List of compositions by Gustav Mahler

The musical compositions of Gustav Mahler (1860–1911) are almost exclusively in the genres of song and symphony. In his juvenile years he attempted to write opera and instrumental works; all that survives musically from those times is a single movement from a Piano Quartet from around 1876–78.[1] From 1880 onwards Mahler was a professional conductor whose composing activities had to be fitted around concert and theatrical engagements.[2] Nevertheless, over the next 30 years he produced nine complete symphonies and sketches for a tenth, several orchestral song cycles and many other songs with piano or orchestral accompaniment. Mahler's symphonies are generally on an expansive scale, requiring large forces in performance, and are among the longest in the concert repertoire.[3]

Mahler scholar Deryck Cooke divides Mahler's compositions into separate creative phases, preceded by a "juvenile" period up to 1880. The earliest surviving whole work is Das klagende Lied (The Song of Lament), a cantata for soloists, chorus and orchestra which was completed in 1880 just before Mahler took up his first conducting post.[1] In Cooke's chronology Mahler's first period as a mature composer extends over 20 years, to 1900, and includes his first four symphonies, his first song cycle Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen ("Songs of a Wayfarer") and numerous other songs. The period includes Mahler's Wunderhorn phase, after his discovery in 1887 of the German folk-poems collected by Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brentano under the title Des Knaben Wunderhorn ("The Young Lad's Magic Horn"). Music critic Neville Cardus writes that this anthology nourished the composer's "pantheistic feelings about life and the world ... in which an all-embracing love [makes] all creatures kin."[4] Mahler set 24 of these poems to music; three were absorbed into his Second, Third and Fourth symphonies; nine were used to create Volumes II and III of Lieder und Gesänge ("Songs and Airs"), and the remaining 12 were grouped to form Mahler's own Wunderhorn song cycle.[3][5]

Cooke dates Mahler's "middle period" as between 1901 and 1907, covering the trio of instrumental symphonies (Fifth, Sixth and Seventh), the massive Eighth Symphony, and the settings of poems by Friedrich Rückert including the Kindertotenlieder cycle and the Rückert-Lieder.[6] The final period covers the last works: the symphonic Das Lied von der Erde ("The Song of the Earth") and the Ninth and Tenth Symphonies. None of these late works were performed during Mahler's lifetime. The unfinished Tenth Symphony was rendered by Deryck Cooke into a "performing version" which was first performed in London in 1964.[7][8]

Summary of completed works

Early works

Wunderhorn period

Middle period

Late works

List of works

Type Date of
composition
German title (original title) English title Scoring Premiere performance Notes References
Stage1875–1878 Herzog Ernst von SchwabenErnst, Duke of Swabia for voices and orchestra not performed lost; both the music and the libretto by Josef Steiner are lost [9][10]
Stage1878–1880 Die Argonauten for voices and orchestra not performed lost; music and libretto (by Mahler and Steiner) lost [9]
Stage1879–1883 Rübezahl for voices and orchestra not performed libretto (by Mahler) held privately; music lost, but some may have been incorporated into early songs and/or parts of Das Klagende Lied [3][9]
Stage1884 Der Trompeter von SäckingenThe Trumpeter of Säckingen for orchestra Kassel, 23 June 1884 incidental music to play by Josef Viktor von Scheffel; most music lost; first number became the "Blumine" andante in the original version of Symphony No. 1 [11][12][13]
Stage1886–1887 Die drei PintosThe Three Pintos for voices and orchestra Leipzig, 20 January 1888 completion of opera by Carl Maria von Weber; Mahler arranged Weber's sketches and other music from Weber's minor works, and composed a small amount himself [3][12]
Chamber music1875–1876 SonateSonata for violin and piano Iglau, 31 July 1876 & 12 September 1876, with Mahler at the piano lost [9][14]
Chamber music1876 Klavierquartett a-MollPiano Quartet in A minor (first movement) for violin, viola, cello and piano possibly performed at Vienna Conservatory 10 July 1876 first verified public performance: New York, 12 February 1964 [9][14]
Chamber music1876–1878 Klavierquartett g-MollPiano Quartet in G minor (scherzo fragments) for violin, viola, cello and piano Frankfurt/M (Radio) 10 March 1932 and New York, 12 February 1964 approximately 36 bars of music [1][9][14]
Chamber music1875–1878 KlavierquintettPiano Quintet for 2 violins, viola, cello and piano performed at the Vienna Conservatory, 11 July 1878, Mahler at the piano lost [9][14]
Piano1877 SuiteSuite for piano performed at the Vienna Conservatory on an unknown date lost; apparently the piece was awarded a prize by the Conservatory [14][15]
Orchestral1877 [Student Symphony] for orchestra not performed lost; rehearsed at the Conservatory under Joseph Hellmesberger, and rejected [14][15]
Orchestral / choral1878–1880 Das klagende Lied, Kantate
  1. Waldmärchen
  2. Der Spielmann
  3. Hochzeitstück
The Song of Lament, Cantata for soprano, alto, tenor, chorus and orchestra Vienna, 17 February 1901 (movements II and III)
Brno Radio, 8 November 1934 (original version)
words by Mahler; unsuccessful Beethoven Prize entry, 1881 [1][3][16][17]
Orchestral1882–1883 Symphony in A minor for orchestra not performed lost; possibly a more developed version of the "Student Symphony" rejected by Hellmesberger [18]
Orchestral1888 BlumineBlumine for orchestra Budapest, 20 November 1889 (as part of Symphony No. 1) originally planned for use as movement II of Symphony No. 1, dropped in 1893 [19]
Orchestral1884–1888 1. Sinfonie D-DurSymphony No. 1 in D major for orchestra Budapest, 20 November 1889 (five-movement version) originally 5 movements, later 4; originally a symphonic poem, given title "Titan" at second performance, title later discarded; in revisions 1893–96 "Blumine" andante withdrawn [11][20][21]
Orchestral1888 Todtenfeier [sic] Todtenfeier (Death Celebration) for orchestra Berlin, 16 March 1896 symphonic poem; later reworked as movement I of Symphony No. 2 [22]
Orchestral / choral1888–1894 2. Sinfonie c-Moll "Auferstehungssinfonie"Symphony No. 2 in C minor "Resurrection" for soprano, alto, mixed chorus, organ and orchestra Berlin, 4 March 1895 (movements I,II and III); Berlin, 13 December 1895 (complete) 5 movements; movement I: 1888 symphonic poem Todtenfeier; movement IV: "Urlicht" from Des Knaben Wunderhorn collection; movement V: text by Mahler and Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock [11][20][23]
Orchestral / choral1893–1896 3. Sinfonie d-MollSymphony No. 3 in D minor for alto, women's chorus, boys' chorus and orchestra Krefeld, 9 June 1902 6 movements; movement IV: "O Mensch! Gib acht!" from Also sprach Zarathustra (Friedrich Nietzsche); movement V: Wunderhorn poem "Es sungen drei Engel" [3][11][20][24]
Orchestral / vocal1899–1900 4. Sinfonie G-DurSymphony No. 4 in G major for soprano and orchestra Munich, 25 November 1901 4 movements; revised 1901–10; movement IV: "Das himmlische Leben" from Des Knaben Wunderhorn collection, originally intended for Symphony No. 3, composed in 1892 [11][25][26]
Orchestral1901–1902 5. Sinfonie cis-MollSymphony No. 5 in C minor for orchestra Cologne, 18 October 1904 5 movements; repeatedly revised up to Mahler's death [8][25][27]
Orchestral1903–1904 6. Sinfonie a-MollSymphony No. 6 in A minor for orchestra Essen, 27 May 1906 4 movements; revised 1906 and repeatedly thereafter [8][25][28]
Orchestral1904–1905 7. Sinfonie e-MollSymphony No. 7 in E minor for orchestra Prague, 19 September 1908 5 movements; revised repeatedly from 1905; known as Lied der Nacht ("Song of the Night"), though not named by Mahler [8][25][29]
Orchestral / choral1906–1907 8. Sinfonie Es-Dur
1. Teil: Hymnus „Veni, creator spiritus“
2. Teil: Schlußszene von Goethes „Faust II“
Symphony No. 8 in E major
Part I: Hymn "Veni creator spiritus"
Part II: Closing Scene from Goethe's Faust
for 3 sopranos, 2 altos, tenor, baritone, bass, 2 mixed choruses, boys' choir, organ and orchestra Munich, 12 & 13 September 1910 known also as "Sinfonie der Tausend" ("Symphony of a Thousand"), though not named by Mahler [8][9][30]
Orchestral / vocal1908–1909 Das Lied von der ErdeThe Song of the Earth for alto or baritone, tenor and orchestra Munich, 20 November 1911 song cycle; words from ancient Chinese poems in translation by Hans Bethge [8][9][31]
Orchestral1909–1910 9. Sinfonie D-DurSymphony No. 9 in D major for orchestra Vienna, 26 June 1912 4 movements [8][9][32]
Orchestral1910 10. Sinfonie Fis-DurSymphony No. 10 in F major for orchestra Vienna, 12 October 1924 (movements I and III); complete performing version (Deryck Cooke) London, 13 August 1964 incomplete; Mahler drafted five movements but scored only the first and third; Apart from Cooke's, five other performing versions had been recorded up to 2010; Frans Bouwman has created a critical and annotated publication of all the surviving manuscript pages of the 10th Symphony [8][9][33][34][35]
Vocal1876–1879 [Two Song Fragments] Copenhagen, 10 February 1985 song settings; one fragment identified as a setting of "Weder Glück noch Stern" (Heinrich Heine, 1830) and the other "Im wunderschönen Monat Mai" (Heinrich Heine) [14]
Vocal1880 Drei Lieder für Tenorstimme und Klavier
  1. "Im Lenz"
  2. "Winterlied"
  3. "Maitanz im Grünen"
3 Songs for tenor and piano Brno, 30 September 1934 (radio broadcast) words by Mahler; from a projected set of five songs [1][16][17]
Vocal1880–1883 FrühlingsmorgenSpring Morning for voice and piano Budapest, 13 November 1889 words by Richard Leander; published in Lieder und Gesänge, Volume I [16][17][36]
Vocal1880–1883 ErinnerungMemory for voice and piano Budapest, 13 November 1889 words by Richard Leander; published in Lieder und Gesänge, Volume I [16][17][37]
Vocal1880–1883 Hans und GretheHans and Grethe for voice and piano Prague, 18 April 1886 words by Mahler; a reworking of "Maitanz im Grünen" (from Drei Lieder, 1880); published in Lieder und Gesänge, Volume I [16][17][37]
Vocal1880–1883 Serenade aus Don JuanSerenade from Don Juan for voice and piano Leipzig, 28 October 1887 words by Tirso de Molina; published in Lieder und Gesänge, Volume I [16][17][38]
Vocal1880–1883 Phantasie aus Don JuanImagination for voice and piano Leipzig, 28 October 1887 words by Tirso de Molina; published in Lieder und Gesänge, Volume I [16][17][38]
Vocal1883–1885 Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen
  1. Wenn mein Schatz Hochzeit macht
  2. Ging heut Morgen übers Feld
  3. Ich hab'ein glühend Messer
  4. Die zwei blauen Augen von meinem Schatz
Songs of a Wayfarer, Song cycle
  1. When My Sweetheart Is Married
  2. I Went This Morning over the Field
  3. I Have a Gleaming Knife
  4. The Two Blue Eyes of My Beloved
for voice and piano or orchestra Berlin, 16 March 1896 (with orchestra) setting of four poems by Mahler; originally with piano accompaniment, orchestral setting added between 1891 and 1895; a performance with piano accompaniment may have preceded Berlin 1896 [11][17][39][40]
Vocal1887–1890 Um schlimme Kinder artig zu machenHow to Make Naughty Children Behave for voice and piano Munich 1899–1900 season poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn; published in Lieder und Gesänge, Volume II [11][20][41]
Vocal1887–1890 Ich ging mit Lust durch einem grünen WaldI Walked with Joy for voice and piano Stuttgart, 13 December 1907 poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn; published in Lieder und Gesänge, Volume II [11][20][42]
Vocal1887–1890 Aus! Aus!Out! Out! for voice and piano Hamburg, 29 April 1892 poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn; published in Lieder und Gesänge, Volume II [11][20][43]
Vocal1887–1890 Starke EinbildungskraftStrong Imagination for voice and piano Stuttgart, 13 December 1907 poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn; published in Lieder und Gesänge, Volume II [11][20][44]
Vocal1887–1890 Zu Strassburg auf der SchanzOn the Ramparts at Strasbourg for voice and piano Helsinki, November 1906 poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn; published in Lieder und Gesänge, Volume III [11][20][44]
Vocal1887–1890 Ablösung im SommerChanging of the Summer Relief for voice and piano Vienna, 29 January 1905 poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn; published in Lieder und Gesänge, Volume III; an orchestral adaptation of the song used as movement III of Symphony No. 3 [11][20][45]
Vocal1887–1890 Scheiden und MeidenParting Is Painful for voice and piano Budapest, 13 November 1889 poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn; published in Lieder und Gesänge, Volume III [11][20][45]
Vocal1887–1890 Nicht wiedersehen!Never to Meet Again! for voice and piano Hamburg, 29 April 1892 poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn; published in Lieder und Gesänge, Volume III [11][20][46]
Vocal1887–1890 SelbstgefühlSelf-esteem for voice and piano Vienna, 15 February 1900 poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn; published in Lieder und Gesänge, Volume III [11][20][47]
Vocal1892 UrlichtPrimeval Light for voice and piano or orchestra Berlin, 13 December 1895 (as part of Symphony No. 2) poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn; re-orchestrated July 1893 for use as movement IV of Symphony No. 2 [11][25][48]
Vocal1892 Das himmlische LebenThe Heavenly Life for voice and orchestra Hamburg, 27 October 1893 (with orchestra) poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn; used as movement IV of Symphony No. 4; original poem entitled "Der Himmel hängtvoll Geigen" [11][49]
Vocal1892 Der Schildwache NachtliedThe Sentinel's Nightsong for voice and piano or orchestra Berlin, 12 December 1892 (with orchestra) poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn [11][20][50]
Vocal1892 Verlor'ne MühLabour Lost for voice and piano or orchestra Berlin, 12 December 1892 (with orchestra) poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn [11][20][50]
Vocal1892 Trost im UnglückSolace in Misfortune for voice and piano or orchestra Hamburg, 27 October 1893 (with orchestra) poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn [11][20][50]
Vocal1892 Wer hat dies Liedlein erdacht?Who Thought Up This Song? for voice and piano or orchestra Hamburg, 27 October 1893 (with orchestra) poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn [11][20][50]
Vocal1892–1893 Das irdische LebenThe Earthly Life for voice and piano or orchestra Vienna, 14 January 1900 (with orchestra) poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn [11][20][50]
Vocal1893 Des Antonius von Padua FischpredigtSt. Anthony of Padua's Sermon to the Fish for voice and piano or orchestra Vienna, 29 January 1905 (with orchestra) poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn; an orchestral adaptation of the song used as movement III of Symphony No. 2 [11][20][50]
Vocal1893 RheinlegendchenLittle Rhine Legend for voice and piano or orchestra Hamburg, 27 October 1893 (with orchestra) poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn [11][20][50]
Vocal1895 Es sungen drei EngelThree Angels Sang a Sweet Air for voice and piano or orchestra Krefeld, 9 June 1902 (as part of Symphony No. 3) poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn; composed for use in Symphony No. 3; piano version in published 1899 [11][24][25]
Vocal1896 Lob des hohen VerstandesPraise of Lofty Intellect for voice and piano Vienna, 18 January 1906 poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn [11][20][50]
Vocal1898 Lied des Verfolgten im TurmSong of the Persecuted in the Tower for voice and piano or orchestra Vienna, 29 January 1905 (with orchestra) poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn [11][20][50]
Vocal1898 Wo die schönen Trompeten blasenWhere the Fair Trumpets Sound for voice and piano or orchestra Vienna, 14 January 1900 (with orchestra) poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn [11][20][50]
Vocal1899 RevelgeReveille for voice and piano or orchestra Vienna, 29 January 1905 poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn; later published with the five Rückert songs as Sieben Lieder aus letzter Zeit (Seven Last Songs) [8][25][51]
Vocal1901 Der Tamboursg'sellThe Drummer Boy for voice and piano or orchestra Vienna, 29 January 1905 poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn; later published with the five Rückert songs as Sieben Lieder aus letzter Zeit (Seven Last Songs) [8][25][51]
Vocal1901 Blicke mir nicht in die LiederDo Not Look at My Songs! for voice and piano or orchestra Vienna, 29 January 1905 poem by Friedrich Rückert [8][25][52]
Vocal1901 Ich atmet' einen linden DuftI Breathed a Gentle Fragrance for voice and piano or orchestra Vienna, 29 January 1905 poem by Friedrich Rückert [8][25][52]
Vocal1901 Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommenI Am Lost to the World for voice and piano or orchestra Vienna, 29 January 1905 poem by Friedrich Rückert [8][25][52]
Vocal1901 Um MitternachtAt Midnight for voice and piano or orchestra Vienna, 29 January 1905 poem by Friedrich Rückert [8][25][52]
Vocal1902 Liebst du um SchönheitIf You Love for Beauty for voice and piano or orchestra Vienna, 8 February 1907 poem by Friedrich Rückert; Mahler neglected to orchestrate this song; an orchestral version was prepared later by a Leipzig musician, Max Puttmann [8][52][53]
Vocal1901–1904
1901
1901
1901
1904
1904
Kindertotenlieder
  1. Nun will die Sonn' so hell aufgeh'n
  2. Nun seh' ich wohl, warum so dunkle Flammen
  3. Wenn dein Mütterlein
  4. Oft denk' ich, sie sind nur ausgegangen
  5. In diesem Wetter, in diesem Braus
Songs on the Death of Children
  1. Now the Sun Wants to Rise as Brightly
  2. Now I See Well, Why with Such Dark Flames
  3. When Your Mother
  4. I Often Think: They Have Only Just Gone Out
  5. In This Weather, in This Windy Storm
for voice and orchestra Vienna, 29 January 1905 poems by Friedrich Rückert [8][25][54]

Dresden archive

The possibility of previously unknown early Mahler works emerged when, in 1938, the Dutch conductor Willem Mengelberg revealed the existence of an archive of manuscripts in Dresden, in the hands of Marion von Weber, with whom Mahler had been romantically involved in the 1880s. Mengelberg claimed that these manuscripts included drafts of four early symphonies, which he and the German composer Max von Schillings had played through on the piano. Mahler historian Donald Mitchell writes: "Though one may perhaps be a shade sceptical about the existence of four symphonies, each of them completely carried through, the strong possibility remains that some important manuscripts, either early symphonies or parts of early symphonies, were to be found in Dresden." The archive was almost certainly destroyed in the bombing of Dresden in February 1945.[55]

Arrangements and editions

In his capacity as a conductor Mahler was responsible for many rescorings of works by, among others, J.S. Bach, Beethoven and Schumann. He also prepared string orchestra versions of Beethoven's String Quartet No. 11 and Schubert's Death and the Maiden Quartet, and a four-hand piano arrangement of Bruckner's Third Symphony.[3][12]

References

  1. Cooke, pp. 21–26
  2. Cooke, p. 8
  3. Franklin, Peter (2007). Macy, Laura (ed.). "Mahler, Gustav". Oxford Music Online. Retrieved 21 February 2010.
  4. Cardus, p. 55
  5. Sadie, pp. 515–18
  6. Sadie, pp. 518–23
  7. Cooke, pp. 103–21
  8. Sadie, p. 529
  9. Carr, p. 240
  10. Sadie, p. 505
  11. Sadie, p. 528
  12. Carr, p. 241
  13. Cooke, p. 34
  14. Mitchell Vol.I, pp. 116–117
  15. Carr, p. 21
  16. Sadie, p. 527
  17. Carr, p. 237
  18. Mitchell, Vol. I p. 117 and pp. 131–34
  19. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. Carr, p. 238
  21. Cooke, pp. 33–35
  22. Mitchell Vol. II, pp. 165–167; 269
  23. Cooke, pp. 52–58
  24. Cooke, pp. 60–65
  25. Carr, p. 239
  26. Cooke, pp. 66–69
  27. Cooke, pp. 80–83
  28. Cooke, pp. 83–87
  29. Cooke, pp. 88–91
  30. Cooke, pp. 91–102
  31. Cooke, pp. 103–13
  32. Cooke, pp. 114–118
  33. Bloomfield, Theodore (1990). "In Search of Mahler's Tenth: The Four Performing Versions as seen by a Conductor". The Musical Quarterly. Oxford University Press. 74 (2): 175–96. doi:10.1093/mq/74.2.175. JSTOR 742188.
  34. Bouwman, Frans (1990). "Unfinished Business: editing Mahler's 10th". The Musical Times. The Musical Times Publications Ltd. 142 (4): 43–51. doi:10.2307/1004576. JSTOR 1004576.
  35. Cooke, pp. 118–21
  36. Cooke, p. 27
  37. Cooke, p. 28
  38. Cooke, p. 29
  39. Cooke, pp. 30–32
  40. Mitchell, Vol. II p. 25
  41. Cooke, p. 36
  42. Cooke, p. 37
  43. Cooke, p. 38
  44. Cooke, p. 39
  45. Cooke, p. 40
  46. Cooke, p. 41
  47. Cooke, p. 42
  48. Cooke, p. 59
  49. Cooke, pp. 59–60
  50. Cooke, pp. 43–52
  51. Cooke, pp. 71–73
  52. Cooke, pp. 74–77
  53. Carr, p. 129
  54. Cooke, pp. 77–80
  55. Mitchell, Vol. II pp. 51–54

Sources

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