List of concurrent and parallel programming languages

This article lists concurrent and parallel programming languages, categorizing them by a defining paradigm. A concurrent programming language is defined as one which uses the concept of simultaneously executing processes or threads of execution as a means of structuring a program. A parallel language is able to express programs that are executable on more than one processor. Both types are listed, as concurrency is a useful tool in expressing parallelism, but it is not necessary. In both cases, the features must be part of the language syntax and not an extension such as a library.

The following categories aim to capture the main, defining feature of the languages contained, but they are not necessarily orthogonal.

Coordination languages

Dataflow programming

Distributed computing

  • Bloom
  • Hermes
  • Julia
  • Limbo
  • MPD
  • Oz - Multi-paradigm language with particular support for constraint and distributed programming.
  • Sequoia
  • SR

Event-driven and hardware description

Functional programming

Logic programming

Monitor-based

Multi-threaded

Object-oriented programming

Partitioned global address space (PGAS)

Message passing

Actor model

CSP based

APIs/frameworks

These application programming interfaces support parallelism in host languages.

See also

References

  1. Thom Frühwirth (9 July 2009). Constraint Handling Rules. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87776-3.
  2. "Threads - The Rust Programming Language". doc.rust-lang.org. Retrieved 2017-09-15.
  3. "Message Passing - The Rust Programming Language". doc.rust-lang.org. Retrieved 2017-09-15.
  4. Alan Kay The Early History Of Smalltalk
  5. "Crystal Programming Language - Concurrency". Retrieved 10 August 2018.
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