List of crewed spacecraft
Current crewed spacecraft
- Russian - three person Earth orbital spacecraft; Early versions were operated by the Soviet Union and later versions by Russia after 1991. As of September 2019 Soyuz has made 142 crewed spaceflights, including two emergency sub-orbital flights, Soyuz 18a and Soyuz MS-10. There have been 2 accidental spacecraft losses resulting in the deaths of four cosmonauts, Soyuz 1 and Soyuz 11. Soyuz is the only spacecraft to have successfully saved the lives of a crew using the rocket launch escape system, when in 1983 Soyuz T-10-1 exploded on the launchpad. This spacecraft type has flown into space more times than any other spacecraft, including the Space Shuttle.
- United States 8 person air-launched suborbital space plane operated by Virgin Galactic aimed at the space tourism market. On 31 October 2014 during a test flight, VSS Enterprise, the first SpaceShipTwo craft, broke up in flight and crashed in the Mojave desert. One pilot was killed The second SpaceShipTwo spacecraft, VSS Unity, was unveiled on 19 February 2016. On 13 December 2018 SpaceShipTwo flew to an alttude of 82.7 km which is recognised as space by the FAA, NASA, and the USAF (although not the FAI) This was the first time an American spacecraft had sent astronauts to space since the final Space Shuttle flight in 2011.
- VSS Unity flew to space again on 22 February 2019 to an apogee of 89.9 km (55.97 miles). Onboard was astronaut Dave Mackay, Michael Masucci and Beth Moses. This again met the United States definition of space, though not the FAI's. Despite this, because it is a US spaceflight launched from the United States to its definition of space, it is indeed a spaceflight.
Current space stations
International Space Station (2000–present)
- Multinational low earth orbit modular space station. The International Space Station is a joint project among five participating space agencies: NASA, Roscosmos, JAXA, ESA, and CSA. Uncrewed initial assembly 1998-2000. Continuously crewed since November 2000. As of March 2019 ISS has been visited by 94 crewed spacecraft (59 Soyuz and 35 Space Shuttle). The ISS is the largest space station yet constructed. Planned to operate until 2024, with a possible extension to 2028.
Former crewed spacecraft
- United States single-person Earth orbital spacecraft 6 flights (including 2 sub-orbital). Mercury was the United States first crewed spacecraft. On 5 May 1961 Mercury-Redstone 3 carried the first American, Alan Shepard, into space on a sub-orbital flight. On 20 February 1962 Mercury-Atlas 6 carried the first American, John Glenn, into Earth orbit.
- United States single seat, air-launched spaceplane; two X-15 flights above the 100 km Kármán line occurred in 1963, an additional 11 flights between 1962 and 1968 reached altitudes between 80–100 km which were recognised as spaceflights by US authorities.
- United States three person Lunar capable spacecraft. 15 flights; including nine lunar missions (with six lunar landings). It was the Apollo spacecraft that enabled America to win the Space Race. In December 1968 Apollo 8 was the first crewed spacecraft to orbit the Moon. On 21 July 1969 Neil Armstrong, the Commander of Apollo 11, and Buzz Aldrin became the first persons to walk on the Moon. The Apollo Spacecraft comprised
Space Shuttle (1981–2011)
- United States eight person Earth orbital spacecraft; first orbit-capable spaceplane; first partially reusable orbital spacecraft. 135 spaceflights were made in five shuttles; Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavour, of which two (Challenger and Columbia) were accidentally destroyed resulting in the deaths of 14 astronauts during missions STS-51-L and STS-107.
Former space stations
Salyut series (1971–1991)
Almaz series (1973–1977)
Tiangong 1 (2011–2018)
- Chinese low Earth orbit space station. China's first space station.
Tiangong 2 (2016–2019)
- Chinese low Earth orbit space station. China's second space station. It was deorbited on 19 July 2019.
Crewed spacecraft in development
Boeing's CST-100 Starliner
- Fully reusable second stage and space vehicle being privately developed by SpaceX. It is being designed to be a long-duration cargo- and passenger-carrying spacecraft. While it is being used today as an independent rocket for testing, it will be used on orbital launches with an additional booster stage, the Super Heavy, where Starship would serve as the second stage on a two-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle. The combination of spacecraft and booster is called Starship as well. A crewed Starship Lunar flyby mission, the dearMoon Project, is scheduled to fly in 2023. Crewed test flights are likely before this mission.
- A three-person Earth orbital spacecraft intended to be the first crewed spacecraft of the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme. Gaganyaan will be capable of operating at low Earth orbit for up to 7 days. The upgraded version will be equipped with rendezvous and docking capabilities. Its first crewed flight is planned for December 2021.
Crewed spacecraft - planned
- Chinese reusable Lift-body Launcher - China plans to launch its reusable spaceplane in 2020, according to a statement from China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation.
- Chinese winged rocket - the plane may one day fly up passengers to the edge of space. Two versions: one should be able to fly five people to an altitude of 100 kilometres; other - could fly 20 people to 130 kilometres. Payload launches in 2020.
- RSSC - a Russian reusable sub-orbital space complex, currently being developed by a private company KosmoKurs. First flight planned for 2021.
- Orel - a Russian four person Lunar capable spacecraft. First crewed flight planned for 2024.
- Japanese sub-orbital rocket plane currently being developed by PD Aerospace. First flight planned for 2020 and fully operational by 2023.
- Selena - NPO "Aerospace Technologies" (НПО «Авиационно-космические технологии») suborbital, space yacht
- Skylon - a UK unpiloted reusable space plane with possible passenger module (engine in development).
- Thunderstar - a 12-metre crewed rocket for one person.
Space stations in development
- Chinese large modular space station (CSS) - scheduled to start with the launch of the Tianhe-1 module in 2020, and to be completed by 2022
- Bigelow Commercial Space Station or Space Complex Alpha, proposed private space habitat scheduled for 2020 initial deployment. A Bigelow test module is currently installed on the International Space Station.
- Lunar Gateway - NASA proposed international crewed space station orbiting the Moon to be assembled by commercial launch vehicles from 2022.
- OPSEK, proposed Russian successor to the International Space Station.
- Lunar Orbital Station, a proposed Russian lunar orbiting space station.
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