, early Republic of China (up to 1928).See History section of Qinghai.
Xining1928–present
ShaanxiXi'an1286–presentFrom 1260 to 1286, Shaanxi Province (and in some cases, a combined Shaanxi-Sichuan Province) was established and disbanded several times.Included modern Gansu and Ningxia until 1667.
Shandong Administered by the Secretariat (中書省) of the central government before c. 1357.
Qingzhou1357?–1377?
Jinan1377–present
Shanxi Administered by the Secretariat (中書省) of the central government before 1368.
Taiyuan1369–present
SichuanChengdu1286–1287From 1260 to 1286, Sichuan Province (and in some cases, a combined Shaanxi-Sichuan Province) was established and disbanded several times.
Chongqing1287–1289
Chengdu1289–1646
Langzhong1646–1665
Chengdu1665–1949
Nanchong (north)1949–1952As North Sichuan, South Sichuan, East Sichuan and West Sichuan administrative regions.
Luzhou (south)
Chongqing (east)
Chengdu (west)
Chengdu1952–present
Taiwan Formosan people live in the area before 1624; European colonization from 1624 to 1661; Kingdom of Tungning from 1661 to 1683. See History of Taiwan.
N/A1683–1887Part of Fujian Province.
Taiwan-fu1887–1894Planned, around today's Taichung
Taipei 1887–1895
1945–1956
De facto until 1894; official after 1894
Zhongxing New Village1956–2018In Nantou City
N/A2018–presentTaiwan Provincial Government defunct
Tibet Part of Yuan dynasty up to fourteenth century; struggle between Sakyapa, Kagyüpa, later Gelukpa schools of Tibetan Buddhism up to seventeenth century, when Gelukpa becomes dominant.
Lhasa(1720s)–presentThe Dalai Lamas (Gelukpa school) ruled over Ü-Tsang (or more) from Lhasa from 1642 onwards. Qing China began to assert control over Tibet in the 1720s until its fall in 1912; from 1912 to 1951 Tibet was self-ruling but recognized internationally as a part of China. Planning Committee for Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) from 1955 to 1965; TAR established in 1965.
Xinjiang Ruled by Chagatai Khanate from thirteenth to fifteenth century; fragmented until eighteenth century when Qing China conquered the region. See History section of Xinjiang.
Yining1762–1888General of Ili, based in Yining, held administrative powers until 1888; central control lapsed during Yakub Beg's revolt from 1865, until his forces were defeated in 1881.
Ürümqi1884–presentXinjiang Province until 1955; Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region from 1955.
Taipei1949–1992After the ROC relocated to Taiwan. Government abolished in 1992.
YunnanKunming1275–presentIncluded parts of morden Sichuan and Guizhou until Ming dynasty.
ZhejiangN/A1289–1367Part of Jiangzhe Province.
Hangzhou1367–present
Chahar See Inner Mongolia for history before 1914.
Zhangjiakou1914–1937Chahar Special Administrative Region until 1928; province from 1928.
N/A1937–1945Part of Mengjiang.
Zhangjiakou1945–1952Disbanded in 1952, distributed into Hebei Province, Shanxi Province.
HuainanjiangbeiTianchang1354–1364?Established out of Henanjiangbei; disappeared with end of Yuan dynasty (c. 1368). Found mainly in modern Jiangsu province.
HuguangChangsha1277–1281
Wuchang1281–1664Included morden Guangxi, Hainan and parts morden Guangdong until 1364, included parts of morden Guizhou until 1413. Split into Hubei and Hunan provinces in 1664
JiangnanNanjing1645–1661Converted from the directly administered Nanzhili region in 1645; split into Jiangsu and Anhui provinces in 1661. See also remarks at Jiangsu, Anhui entries.
JiangzheHangzhou1289–1367?A province was established in the region in 1276; its seat was moved around and it was renamed several times, until settling upon Jiangzhe Province with seat at Hangzhou in 1289. Split into Zhejiang, Fujian Provinces by Ming dynasty.
JiaodongLaiyang1364–1368?Established in the Shandong Peninsula; does not appear to have outlasted the end of the Yuan dynasty.
LiaoyangLiaoyang1264–1368?"Liaoyang" was the final name of the province after several changes between 1264–1287. Lasted until the end of Yuan dynasty (c. 1368); found today mostly in Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang.
PingyuanXinxiang1949–1952Split out of Hebei, Shandong, Henan provinces in 1949; distributed into Henan, Shandong provinces in 1952.
Rehe See Inner Mongolia for history before 1914.
Chengde1914–1933Rehe Special Administrative Region until 1928; province from 1928.
N/A1933–1945Part of Manchukuo.
Chengde1945–1955Disbanded in 1955, distributed into Hebei Province, Liaoning Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Suiyuan See Inner Mongolia for history before 1914.
Hohhot1914–1937Suiyuan Special Administrative Region until 1928; province from 1928.
N/A1937–1945Part of Mengjiang.
Hohhot1945–1954Merged into Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in 1954.
XikangKangding1914–1950Chuanbian Special Region created in 1914, from western Sichuan and territory formerly ruled from Lhasa; it is roughly equivalent to southern Kham and southern Amdo. Converted into Xikang Province established in 1939; merged into Sichuan province in 1955. See also remarks at entries for Tibet, Sichuan.
Ya'an1950–1955
Xing'anHailar1945–1947?After the end of Manchukuo at the end of World War II, Xing'an Province was created from the northwestern part of Manchuria, which was administered by Heilongjiang province before the war. The region was superseded by Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Zhili; Beizhili; NanzhiliRegions directly administered by the central government, not part of any province. "Zhili" (modern Jiangsu and Anhui) from 1366 to 1421; "Beizhili" (modern Hebei) and "Nanzhili" (modern Jiangsu, Anhui) from 1421 to 1645; "Zhili" (modern Hebei) from 1645 to 1669. Name kept for "Zhili Province" (modern Hebei) from 1669 to 1927. See also remarks at Hebei, Jiangsu, Anhui entries.

See also

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.