List of chemical elements

This is a list of the 118 chemical elements which have been identified as of 2019. A chemical element, often simply called an element, is a species of atoms which all have the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e., the same atomic number, or Z).[1]

A popular visualization of all 118 elements is the periodic table of the elements, a convenient tabular arrangement of the elements by their chemical properties that uses abbreviated chemical symbols in place of full element names, but the simpler list format presented here may also be useful. Like the periodic table, the list below organizes the elements by the number of protons in their atoms; it can also be organized by other properties, such as atomic weight, density, and electronegativity. For more detailed information about the origins of element names, see List of chemical element name etymologies.

List

Note that the physical properties of elements depend on the isotope.

List of chemical elements
Z[upper-roman 1] Symbol Element Origin of name[2][3] Group Period Atomic weight[4][5] Density Melting point[6] Boiling point C[upper-roman 1] Electro­negativity Abundance in Earth's crust[upper-roman 2]
(u) (g/cm3) (K) (K) (J/g · K) (mg/kg)
 
1HHydrogenGreek elements hydro- and -gen, meaning 'water-forming'111.008[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 4][upper-roman 5][upper-roman 6]0.0000898814.0120.2814.3042.201400
2HeHeliumGreek hḗlios, 'sun'1814.002602(2)[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 5]0.0001785[upper-roman 7]4.225.1930.008
3LiLithiumGreek líthos, 'stone'126.94[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 4][upper-roman 5][upper-roman 8][upper-roman 6]0.534453.6915603.5820.9820
4BeBerylliumberyl, a mineral (ultimately from the name of Belur in southern India)229.0121831(5)1.85156027421.8251.572.8
5BBoronborax, a mineral (from Arabic bawraq)13210.81[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 4][upper-roman 5][upper-roman 6]2.34234942001.0262.0410
6CCarbonLatin carbo, 'coal'14212.011[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 5][upper-roman 6]2.267380043000.7092.55200
7NNitrogenGreek nítron and -gen, meaning 'niter-forming'15214.007[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 5][upper-roman 6]0.001250663.1577.361.043.0419
8OOxygenGreek oxy- and -gen, meaning 'acid-forming'16215.999[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 5][upper-roman 6]0.00142954.3690.200.9183.44461000
9FFluorineLatin fluere, 'to flow'17218.998403163(6)0.00169653.5385.030.8243.98585
10NeNeonGreek néon, 'new'18220.1797(6)[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 4]0.000899924.5627.071.030.005
11NaSodiumEnglish soda (the symbol Na is derived from New Latin natrium, coined from German Natron, 'natron')1322.98976928(2)0.971370.8711561.2280.9323600
12MgMagnesiumMagnesia, a district of Eastern Thessaly in Greece2324.305[upper-roman 6]1.73892313631.0231.3123300
13AlAluminiumalumina, from Latin alumen (gen. aluminis), 'bitter salt, alum'13326.9815384(3)2.698933.4727920.8971.6182300
14SiSiliconLatin silex, 'flint' (originally silicium)14328.085[upper-roman 5][upper-roman 6]2.3296168735380.7051.9282000
15PPhosphorusGreek phōsphóros, 'light-bearing'15330.973761998(5)1.82317.305500.7692.191050
16SSulfurLatin sulphur, 'brimstone'16332.06[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 5][upper-roman 6]2.067388.36717.870.712.58350
17ClChlorineGreek chlōrós, 'greenish yellow'17335.45[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 4][upper-roman 5][upper-roman 6]0.003214171.6239.110.4793.16145
18ArArgonGreek argós, 'idle' (because of its inertness)18339.948[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 5][upper-roman 6]0.001783783.8087.300.523.5
19KPotassiumNew Latin potassa, 'potash' (the symbol K is derived from Latin kalium)1439.0983(1)0.862336.5310320.7570.8220900
20CaCalciumLatin calx, 'lime'2440.078(4)[upper-roman 3]1.54111517570.647141500
21ScScandiumLatin Scandia, 'Scandinavia'3444.955908(5)2.989181431090.5681.3622
22TiTitaniumTitans, the sons of the Earth goddess of Greek mythology4447.867(1)4.54194135600.5231.545650
23VVanadiumVanadis, an Old Norse name for the Scandinavian goddess Freyja5450.9415(1)6.11218336800.4891.63120
24CrChromiumGreek chróma, 'colour'6451.9961(6)7.15218029440.4491.66102
25MnManganesecorrupted from magnesia negra; see Magnesium7454.938043(2)7.44151923340.4791.55950
26FeIronEnglish word (the symbol Fe is derived from Latin ferrum)8455.845(2)7.874181131340.4491.8356300
27CoCobaltGerman Kobold, 'goblin'9458.933194(3)8.86176832000.4211.8825
28NiNickelNickel, a mischievous sprite of German miner mythology10458.6934(4)8.912172831860.4441.9184
29CuCopperEnglish word, from Latin cuprum, from Ancient Greek Kýpros 'Cyprus'11463.546(3)[upper-roman 5]8.961357.7728350.3851.960
30ZnZincMost likely from German Zinke, 'prong' or 'tooth', though some suggest Persian sang, 'stone'12465.38(2)7.134692.8811800.3881.6570
31GaGalliumLatin Gallia, 'France'13469.723(1)5.907302.914626730.3711.8119
32GeGermaniumLatin Germania, 'Germany'14472.630(8)5.3231211.4031060.322.011.5
33AsArsenicFrench arsenic, from Greek arsenikón 'yellow arsenic' (influenced by arsenikós, 'masculine' or 'virile'), from a West Asian wanderword ultimately from Old Iranian *zarniya-ka, 'golden'15474.921595(6)5.7761090[upper-roman 9]8870.3292.181.8
34SeSeleniumGreek selḗnē, 'moon'16478.971(8)[upper-roman 5]4.8094539580.3212.550.05
35BrBromineGreek brômos, 'stench'17479.904[upper-roman 6]3.122265.8332.00.4742.962.4
36KrKryptonGreek kryptós, 'hidden'18483.798(2)[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 4]0.003733115.79119.930.24831×10−4
37RbRubidiumLatin rubidus, 'deep red'1585.4678(3)[upper-roman 3]1.532312.469610.3630.8290
38SrStrontiumStrontian, a village in Scotland2587.62(1)[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 5]2.64105016550.3010.95370
39YYttriumYtterby, a village in Sweden3588.90584(1)4.469179936090.2981.2233
40ZrZirconiumzircon, a mineral4591.224(2)[upper-roman 3]6.506212846820.2781.33165
41NbNiobiumNiobe, daughter of king Tantalus from Greek mythology5592.90637(1)8.57275050170.2651.620
42MoMolybdenumGreek molýbdaina, 'piece of lead', from mólybdos, 'lead', due to confusuion with lead ore galena (PbS)6595.95(1)[upper-roman 3]10.22289649120.2512.161.2
43TcTechnetiumGreek tekhnētós, 'artificial'75[98][upper-roman 10]11.5243045381.9~ 3×10−9[upper-roman 11]
44RuRutheniumNew Latin Ruthenia, 'Russia'85101.07(2)[upper-roman 3]12.37260744230.2382.20.001
45RhRhodiumGreek rhodóeis, 'rose-coloured', from rhódon, 'rose'95102.90549(2)12.41223739680.2432.280.001
46PdPalladiumthe asteroid Pallas, considered a planet at the time105106.42(1)[upper-roman 3]12.021828.0532360.2442.20.015
47AgSilverEnglish word (The symbol is derived from Latin argentum)115107.8682(2)[upper-roman 3]10.5011234.9324350.2351.930.075
48CdCadmiumNew Latin cadmia, from King Kadmos125112.414(4)[upper-roman 3]8.69594.2210400.2321.690.159
49InIndiumLatin indicum, 'indigo' (colour found in its spectrum)135114.818(1)7.31429.7523450.2331.780.25
50SnTinEnglish word (The symbol is derived from Latin stannum)145118.710(7)[upper-roman 3]7.287505.0828750.2281.962.3
51SbAntimonyLatin antimonium, the origin of which is uncertain: folk etymologies suggest it is derived from Greek antí ('against') + mónos ('alone'), or Old French anti-moine, 'Monk's bane', but it could plausibly be from or related to Arabic ʾiṯmid, 'antimony', reformatted as a Latin word. (The symbol is derived from Latin stibium 'stibnite'.)155121.760(1)[upper-roman 3]6.685903.7818600.2072.050.2
52TeTelluriumLatin tellus, 'the ground, earth'165127.60(3)[upper-roman 3]6.232722.6612610.2022.10.001
53IIodineFrench iode, from Greek ioeidḗs, 'violet')175126.90447(3)4.93386.85457.40.2142.660.45
54XeXenonGreek xénon, neuter form of xénos 'strange'185131.293(6)[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 4]0.005887161.4165.030.1582.63×10−5
55CsCaesiumLatin caesius, 'sky-blue'16132.90545196(6)1.873301.599440.2420.793
56BaBariumGreek barýs, 'heavy'26137.327(7)3.594100021700.2040.89425
57LaLanthanumGreek lanthánein, 'to lie hidden'36138.90547(7)[upper-roman 3]6.145119337370.1951.139
58CeCeriumthe dwarf planet Ceres, considered a planet at the time6140.116(1)[upper-roman 3]6.77106837160.1921.1266.5
59PrPraseodymiumGreek prásios dídymos, 'green twin'6140.90766(1)6.773120837930.1931.139.2
60NdNeodymiumGreek néos dídymos, 'new twin'6144.242(3)[upper-roman 3]7.007129733470.191.1441.5
61PmPromethiumPrometheus of Greek mythology6[145][upper-roman 10]7.26131532731.132×10−19[upper-roman 11]
62SmSamariumsamarskite, a mineral named after Colonel Vasili Samarsky-Bykhovets, Russian mine official6150.36(2)[upper-roman 3]7.52134520670.1971.177.05
63EuEuropiumEurope6151.964(1)[upper-roman 3]5.243109918020.1821.22
64GdGadoliniumgadolinite, a mineral named after Johan Gadolin, Finnish chemist, physicist and mineralogist6157.25(3)[upper-roman 3]7.895158535460.2361.26.2
65TbTerbiumYtterby, a village in Sweden6158.925354(8)8.229162935030.1821.21.2
66DyDysprosiumGreek dysprósitos, 'hard to get'6162.500(1)[upper-roman 3]8.55168028400.171.225.2
67HoHolmiumNew Latin Holmia, 'Stockholm'6164.930328(7)8.795173429930.1651.231.3
68ErErbiumYtterby, a village in Sweden6167.259(3)[upper-roman 3]9.066180231410.1681.243.5
69TmThuliumThule, the ancient name for an unclear northern location6168.934218(6)9.321181822230.161.250.52
70YbYtterbiumYtterby, a village in Sweden6173.045(10)[upper-roman 3]6.965109714690.1551.13.2
71LuLutetiumLatin Lutetia, 'Paris'6174.9668(1)[upper-roman 3]9.84192536750.1541.270.8
72HfHafniumNew Latin Hafnia, 'Copenhagen' (from Danish havn)46178.49(2)13.31250648760.1441.33
73TaTantalumKing Tantalus, father of Niobe from Greek mythology56180.94788(2)16.654329057310.141.52
74WTungstenSwedish tung sten, 'heavy stone' (The symbol is from wolfram, the old name of the tungsten mineral wolframite)66183.84(1)19.25369558280.1322.361.3
75ReRheniumLatin Rhenus, 'the Rhine'76186.207(1)21.02345958690.1371.97×10−4
76OsOsmiumGreek osmḗ, 'smell'86190.23(3)[upper-roman 3]22.61330652850.132.20.002
77IrIridiumIris, the Greek goddess of the rainbow96192.217(2)22.56271947010.1312.20.001
78PtPlatinumSpanish platina, 'little silver', from plata 'silver'106195.084(9)21.462041.440980.1332.280.005
79AuGoldEnglish word (the symbol Au is derived from Latin aurum)116196.966570(4)19.2821337.3331290.1292.540.004
80HgMercuryMercury, Roman god of commerce, communication, and luck, known for his speed and mobility (the symbol Hg derives from the element's Latin name hydrargyrum, from Greek hydrárgyros, 'water-silver')126200.592(3)13.5336234.43629.880.1420.085
81TlThalliumGreek thallós, 'green shoot or twig'136204.38[upper-roman 6]11.8557717460.1291.620.85
82PbLeadEnglish word (the symbol Pb is derived from Latin plumbum)146207.2(1)[upper-roman 3][upper-roman 5]11.342600.6120220.1291.8714
83BiBismuthGerman Wismut, from weiß Masse 'white mass', unless from Arabic156208.98040(1)[upper-roman 10]9.807544.718370.1222.020.009
84PoPoloniumLatin Polonia, 'Poland' (the home country of Marie Curie)166[209][upper-roman 10]9.3252712352.02×10−10[upper-roman 11]
85AtAstatineGreek ástatos, 'unstable'176[210][upper-roman 10]75002.23×10−20[upper-roman 11]
86RnRadonradium186[222][upper-roman 10]0.00973202211.30.0942.24×10−13[upper-roman 11]
87FrFranciumFrance17[223][upper-roman 10]1.87281.08900.7~ 1×10−18[upper-roman 11]
88RaRadiumFrench radium, from Latin radius, 'ray'27[226][upper-roman 10]5.597320100.0940.99×10−7[upper-roman 11]
89AcActiniumGreek aktís, 'ray'37[227][upper-roman 10]10.07132334710.121.15.5×10−10[upper-roman 11]
90ThThoriumThor, the Scandinavian god of thunder7232.0377(4)[upper-roman 10][upper-roman 3]11.72211550610.1131.39.6
91PaProtactiniumproto- (from Greek prôtos, 'first, before') + actinium, which is produced through the radioactive decay of protactinium7231.03588(1)[upper-roman 10]15.37184143001.51.4×10−6[upper-roman 11]
92UUraniumUranus, the seventh planet in the Solar System7238.02891(3)[upper-roman 10]18.951405.344040.1161.382.7
93NpNeptuniumNeptune, the eighth planet in the Solar System7[237][upper-roman 10]20.4591742731.36 3×10−12[upper-roman 11]
94PuPlutoniumthe dwarf planet Pluto, considered the ninth planet in the Solar System at the time7[244][upper-roman 10]19.84912.535011.28 3×10−11[upper-roman 11]
95AmAmericiumThe Americas, as the element was first synthesised on the continent, by analogy with europium7[243][upper-roman 10]13.69144928801.130[upper-roman 12]
96CmCuriumPierre Curie and Marie Curie, French physicists and chemists7[247][upper-roman 10]13.51161333831.280[upper-roman 12]
97BkBerkeliumBerkeley, California, where the element was first synthesised, by analogy with terbium7[247][upper-roman 10]14.79125929001.30[upper-roman 12]
98CfCaliforniumCalifornia, where the element was first synthesised7[251][upper-roman 10]15.11173(1743)[upper-roman 13]1.30[upper-roman 12]
99EsEinsteiniumAlbert Einstein, German physicist7[252][upper-roman 10]8.841133(1269)[upper-roman 13]1.30[upper-roman 12]
100FmFermiumEnrico Fermi, Italian physicist7[257][upper-roman 10](9.7)[upper-roman 13](1125)[upper-roman 13]1.30[upper-roman 12]
101MdMendeleviumDmitri Mendeleev, Russian chemist and inventor who proposed the periodic table7[258][upper-roman 10](10.3)[upper-roman 13](1100)[upper-roman 13]1.30[upper-roman 12]
102NoNobeliumAlfred Nobel, Swedish chemist and engineer7[259][upper-roman 10](9.9)[upper-roman 13](1100)[upper-roman 13]1.30[upper-roman 12]
103LrLawrenciumErnest O. Lawrence, American physicist7[266][upper-roman 10](15.6)[upper-roman 13](1900)[upper-roman 13]1.30[upper-roman 12]
104RfRutherfordiumErnest Rutherford, chemist and physicist from New Zealand47[267][upper-roman 10](23.2)[upper-roman 13](2400)[upper-roman 13](5800)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
105DbDubniumDubna, Russia, where the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research is located57[268][upper-roman 10](29.3)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
106SgSeaborgiumGlenn T. Seaborg, American chemist67[269][upper-roman 10](35.0)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
107BhBohriumNiels Bohr, Danish physicist77[270][upper-roman 10](37.1)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
108HsHassiumNew Latin Hassia, 'Hesse' (a state in Germany)87[270][upper-roman 10](40.7)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
109MtMeitneriumLise Meitner, Austrian physicist97[278][upper-roman 10](37.4)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
110DsDarmstadtiumDarmstadt, Germany, where the element was first synthesised107[281][upper-roman 10](34.8)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
111RgRoentgeniumWilhelm Conrad Röntgen, German physicist117[282][upper-roman 10](28.7)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
112CnCoperniciumNicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer127[285][upper-roman 10](14.0)[upper-roman 13](283)[upper-roman 14](340)[upper-roman 14]0[upper-roman 12]
113NhNihoniumJapanese Nihon, 'Japan' (where the element was first synthesised)137[286][upper-roman 10](16)[upper-roman 13](700)[upper-roman 13](1400)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
114FlFleroviumFlerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, part of JINR, where the element was synthesised; itself named after Georgy Flyorov, Russian physicist147[289][upper-roman 10](14)[upper-roman 13]~2100[upper-roman 12]
115McMoscoviumMoscow Oblast, Russia, where the element was first synthesised157[290][upper-roman 10](13.5)[upper-roman 13](700)[upper-roman 13](1400)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
116LvLivermoriumLawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, which collaborated with JINR on its synthesis167[293][upper-roman 10](12.9)[upper-roman 13](700)[upper-roman 13](1100)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
117TsTennessineTennessee, United States (where Oak Ridge National Laboratory is located)177[294][upper-roman 10](7.2)[upper-roman 13](700)[upper-roman 13](883)[upper-roman 13]0[upper-roman 12]
118OgOganessonYuri Oganessian, Russian physicist187[294][upper-roman 10](5.0)[upper-roman 13][upper-roman 15](320)[upper-roman 13](~350)[upper-roman 13][upper-roman 16]0[upper-roman 12]

Notes

  1. Z is the standard symbol for atomic number; C is the standard symbol for heat capacity
  2. Unless otherwise indicated, elements are primordial – they occur naturally, and not through decay.
  3. The isotopic composition of this element varies in some geological specimens, and the variation may exceed the uncertainty stated in the table.
  4. The isotopic composition of the element can vary in commercial materials, which can cause the atomic weight to deviate significantly from the given value.
  5. The isotopic composition varies in terrestrial material such that a more precise atomic weight can not be given.
  6. The value listed is the conventional atomic-weight value suitable for trade and commerce. The actual value may differ depending on the isotopic composition of the sample. Since 2009, IUPAC provides the standard atomic-weight values for these elements using the interval notation. The corresponding standard atomic weights are:
    • Hydrogen: [1.00784, 1.00811]
    • Lithium: [6.938, 6.997]
    • Boron: [10.806, 10.821]
    • Carbon: [12.0096, 12.0116]
    • Nitrogen: [14.00643, 14.00728]
    • Oxygen: [15.99903, 15.99977]
    • Magnesium: [24.304, 24.307]
    • Silicon: [28.084, 28.086]
    • Sulfur: [32.059, 32.076]
    • Chlorine: [35.446, 35.457]
    • Argon: [39.792, 39.963]
    • Bromine: [79.901, 79.907]
    • Thallium: [204.382, 204.385]
  7. Helium does not solidify at a pressure of one atmosphere. Helium can only solidify at pressures above 25 atmospheres, which corresponds to a melting point of absolute zero.
  8. The atomic weight of commercial lithium can vary between 6.939 and 6.996—analysis of the specific material is necessary to find a more accurate value.
  9. This element sublimes at one atmosphere of pressure.
  10. The element does not have any stable nuclides, and a value in brackets, e.g. [209], indicates the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element. However, four such elements, bismuth, thorium, protactinium, and uranium, have characteristic terrestrial isotopic compositions, and thus their standard atomic weights are given.
  11. This element is transient – it occurs only through decay (and in the plutonium, also in traces deposited from supernovae onto Earth).
  12. This element is synthetic – the transuranic elements 95 and above do not occur naturally, but they can all be produced artificially.
  13. The value has not been precisely measured, usually because of the element's short half-life; the value given in parentheses is a prediction.
  14. With error bars: 283±11 K and 340±10 K respectively. The best experimental value for the boiling point of copernicium is 357+112
    −108
     K.
  15. This predicted value is for solid oganesson, not gaseous oganesson.
  16. With error bars: 350±30 K.

See also

References

  1. IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006) "chemical element". doi:10.1351/goldbook.C01022
  2. "Periodic Table – Royal Society of Chemistry". www.rsc.org.
  3. "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com.
  4. Wieser, Michael E.; et al. (2013). "Atomic weights of the elements 2011 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chemistry. 85 (5): 1047–1078. doi:10.1351/PAC-REP-13-03-02. (for standard atomic weights of elements)
  5. Sonzogni, Alejandro. "Interactive Chart of Nuclides". National Nuclear Data Center: Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved 2008-06-06. (for atomic weights of elements with atomic numbers 103–118)
  6. Holman, S. W.; Lawrence, R. R.; Barr, L. (1 January 1895). "Melting Points of Aluminum, Silver, Gold, Copper, and Platinum". Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 31: 218–233. doi:10.2307/20020628. JSTOR 20020628.
  • Atoms made thinkable, an interactive visualisation of the elements allowing physical and chemical properties to be compared
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