List of concurrent and parallel programming languages
This article lists concurrent and parallel programming languages, categorizing them by a defining paradigm. A concurrent programming language is defined as one which uses the concept of simultaneously executing processes or threads of execution as a means of structuring a program. A parallel language is able to express programs that are executable on more than one processor. Both types are listed, as concurrency is a useful tool in expressing parallelism, but it is not necessary. In both cases, the features must be part of the language syntax and not an extension such as a library.
The following categories aim to capture the main, defining feature of the languages contained, but they are not necessarily orthogonal.
Event-driven and hardware description
Partitioned global address space (PGAS)
- Ateji PX - An extension of Java with parallel primitives inspired from pi-calculus.
- Smalltalk:p.17 Part IV, see table following fig. 11-29
These application programming interfaces support parallelism in host languages.
- Thom Frühwirth (9 July 2009). Constraint Handling Rules. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87776-3.
- "Threads - The Rust Programming Language". doc.rust-lang.org. Retrieved 2017-09-15.
- "Message Passing - The Rust Programming Language". doc.rust-lang.org. Retrieved 2017-09-15.
- Alan Kay The Early History Of Smalltalk
- "Crystal Programming Language - Concurrency". Retrieved 10 August 2018.