List of countries by Human Development Index

This is a full list of countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report. The latest report was released on 9 December 2019 and is based on data collected in 2018.[1]

In the 2010 Human Development Report, a further Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) was introduced. It stated that while the HDI remains useful, "the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for inequality)" and "the HDI can be viewed as an index of "potential" human development (or the maximum IHDI that could be achieved if there were no inequality)".[2] The index does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.[3]


The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income per capita indicators. A country scores higher HDI when the life expectancy at birth is longer, the education period is longer, and the income per capita is higher. It is used to distinguish whether the country is a developed, a developing or an underdeveloped country. The index was developed in 1990 by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq[4][5] and Indian economist Amartya Sen. The UN report covers 187 member states of the United Nations (out of 193), along with Hong Kong and Palestine; 7 UN member states are not included because of lack of data. The average HDI of regions of the world and groups of countries are also included for comparison.

Countries fall into four broad human development categories: Very High Human Development, High Human Development, Medium Human Development and Low Human Development.

Because of the new methodology adopted since the 2010 Human Development Report, the new reported HDI figures appear lower than the HDI figures in previous reports.

From 2007 to 2010, the first category was referred to as developed countries, and the last three are all grouped in developing countries. The original "high human development" category has been split into two as above in the report for 2007.

Some older groupings (high/medium/low income countries) that were based on the gross domestic product (GDP) in purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita have been replaced by another index based on the gross national income (GNI) in purchasing power parity per capita.

Frequency of issuing the index

The index was first published in 1990 along with the Human Development Report. Since then, each year the index has been updated except for the years 2012 and 2017, where no Human Development Report was issued. The indices for 2012 and 2017 were still both published in the following Human Development Report.

The latest index—covering 189 countries—was launched on 9 December 2019.[1]

Complete list of countries

  • = increase.
  • = steady.
  • = decrease.

Very high human development

High human development

Medium human development

Low human development

List of countries by continent




North America and the Caribbean


Rank Country HDI
2018 data (2019 report) rankings
Very high human development
1 Australia0.939
2 New Zealand0.917
3 Palau0.814
High human development
4 Fiji0.724
5 Tonga0.717
6 Samoa0.707
Medium human development
7 Marshall Islands0.698
8 Kiribati0.623
9 Micronesia0.614
10 Vanuatu0.597
11 Solomon Islands0.557
Low human development
12 Papua New Guinea0.543

South America

Rank Country HDI
2018 data (2019 report) rankings
Very high human development
1 Chile0.847
2 Argentina0.830
3 Uruguay0.808
High human development
4 Brazil0.761
4 Colombia0.761
6 Peru0.759
7 Ecuador0.758
8 Venezuela0.726
9 Paraguay0.724
9 Suriname0.724
11 Bolivia0.703
Medium human development
12 Guyana0.670

List of countries by intercontinental region

Arab League

Commonwealth of Nations

East Asia and the Pacific

European Union

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation


Small Island Developing States

HDI by regions and groups

Countries missing from latest report

Note: The 2009 publication uses an older version of the HDI formula and classification standard. The ranges are 0–0.499 for low HDI, 0.500–0.799 for medium HDI, 0.800–0.899 for high HDI and greater than 0.900 for very high HDI.[6]

See also


  1. The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI.[10]
  2. The UN does not recognize the Republic of China (Taiwan) as a sovereign state. The HDI report does not include Taiwan as part of the People's Republic of China when calculating China's figures (see[11]). Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.907, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP.[12]


  1. "Human Development Report 2019 – "Human Development Indices and Indicators"" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. pp. 22–25. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  2. Human Development Report, The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development (2010) p.87
  3. The Courier. Commission of the European Communities. 1994.
  4. "The Human Development concept". UNDP. 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  5. "History of the Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 3 April 2009. Retrieved 26 March 2009.
  6. Human Development Report 2009, UNDP, p. 15
  7. Filling Gaps in the Human Development Index, United Nations ESCAP, February 2009
  8. "Somalia HDI 2017".
  9. "About Kosovo". UNDP. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  10. "Macao in Figures, 2019".
  11. "- Human Development Reports" (PDF).
  12. "2018中華民國人類發展指數(HDI)" (Excel) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2018. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  13. "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  14. "Human Development Index Trends and Inequality in Puerto Rico 2010-2015" Fuentes-Ramírez, Ricardo R. (2017). Ceteris Paribus: Journal of Socio-Economic Research. 7. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  15. "The Greenlandic Economy – Structure and Prospects" Andersen, Torben M. (2015). Economics Working Papers, 2015-14. Aarhus University. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  16. Quel niveau de développement des départements et collectivités d‘outre-mer ? Une approche par l’indice de développement humain, Agence Française de Developpment, 2012 (in French)
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