List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita
This page lists the countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values. This is the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, converted at market exchange rates to current U.S. dollars, divided by the average population for the same year.
The figures presented here do not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency. Such fluctuations change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference to the standard of living of its population.
Therefore, these figures should be used with caution. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living; although this is problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income.
Comparisons of national income are also frequently made on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP), to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries. (See List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita.) PPP largely removes the exchange rate problem but not others; it does not reflect the value of economic output in international trade, and it also requires more estimation than GDP per capita. On the whole, PPP per capita figures are more narrowly spread than nominal GDP per capita figures.
Non-sovereign entities (the world, continents, and some dependent territories) and states with limited international recognition (such as Kosovo, Palestine and Taiwan) are included in the list in cases in which they appear in the sources. These economies are not ranked in the charts here, but are listed in sequence by GDP for comparison. In addition, non-sovereign entities are marked in italics.
Note that the Irish GDP data below is subject to material distortion by the tax planning activities of foreign multinationals in Ireland. 2015 Irish GDP is over 150% of 2015 Irish GNI. To address this, in 2017 the Central Bank of Ireland created "modified GNI" (or GNI*) as a more appropriate statistic, and the OECD and IMF have adopted it for Ireland. 2015 Irish GDP is 143% of 2015 Irish GNI*.
List of per capita nominal GDP for countries and dependencies
|International Monetary Fund (2018)||World Bank (2018)||United Nations (2017)|
The following are countries not included in the above three lists:
Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens
Many of leading GDP-per-capita (nominal) jurisdictions are tax havens whose economic data is artificially inflated by tax-driven corporate accounting entries.
A stunning $12 trillion—almost 40 percent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 percent of the world’s investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.— "Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018
A fuller discussion on this topic is in the List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita article.
Notes and references
- O'Sullivan, Arthur
- French President seeks alternatives to GDP, The Guardian 14-09-2009.
"European Parliament, Policy Department Economic and Scientific Policy: Beyond GDP Study" (PDF). (1.47 MB)
- "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund. April 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
- Data refer mostly to the year 2018. Selecting all countries, GDP per capita (current US$), World Bank. Accessed on 1st of July 2019.
- National Accounts Main Aggregates Database, 2017, (Select all countries, "GDP, Per Capita GDP - US Dollars", and 2016 to generate table), United Nations Statistics Division. Accessed on 17 Jan 2019.
- ons.gov.uk; retrieved 25 October 2019.
- www2.gov.scot; retrieved 25 October 2019.
- "Piercing the Veil, FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT, JUNE 2018, VOL. 55, NO. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
- Based on the IMF data. If no data was available for a country from IMF, data from the World Bank is used
- Chart of GDP per capita at current US$ prices by Google, World Bank data
- World Map and Chart of GDP per capita at current prices by Lebanese-economy-forum, World Bank data