List of animals by number of neurons

These are two lists of animals ordered by the size of their nervous system. The first list shows number of neurons in their entire nervous system, indicating their overall neural complexity. The second list shows the number of neurons in their forebrain, a measure which has been found to be representative of animal intelligence.[1] In mammals, the forebrain is represented by the cerebrum, while in birds and reptiles it is represented by the pallium.

Brief comparisons of number of whole brain neurons (top) and cerebral cortex neurons (bottom) among six mammals.

The human brain contains 86 billion neurons, with 16 billion neurons in the cerebrum.[2][1]

Overview

Neurons are the cells that transmit information in an animal's nervous system so that it can sense stimuli from its environment and behave accordingly. Not all animals have neurons; Trichoplax and sponges lack nerve cells altogether.

Neurons may be packed to form structures such as the brain of vertebrates or the neural ganglions of insects.

The number of neurons and their relative abundance in different parts of the brain is a determinant of neural function and, consequently, of behavior.

Whole nervous system

All numbers for neurons (except Caenorhabditis and Ciona), and all numbers for synapses (except Ciona) are estimations.

NameNeurons in the brain/whole nervous systemSynapsesDetailsImageSource
Sponge0 [3]
Trichoplax0 [4]
Asplanchna brightwellii (rotifer)about 200 Brain only [5]
Ciona intestinalis larva (sea squirt)2318,617 (central nervous system only) [6]

[7]

Caenorhabditis elegans (roundworm)302~7,500 [8]
Jellyfish5,600 Hydra vulgaris (H. attenuate) [9]
Megaphragma mymaripenne 7,400 [10]
Box jellyfish8,70017,500 adult Tripedalia cystophora (8 mm diameter) – does not include 1000 neurons in each of the four rhopalia [11]
Medicinal leech10,000 [12]
Pond snail11,000 [13]
Sea slug18,000 [14]
Amphioxus20,000 central nervous system only [15]

[16]

Larval zebrafish100,000 [17]
Lobster100,000 [18]
Fruit fly250,000< 10,000,000 [19]

[20]

Ant250,000 Varies per species [21]

[22]

Honey bee960,000~1×10^9 [23]
Cockroach1,000,000 [24]
Guppy4,300,000 [25]
Adult zebrafish~10,000,000 cells (neurons + other) [26]
Frog16,000,000 [27]
Naked mole-rat 26,880,000 [28]
Smoky shrew36,000,000 [29]
Short-tailed shrew52,000,000 [29]
Hottentot golden mole 65,000,000 [30]
House mouse71,000,000~1×10^12 [31]
Nile crocodile80,500,000 [32]
Golden hamster90,000,000 [31]
Ansell's mole-rat 103,000,000 [33]
Mashona mole-rat 113,000,000 [33]
Hairy-tailed mole 124,000,000 [30]
Eastern rock elephant shrew 129,000,000 [30]
Star-nosed mole131,000,000 [29]
Zebra finch131,000,000 Brain only [34]
Silvery mole-rat 148,000,000 [33]
Four-toed elephant shrew 157,000,000 [30]
Eurasian blackcap 157,000,000 [34]
Goldcrest 164,000,000 [34]
Cape mole-rat 170,000,000 [33]
Mechow's mole-rat 174,000,000 [33]
Damaraland mole-rat 178,000,000 [33]
Brown rat200,000,000~4.48×10^11 [35]
Guyenne spiny rat 202,000,000 [30]
Eastern mole204,000,000 [29]
Red junglefowl 221,000,000 [34]
Great tit 226,000,000 [34]
Green-rumped parrotlet 227,000,000 [34]
Guinea pig240,000,000 [31]
Gray mouse lemur 254,710,000 [36]
Common treeshrew261,000,000 [37]
Pigeon310,000,000 Brain only [34]
Budgerigar 322,000,000 [34]
Cape dune mole-rat 361,000,000 [33]
Common blackbird 379,000,000 [34]
Ferret 404,000,000 [38]
Cockatiel 453,000,000 [34]
Gray squirrel 453,660,000 [28]
Banded mongoose 454,000,000 [38]
Prairie dog 473,940,000 [28]
Common starling 483,000,000 [34]
European rabbit 494,200,000 [28]
Octopus500,000,000 [39]
Western tree hyrax 505,000,000 [30]
Common marmoset636,000,000 [37]
Eastern rosella 642,000,000 [34]
Barn owl 690,000,000 [34]
Monk parakeet 697,000,000 [34]
Azure-winged magpie 741,000,000 [34]
Rock hyrax 756,000,000 [30]
Cat760,000,000~1×10^13 [40]
Black-rumped agouti857,000,000 [31]
Magpie 897,000,000 [34]
Common hill myna 906,000,000 [34]
Northern greater galago936,000,000 [37]
Western jackdaw 968,000,000 [34]
Eurasian jay 1.085×10^9 [34]
Alexandrine parakeet 1.096×10^9 [34]
Tanimbar corella 1.161×10^9 [34]
Emu 1.335×10^9 [34]
Three-striped night monkey1.468×10^9 [37]
Rook 1.509×10^9 [34]
Grey parrot 1.566×10^9 [34]
Capybara1.6×10^9 [31]
Sulphur-crested cockatoo 2.122×10^9 [34]
Raccoon 2.148×10^9 [38]
Kea 2.149×10^9 [34]
Raven2.171×10^9 Brain only [34]
Domestic pig 2.22×10^9 [41]
Dog 2.253×10^9 [38]
Springbok 2.72×10^9 [41]
Blesbok 3.06×10^9 [41]
Blue-and-yellow macaw3.136×10^9 Brain only [34]
Common squirrel monkey3.246×10^9 [37]
Crab-eating macaque 3.44×10^9 [36]
Tufted capuchin3.691×10^9 [37]
Bonnet macaque 3.78×10^9 [36]
Striped hyena 3.885×10^9 [38]
Lion 4.667×10^9 [38]
Greater kudu 4.91×10^9 [41]
Rhesus macaque6.376×10^9 [37]
Brown bear 9.586×10^9 [38]
Giraffe 1.075×10^10 [41]
Yellow baboon 1.095×10^10 [36]
Chimpanzee2.8×10^10 [42]
Orangutan3.26×10^10 [43]
Gorilla3.34×10^10 [43]
Human8.6×10^10~1.5×10^14 Neurons for average adult [44][45][46]
African elephant2.57×10^11 [47][48]

Forebrain (cerebrum or pallium)

The question of what physical characteristic of an animal makes an animal intelligent has varied over the centuries. One early speculation was brain size (or weight, which provides the same ordering.) A second proposal was brain-to-body-mass ratio, and a third was encephalization quotient, sometimes referred to as EQ. The current best predictor is number of neurons in the forebrain, based on Herculano-Houzel's improved neuron counts[1]. It accounts most accurately for variations in dependence on the cerebellum. The elephant depends on its exceptionally large cerebellum, while birds make do with a much smaller one.

The numbers in this list for cetacean species are questionable because they were obtained using a previous counting methodology called the optical fractionator, an application of stereology. Most other numbers are the result of studies using the newer isotropic fractionator[1][28][30][31][32][34][35][36][37][41][42][43][44][45][47][49]. A variation of the optical fractionator was responsible for the previous human brain neuron count of 100,000,000,000 neurons, which has been revised down to 86,000,000,000 by the use of the isotropic fractionator.

NameForebrain neuronsDetailsImageSource
Naked mole-rat 6,150,000 H. glaber [28]
Ansell's mole-rat 10,000,000 Fukomys anselli [33]
Smoky shrew 10,000,000 Sorex fumeus [30]
Mashona mole-rat 12,000,000 Fukomys darlingi [33]
Northern short-tailed shrew 12,000,000 Blarina brevicauda [30]
House mouse 14,000,000 Mus musculus [30]
Hairy-tailed mole 16,000,000 Parascalops breweri [30]
Star-nosed mole 17,000,000 Condylura cristata [30]
Golden hamster 17,000,000 Mesocricetus auratus [30]
Damaraland mole-rat 21,000,000 Fukomys damarensis [33]
Hottentot golden mole 22,000,000 Amblysomus hottentotus [30]
Gray mouse lemur 22,310,000 Microcebus murinus [36]
Mechow's mole-rat 23,000,000 Fukomys mechowii [33]
Hedgehog 24,000,000 Subfamily Erinaceinae, various species [50]
Silvery mole-rat 25,000,000 Heliophobius argenteocinereus [33]
Cape mole-rat 26,000,000 Georychus capensis [33]
Guyenne spiny rat 26,000,000 Proechimys cayennensis [30]
Eastern rock elephant shrew 26,000,000 Elephantulus myurus [30]
Eastern mole 27,000,000 Scalopus aquaticus [30]
Opossum 27,000,000 Didelphis virginiana [50]
Brown Rat 31,000,000 Rattus norvegicus [30]
Four-toed elephant shrew 34,000,000 Petrodromus tetradactylus [30]
Ferret 39,000,000 Mustela putorius furo [38]
Cape dune mole-rat 43,000,000 Bathyergus suillus [33]
Guinea pig 43,510,000 Cavia porcellus [28]
Eurasian blackcap 52,000,000 Sylvia atricapilla [34]
Prairie dog 53,770,000 Cynomys sp. [28]
Zebra finch 55,000,000 Taeniopygia guttata [34]
Common treeshrew 60,000,000 Tupaia glis [30]
Red junglefowl 61,000,000 Gallus gallus [34]
Goldcrest 64,000,000 Regulus regulus [34]
European rabbit 71,450,000 O. cuniculus [28]
Rock dove 72,000,000 Columba livia [34]
Eastern gray squirrel 77,330,000 S. carolinensis [28]
Great tit 83,000,000 Parus major [34]
Western tree hyrax 99,000,000 Dendrohyrax dorsalis [30]
Green-rumped parrotlet 103,000,000 Forpus passerinus [34]
Black-rumped agouti 113,000,000 Dasyprocta prymnolopha [1]
Banded mongoose 116,000,000 Mungos mungo [38]
Common blackbird 136,000,000 Turdus merula [34]
Budgerigar 149,000,000 Melopsittacus undulatus [34]
Rock hyrax 198,000,000 Procavia capensis [30]
Northern greater galago 226,000,000 Otolemur garnettii [30]
Common starling 226,000,000 Sturnus vulgaris [34]
Common marmoset 245,000,000 Callithrix jacchus [30]
Cat 250,000,000 Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus [38]
Brown bear 251,000,000 Ursus arctos [38]
Cockatiel 258,000,000 Nymphicus hollandicus [34]
Capybara 306,500,000 Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris [28]
Tarsius 310,000,000 Genus Tarsius, unknown species [51]
Eastern rosella 333,000,000 Platycercus eximius [34]
Goeldi's marmoset 357,130,000 Callimico goeldii [36]
Monk parakeet 396,000,000 Myiopsitta monachus [34]
Springbok 396,900,000 Antidorcas marsupialis [41]
Azure-winged magpie 400,000,000 Cyanopica cyanus [34]
Common hill myna 410,000,000 Gracula religiosa [34]
Domesticated pig 425,000,000 Sus scrofa [52]
Barn owl 437,000,000 Tyto alba [34]
Emu 439,000,000 Dromaius novaehollandiae [34]
Three-striped night monkey 442,000,000 Aotus trivirgatus [1]
Eurasian magpie 443,000,000 Pica pica [34]
Raccoon 453,000,000 Procyon lotor [49]
Western jackdaw 492,000,000 Coloeus monedula [34]
Striped hyena 495,000,000 Hyaena hyaena [38]
Eurasian jay 529,000,000 Garrulus glandarius [34]
Dog 530,000,000 Canis lupus familiaris [38]
Lion 545,000,000 Panthera leo [38]
Blesbok 570,670,000 Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi [41]
Alexandrine parakeet 575,000,000 Psittacula eupatria [34]
Tanimbar corella 599,000,000 Cacatua goffiniana [34]
Gracile capuchin monkey 650,000,000 Genus Cebus, unknown species [53]
Greater kudu 762,570,000 Tragelaphus strepsiceros [41]
Crab-eating macaque 800,960,000 Macaca fascicularis [36]
Rook 820,000,000 Corvus frugilegus [34]
Grey parrot 850,000,000 Psittacus erithacus [34]
Tufted capuchin 1,100,000,000 Sapajus apella [1]
Sulphur-crested cockatoo 1,135,000,000 Cacatua galerita [34]
Horse 1,200,000,000 Equus ferus caballus [29]
Raven 1,200,000,000 Corvus corax [34]
Kea 1,281,000,000 Nestor notabilis [34]
Common squirrel monkey 1,340,000,000 Saimiri sciureus [30]
Bonnet macaque 1,660,000,000 Macaca radiata [36]
Rhesus macaque 1,710,000,000 Macaca mulatta [30]
Giraffe 1,730,000,000 Giraffa camelopardalis [41]
Blue and yellow macaw 1,900,000,000 Ara ararauna [34]
Pygmy sperm whale 2,020,000,000* Kogia breviceps [54]
Guenon 2,500,000,000 Genus Cercopithecus, unknown species [51]
Yellow baboon 2,880,000,000 Papio cynocephalus [36]
African elephant 5,600,000,000 Loxodonta africana [47]
Harp seal 6,100,000,000 Pagophilus groenlandicus [55]
Short-beaked common dolphin 6,700,000,000* Delphinus delphis [54]
Chimpanzee 7,400,000,000 Pan troglodytes [56]
Orangutan 8,900,000,000 Genus Pongo, unknown species [43]
Cuvier's beaked whale 9,100,000,000* Z. cavirostris [54]
Gorilla 9,100,000,000 Gorilla gorilla [43]
False killer whale 10,500,000,000* Pseudorca crassidens [29]
Bottlenose dolphin 12,700,000,000* Tursiops truncatus [54]
Common minke whale 12,800,000,000* Balaenoptera acutorostrata [57]
Harbor porpoise 14,900,000,000* Phocoena phocoena [55]
Fin whale 15,000,000,000* Balaenoptera physalus [58]
Human 16,000,000,000 (male)
13,440,000,000 (female)
Homo sapiens [44][1][59]
Long-finned pilot whale 37,200,000,000* Globicephala melas [60]
Killer whale 43,100,000,000* Orcinus orca [54]

See also

References

  1. Herculano-Houzel, Suzana (9 November 2009). "The human brain in numbers: a linearly scaled-up primate brain". Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 3: 31. doi:10.3389/neuro.09.031.2009. PMC 2776484. PMID 19915731.
  2. https://www.theguardian.com/science/blog/2012/feb/28/how-many-neurons-human-brain
  3. Sherwood L, Klandorf H and Yancey P (2012) Animal Physiology: From Genes to Organisms Cengage Learning, p. 150. ISBN 9781133709510.
  4. Schierwater B (December 2005). "My favorite animal, Trichoplax adhaerens". BioEssays. 27 (12): 1294–1302. doi:10.1002/bies.20320. PMID 16299758.
  5. Ware, Randle W.; LoPresti, Vincent (1975). "Three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections". Int. Rev. Cytol. International Review of Cytology. 40: 325–440. doi:10.1016/S0074-7696(08)60956-0. ISBN 9780123643407. PMID 1097356.
  6. Ryan, Kerrianne; Lu, Zhiyuan; Meinertzhagen, Ian A. (2016). "The CNS connectome of a tadpole larva of Ciona intestinalis (L.) highlights sidedness in the brain of a chordate sibling". eLife. 2016;5:e16962: e16962. doi:10.7554/eLife.16962. PMC 5140270. PMID 27921996.
  7. Ryan, Kerrianne; Lu, Zhiyuan; Meinertzhagen, Ian A. (2018). "The peripheral nervous system of the ascidian tadpole larva: Types of neurons and their synaptic networks". Journal of Comparative Neurology. 526 (4): 583–608. doi:10.1002/cne.24353. PMID 29124768.
  8. White, J. G; E. Southgate; J. N Thomson; S. Brenner (1986-11-12). "The Structure of the Nervous System of the Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 314 (1165): 1–340. doi:10.1098/rstb.1986.0056. ISSN 0962-8436. PMID 22462104.
  9. Bode, H.; Berking, S.; David, C. N.; Gierer, A.; Schaller, H.; Trenkner, E. (1973). "Quantitative analysis of cell types during growth and morphogenesis in Hydra". Wilhelm Roux Archiv für Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen (Submitted manuscript). 171 (4): 269–285. doi:10.1007/BF00577725. ISSN 0949-944X. PMID 28304608.
  10. Polilov, Alexey A. (2011). "The smallest insects evolve anucleate neurons". Arthropod Structure & Development. 41 (1): 29–34. doi:10.1016/j.asd.2011.09.001. PMID 22078364.
  11. Garm, A.; Poussart, Y.; Parkefelt, L.; Ekström, P.; Nilsson, D-E. (2007). "The ring nerve of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora". Cell and Tissue Research. 329 (1): 147–157. doi:10.1007/s00441-007-0393-7. ISSN 0302-766X. PMID 17340150.
  12. Kuffler SW & Potter DD (1964). "Glia in the leech central nervous system: physiological properties and neuron-glia relationship". J. Neurophysiol. 27 (2): 290–320. doi:10.1152/jn.1964.27.2.290. PMID 14129773.
  13. Roth G, Dicke U (May 2005). "Evolution of the brain and intelligence". Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul. Ed.). 9 (5): 250–7. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2005.03.005. PMID 15866152. as PDF
  14. Cash D, Carew TJ (1989). "A quantitative analysis of the development of the central nervous system in juvenile Aplysia californica". J Neurobiol. 20 (1): 25–47. doi:10.1002/neu.480200104. PMID 2921607.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  15. Roth, Gerhard (3 June 2013). The Long Evolution of Brains and Minds. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 121. ISBN 978-94-007-6259-6. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  16. Aniszewski, Tadeusz (25 April 2015). Alkaloids: Chemistry, Biology, Ecology, and Applications. Elsevier Science. p. 316. ISBN 978-0-444-59462-4. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  17. Scientists Capture All The Neurons Firing Across A Fish's Brain On Video Popular Science, 19 March 2013.
  18. "Anatomy & Biology". The Lobster Institute. University of Maine. Retrieved March 19, 2016.
  19. Lagercrantz, Hugo; Hanson, M. A.; Ment, Laura R.; Peebles, Donald M., eds. (7 January 2010). The Newborn Brain: Neuroscience and Clinical Applications. Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-139-48558-6. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  20. Nass, Richard; Przedborski, Serge (28 April 2011). Parkinson's Disease: molecular and therapeutic insights from model systems. Academic Press. p. 325. ISBN 978-0-08-055958-2. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  21. John and Sarah Tefl. "Interesting Facts About Ants". Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  22. "Ant Fun Facts". Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  23. Menzel R, Giurfa M (February 2001). "Cognitive architecture of a mini-brain: the honeybee". Trends Cogn. Sci. 5 (2): 62–71. doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01601-6. PMID 11166636.
  24. "A Strange Approach to Social Interaction, and Butterflies". Anthropology.net. January 10, 2007. Archived from the original on January 13, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
  25. Marhounová, Lucie; Kotrschal, Alexander; Kverková, Kristina; Kolm, Niclas; Němec, Pavel (2019). "Artificial selection on brain size leads to matching changes in overall number of neurons". Evolution. 0 (9): 2003–2012. doi:10.1111/evo.13805. ISSN 1558-5646. PMC 6772110. PMID 31339177.
  26. Hinsch, K. & Zupanc, G. K. H. (2007). "Generation and long-term persistence of new neurons in the adult zebrafish brain: A quantitative analysis". Neuroscience. 146 (2): 679–696. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.01.071. PMID 17395385.
  27. "Frog Brain Neuron Number". Archived from the original on 16 July 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  28. Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Ribeiro, Pedro; Campos, Leandro; Silva, Alexandre Valotta da; Torres, Laila B.; Catania, Kenneth C.; Kaas, Jon H. (2011). "Updated Neuronal Scaling Rules for the Brains of Glires (Rodents/Lagomorphs)". Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 78 (4): 302–314. doi:10.1159/000330825. ISSN 0006-8977. PMC 3237106. PMID 21985803.
  29. Hofman, Michel A.; Falk, Dean (2 March 2012). Evolution of the Primate Brain: From Neuron to Behavior. Elsevier. p. 425. ISBN 978-0-444-53860-4.
  30. name="H-Houzel2015"Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Catania, Kenneth; Manger, Paul R.; Kaas, Jon H. (2015). "Mammalian Brains Are Made of These: A Dataset of the Numbers and Densities of Neuronal and Nonneuronal Cells in the Brain of Glires, Primates, Scandentia, Eulipotyphlans, Afrotherians and Artiodactyls, and Their Relationship with Body Mass" (PDF). Brain, Behavior and Evolution. S. Karger AG. 86 (3–4): 145–163. doi:10.1159/000437413. ISSN 0006-8977. PMID 26418466.
  31. Herculano-Houzel S, Mota B, Lent R (2006). "Cellular scaling rules for rodent brains". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 103 (32): 12138–12143. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604911103. PMC 1567708. PMID 16880386.
  32. Ngwenya, Ayanda; Patzke, Nina; Manger, Paul R.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana (2016). "Continued Growth of the Central Nervous System without Mandatory Addition of Neurons in the Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus)". Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 87 (1): 19–38. doi:10.1159/000443201. PMID 26914769.
  33. Kverková, Kristina; Bělíková, Tereza; Olkowicz, Seweryn; Pavelková, Zuzana; O’Riain, M. Justin; Šumbera, Radim; Burda, Hynek; Bennett, Nigel C.; Němec, Pavel (2018-06-15). "Sociality does not drive the evolution of large brains in eusocial African mole-rats". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 9203. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-26062-8. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6003933. PMID 29907782.
  34. Olkowicz, Seweryn; Kocourek, Martin; Lučan, Radek K.; Porteš, Michal; Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Němec, Pavel (2016). "Birds have primate-like numbers of neurons in the forebrain". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (26): 7255–60. doi:10.1073/pnas.1517131113. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 4932926. PMID 27298365.
  35. Herculano-Houzel, S. & Lent, R. (2005). "Isotropic fractionator: a simple, rapid method for the quantification of total cell and neuron numbers in the brain". J Neurosci. 25 (10): 2518–2521. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.4526-04.2005. PMC 6725175. PMID 15758160.
  36. Gabi, Mariana; Collins, Christine E.; Wong, Peiyan; Torres, Laila B.; Kaas, Jon H.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana (2010). "Cellular Scaling Rules for the Brains of an Extended Number of Primate Species". Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 76 (1): 32–44. doi:10.1159/000319872. ISSN 0006-8977. PMC 2980814. PMID 20926854.
  37. Herculano-Houzel S, Collins C, Wong P, Kaas J (2007). "Cellular scaling rules for primate brains". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 104 (9): 3562–3567. doi:10.1073/pnas.0611396104. PMC 1805542. PMID 17360682.
  38. Jardim-Messeder, Débora; Lambert, Kelly; Noctor, Stephen; Pestana, Fernanda M.; Leal, de Castro; E, Maria; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N.; Mohammad, Osama B. (2017). "Dogs Have the Most Neurons, Though Not the Largest Brain: Trade-Off between Body Mass and Number of Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex of Large Carnivoran Species". Frontiers in Neuroanatomy. 11: 118. doi:10.3389/fnana.2017.00118. ISSN 1662-5129. PMC 5733047. PMID 29311850.
  39. "Brain Facts and Figures". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  40. Ananthanarayanan, Rajagopal; Esser, Steven K.; Simon, Horst D.; Modha, Dharmendra S. (2009). "The cat is out of the bag: cortical simulations with 109 neurons, 1013 synapses". Proceedings of the Conference on High Performance Computing Networking, Storage and Analysis - SC '09. pp. 1–12. doi:10.1145/1654059.1654124. ISBN 978-1-60558-744-8.
  41. Kazu, Rodrigo S.; Maldonado, José; Mota, Bruno; Manger, Paul R.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana (2015). "Corrigendum: Cellular scaling rules for the brain of Artiodactyla include a highly folded cortex with few neurons". Frontiers in Neuroanatomy. 9: 39. doi:10.3389/fnana.2015.00039. ISSN 1662-5129. PMC 4374476. PMID 25859187.
  42. Herculano-Houzel, Suzana (June 2012). "The remarkable, yet not extraordinary, human brain as a scaled-up primate brain and its associated cost". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
  43. Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Kaas, Jon (2011). "Gorilla and Orangutan Brains Conform to the Primate Cellular Scaling Rules: Implications for Human Evolution". Brain Behav Evol. 77 (1): 33–44. doi:10.1159/000322729. PMC 3064932. PMID 21228547.
  44. Azevedo, Frederico A.C.; Carvalho, Ludmila R.B.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Farfel, José Marcelo; Ferretti, Renata E.L.; Leite, Renata E.P.; Filho, Wilson Jacob; Lent, Roberto; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana (2009). "Equal numbers of neuronal and nonneuronal cells make the human brain an isometrically scaled-up primate brain". The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 513 (5): 532–541. doi:10.1002/cne.21974. PMID 19226510.
  45. Herculano-Houzel, S. (20 June 2012). "The remarkable, yet not extraordinary, human brain as a scaled-up primate brain and its associated cost". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (Supplement_1): 10661–10668. doi:10.1073/pnas.1201895109. PMC 3386878. PMID 22723358.
  46. TOWER DB. (1954). "Structural and functional organization of mammalian cerebral cortex; the correlation of neurone density with brain size; cortical neurone density in the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus L.) with a note on the cortical neurone density in the Indian elephant". The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 101 (1): 19–51. doi:10.1002/cne.901010103. PMID 13211853.
  47. Herculano-Houzel, S; Avelino-de-Souza, K; Neves, K; Porfírio, J; Messeder, D; Mattos Feijó, L; Maldonado, J; Manger, PR (2014). "The Elephant Brain in Numbers". Front Neuroanat. 8: 46. doi:10.3389/fnana.2014.00046. PMC 4053853. PMID 24971054.
  48. "Searching For The Elephant's Genius Inside the Largest Brain on Land". Scientificamerica. 26 February 2014.
  49. Lambert KG, Bardi M, Landis T, Hyer MM, Rzucidlo A, Gehrt S, Anchor C, Jardim Messeder D, Herculano-Houzel S (2014). "Behind the Mask: Neurobiological indicants of emotional resilience and cognitive function in wild raccoons (Procyon lotor)". Society for Neuroscienc.
  50. Fasolo, Aldo (30 November 2011). The Theory of Evolution and Its Impact. Springer. p. 182. ISBN 978-88-470-1973-7.
  51. Quarton, Gardner C.; Melnechuk, Theodore; Schmitt, Francis O. (1967). The neurosciences. Rockefeller University Press. p. 732. GGKEY:DF21HXQKLNX.
  52. "LEARNING FROM PIG BRAINS". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  53. Hofman, Michel A.; Falk, Dean (2 March 2012). Evolution of the Primate Brain: From Neuron to Behavior. Elsevier. p. 424. ISBN 978-0-444-53867-3.
  54. Ridgway, Sam H.; Brownson, Robert H.; Alstyne, Kaitlin R. Van; Hauser, Robert A. (2019-12-16). "Higher neuron densities in the cerebral cortex and larger cerebellums may limit dive times of delphinids compared to deep-diving toothed whales". PLOS ONE. 14 (12): e0226206. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0226206. ISSN 1932-6203.
  55. Walløe, Solveig; Eriksen, Nina; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pakkenberg, Bente (2010-12-01). "A neurological comparative study of the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) brain". Anatomical Record (Hoboken, N.J.: 2007). 293 (12): 2129–2135. doi:10.1002/ar.21295. ISSN 1932-8494. PMID 21077171.
  56. Kaas, Jon (4 January 2015). "Cortical cell and neuron density estimates in one chimpanzee hemisphere". PNAS. 113 (3): 740–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.1524208113. PMC 4725503. PMID 26729880.
  57. Eriksen, Nina; Pakkenberg, Bente (2007-01-01). "Total neocortical cell number in the mysticete brain". Anatomical Record (Hoboken, N.J.: 2007). 290 (1): 83–95. doi:10.1002/ar.20404. ISSN 1932-8486. PMID 17441201.
  58. Mammals, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Working Party on Marine (1978-01-01). Mammals in the Seas: Report. Food & Agriculture Org. ISBN 9789251005132.
  59. Steven M. Platek; Julian Paul Keenan & Todd K. Shackelford (2009). "Evolutionary Cognitive Neuroscience" (PDF): 139. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  60. Mortensen HS, et al. (2014). "Quantitative relationships in delphinid neocortex". Front Neuroanat. 8: 132. doi:10.3389/fnana.2014.00132. PMC 4244864. PMID 25505387.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.