List of World Heritage Sites in Western Europe

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has designated 171 World Heritage Sites in Western Europe (including international dependencies). These sites are located in 9 countries (also called "state parties"); Germany and France are home to the most with 46 and 45, while Liechtenstein and Monaco have no sites. There are twelve sites which are shared between state parties both in and out of Western Europe.[1][2] The first site from the region to be included on the list was the Aachen Cathedral in Germany in 1978, the year of the list's conception.[3]

Location of World Heritage Sites within Western Europe. Some trans-national sites are partly in non-Western European countries. For trans-national sites the UNESCO latitude and longitude may not be in Western Europe.
     No sites or not in Western Europe
  •      1-10 sites
  •      11-20 sites
  •      21-30 sites
  •      31+ sites
  • trans-national sites
  • national sites

Each year, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee may inscribe new sites on the list, or delist sites that no longer meet the criteria. Selection is based on ten criteria: six for cultural heritage (ivi) and four for natural heritage (viix).[4] Some sites, designated "mixed sites," represent both cultural and natural heritage.[5] In Western Europe, there are 151 cultural, 18 natural, and 2 mixed sites.[5]

The World Heritage Committee may also specify that a site is endangered, citing "conditions which threaten the very characteristics for which a property was inscribed on the World Heritage List."[6] Presently, none of the sites in Western Europe are currently listed as endangered, though two German sites were previously listed: the Cologne Cathedral was marked as endangered in 2004 due to the construction of several high-rise buildings around it, but it was removed from the list in 2006;[7] and the Dresden Elbe Valley site was listed in 2006 in hopes of halting the construction of the four lane Waldschlösschen Bridge through the valley.[6][8][9] When construction continued as planned, it became the second site to be delisted as a World Heritage in 2009, the first being Oman's Arabian Oryx Sanctuary two years earlier.[10]



The list below uses a cultural definition of Western Europe (which includes Ireland and the United Kingdom, contrary to the United Nations Statistics Division's definition). It also omits eight sites outside of Europe belonging to European state parties: Curaçao (Netherlands), French Austral Lands and Seas (France), French Polynesia (France), New Caledonia (France), Reunion Island (France), Gough Island (United Kingdom), Henderson Island (United Kingdom), and Bermuda (United Kingdom). These sites are included in the African, American, and Oceania lists.

Site – named after the World Heritage Committee's official designation[5]
Location – sorted by country, followed by the region at the regional or provincial level and geocoordinates. In the case of multinational or multi-regional sites, the names are sorted alphabetically.
Criteria – as defined by the World Heritage Committee[4]
Area – in hectares and acres, followed by buffer zones if applicable. A value of zero implies that no data has been published by UNESCO
Year – during which the site was inscribed to the World Heritage List
Description – brief information about the site, including reasons for qualifying as an endangered site, if applicable
  * Trans-border site

World Heritage Sites

ha (acre)
Aachen Cathedral GermanyAachen,
50°46′28″N 6°5′4″E
(i), (ii),
(iv), (vi)
0.2 (0.49)1978An iconic feat of architecture that sparked copies around Germany for centuries to come, Aachen's cathedral became the first-built vaulted structure since antiquity. The town itself was closely tied to Charlemagne during the cathedral's inception, which explains why it became his burial place when he died in 814.[11]
Abbey and Altenmünster of Lorsch GermanyLorsch,
49°39′13″N 8°34′7″E
(iii), (iv)
3.34 (8.3)1991The abbey and gate or 'Torhall', are from the Carolingian era. The notable Carolingian sculptures and paintings are still in good condition.[12]
Abbey Church of Saint-Savin sur Gartempe FranceVienne,
46°33′53″N 0°51′58″E
(i), (iii)
1.61 (4.0)1983Often referred to as the "Romanesque Sistine Chapel", the church features well-preserved murals from the 11th and 12th centuries.[13]
Amiens Cathedral FranceAmiens,
49°53′42″N 2°18′6″E
(i), (ii)
1.54 (3.8)1981Amiens Cathedral is known as one of the classic Gothic churches of the 13th century. Following a devastating fire in 1218, it spent almost an entire 200 years under construction before taking on its current form in 1401, after which it has remained in great shape.[14]
Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe Germany Albania*;
49°5′10″N 22°32′10″E
92,023 (227,390); buffer zone 253,815 (627,190)2007[nb 1]Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians are used to study the spread of the beech tree (Fagus sylvatica) in the Northern Hemisphere across a variety of environments and the environment in the forest. The addition of the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany in 2011 included five forests totaling 4,391 hectares (10,850 acres) that are added to the 29,278 hectares (72,350 acres) of Slovakian and Ukrainian beech forests inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2007. The site was further expanded in 2017 to include forests in 9 additional European countries.[15]
Archaeological Border complex of Hedeby and the Danevirke GermanySchleswig, Schleswig-Holstein,
54°29′28″N 9°33′55″E
(iii), (iv)
227.55 (562.3)2018Hedeby was an important settlement of Danish Vikings and Swedish Varangians. It is considered an early medieval city in northern Europe and was an important trading place and main hub for long-distance trade between Scandinavia, western Europe, the North Sea region and the Baltic States.

The Danevirke is a fortification of the early and high Middle Ages in northern Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It consists of earth walls with moats, a brick wall, two medieval wall castles and a sea barrier.[16]

Brú na Bóinne - Archaeological Ensemble of the Bend of the Boyne IrelandCounty Meath,
53°41′30.012″N 6°27′0″W
(i), (iii), (iv)
770 (1,900)1993The site is a unique testament to the longevity of several prehistoric and medieval settlements, featuring various cultural, artistic and scientific advancements that span four millennia.[17]
The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement Belgium Argentina*;
46°28′06″N 6°49′46″E
(i), (ii), (vi)
98 (240)2016Seventeen examples in seven countries of the work of modern architecture pioneer Le Corbusier. These buildings span about half a century of work and illustrate the solutions that modern architects found to meet the needs of society as well as the international reach of modern architecture.[18]
Arles, Roman and Romanesque Monuments FranceBouches-du-Rhône,
43°40′40″N 4°37′51″E
(ii), (iv)
65 (160)1981The city, originally built in the 6th century BCE by Phocaean settlers from Greece, was remodelled by the Romans and slowly grew into an important metropolis, both politically and religiously. By 480, however, Arles was conquered by Barbarians and suffered a decline in its status until the 9th century, when Boso founded what would later become the Kingdom of Arles, where it regained its importance.[19]
Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar, Dessau and Bernau GermanyWeimar, Dessau and Bernau
50°58′29″N 11°19′46″E
(ii), (iv), (vi)
8.16 (20.2); buffer zone 59 (150)1996[nb 2]Founded in 1919 in Weimar, the Bauhaus was the most influential art school of the 20th century. The buildings designed by the masters of the Bauhaus are fundamental representatives of Classical Modernism. The joint heritage site includes the Bauhaus school buildings in Weimar and the Haus am Horn, Weimar; the Bauhaus Dessau building, the Meisterhäuser (where senior staff lived)[20] and the Laubenganghäuser ('Houses with Balcony Access')[21]; and the ADGB Trade Union School in Bernau bei Berlin.[22]
Belfries of Belgium and France Belgium Belgium*;
50°10′28″N 3°13′53″E
(ii), (iv)
1999The UNESCO entry covers 56 culturally significant belfries across France and Belgium, built over a period of several centuries.[23]
Benedictine Convent of St John at Müstair SwitzerlandMüstair,
46°37′46″N 10°26′52″E
2,036 (5,030)1983The Convent of Müstair is a Christian monastery from the Carolingian period. It has Switzerland's greatest series of figurative murals, painted c. 800 AD, along with other Romanesque art and designs.[24]
Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe GermanyKassel,
51°18′57″N 9°23′35″E
(iii), (iv)
559 (1,380)2013Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe is the largest European hillside park, and second largest park on a mountain slope in the world. Its waterworks along with the towering Hercules statue constitute an expression of the ideals of absolutist Monarchy while the ensemble is a remarkable testimony to the aesthetics of the Baroque and Romantic periods.[25]
Berlin Modernism Housing Estates GermanyBerlin,
52°26′54″N 13°27′0″E
(ii), (iv)
88 (220)2008The property consists of six housing estates from 1910 to 1933. It is an example of the building reform movement that contributed to improved housing and living conditions for people with low incomes. The estates also showcase a number of new designs, decoration and layouts. The lessons learned here were applied on other projects around the world. Some of the notable architects on these house were; Bruno Taut, Martin Wagner and Walter Gropius.[26]
Blaenavon Industrial Landscape United KingdomTorfaen, Wales,
 United Kingdom
51°46′35″N 3°5′17″W
(iii), (iv)
3,290 (8,100)2000In the 19th century, Wales was the world's foremost producer of iron and coal. Blaenavon is an example of the landscape created by the industrial processes associated with the production of these materials. The site includes quarries, public buildings, workers' housing, and a railway.[27]
Blenheim Palace United KingdomWoodstock, England,
 United Kingdom
51°50′31″N 1°21′41″W
(ii), (iv)
1987Blenheim Palace, the residence of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, was designed by architects John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor. The associated park was landscaped by Capability Brown. The palace celebrated victory over the French and is significant for establishing English Romantic Architecture as a separate entity from French Classical Architecture.[28]
Bordeaux, Port of the Moon FranceGironde,
44°50′20″N 0°34′20″E
(ii), (iv)
1,731 (4,280)2007A port city world-renowned for its wine industry, Bordeaux is also a coherent blend of classical and neo-classical architectural trends that symbolise the urban transformation from the 18th century onwards.[29]
Bourges Cathedral FranceBourges,
47°4′56″N 2°23′54″E
(i), (iv)
0.85 (2.1)1992Originally built to confirm the ruling of the archdiocese and rebuilt due to fire, the cathedral is simplistic in its design, yet considered be a unique landmark of the city. Some of the medieval-era houses still surround the church.[30]
Canal du Midi FranceSouthern France,
43°36′41″N 1°24′59″E
(i), (ii),
(iv), (vi)
1,172 (2,900)1996Called "one of the greatest engineering achievements of the modern age", the 360 km (220 mi) Canal du Midi is the result of 17th-century projects that linked the Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean, essentially setting the stage for the Industrial Revolution. Creator Pierre-Paul Riquet also placed heavy emphasis on the aesthetics of the waterway so that it would blend with its surroundings.[31]
Canterbury Cathedral, St Augustine's Abbey, and St Martin's Church United KingdomCanterbury, England,
 United Kingdom
51°16′48″N 1°4′59″E
(i), (ii), (vi)
18 (44)1988St Martin's Church is the oldest church in England. The church and St Augustine's Abbey were founded during the early stages of the introduction of Christianity to the Anglo-Saxons. The cathedral exhibits Romanesque and Gothic architecture, and is the seat of the Church of England.[32][33][34]
Carolingian Westwork and Civitas Corvey GermanyHöxter, Germany,
51°46′42″N 9°24′37″E
(ii), (iii), (iv)
12 (30)2014The abbey church was built between AD 822 and 885. Today the westwork is the only standing structure that dates back to the Carolingian era, while the ruins of the abbey are only partly excavated. It was an important center of early Frankish imperial administration and in the spread of Christianity in Germany.[35]
Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd United KingdomGwynedd, Wales,
 United Kingdom
53°8′23″N 4°16′37″W
(i), (iii), (iv)
6 (15)1986During the reign of Edward I of England (1272–1307), a series of castles were constructed in Wales with the purpose of subduing the population and establishing English colonies in Wales. The World Heritage Site covers many castles including Beaumaris, Caernarfon, Conwy, and Harlech. The castles of Edward I are considered the pinnacle of military architecture by military historians.[36][37]
Castles of Augustusburg and Falkenlust at Brühl GermanyBrühl, North Rhine-Westphalia,
50°49′30″N 6°54′35″E
(ii), (iv)
89 (220)1984Augustusburg Castle, the residence of the prince-archbishops of Cologne, and the Falkenlust hunting lodge are both examples of early German Rococo architecture.[38]
Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Former Abbey of Saint-Rémi and Palace of Tau, Reims FranceReims,
49°15′12″N 4°1′58″E
(i), (ii), (vi)
4.16 (10.3)1991Notre-Dame in Reims is one of the masterpieces of Gothic art. The former abbey still has its beautiful 9th-century nave, in which lie the remains of Archbishop St Rémi (440–533), who instituted the Holy Anointing of the kings of France. The former archiepiscopal palace known as the Tau Palace, which played an important role in religious ceremonies, was almost entirely rebuilt in the 17th century.[39]
The Causses and the Cévennes FranceSouthern France,
44°13′13″N 3°28′23″E
(iii), (v)
302,319 (747,050)2011This site, in the southern part of central France, displays the relationship between local farming and the environment. The region is mountainous with numerous narrow valleys. The local farmers had to adapt to raise food in this difficult landscape. The valleys of the Causses were developed and controlled by large abbeys, starting in the 11th century. Mont Lozère is one of the last places where summer transhumance is still practiced in the traditional way.[40]
Caves and Ice Age Art in the Swabian Jura GermanyAch and Lone Valleys,
48°23′16″N 9°45′56″E
48°32′56″N 10°10′32″E
462.1 (1,142)2017Excavated from the 1860s, six caves have revealed items dating from 43,000 to 33,000 years ago, including one statuette of a female form, carved figurines of animals, musical instruments and items of personal adornment. These archaeological sites feature some of the oldest figurative art worldwide and help shed light on the origins of human artistic development.[41]
Champagne hillsides, houses and cellars FranceMarne,
49°04′39″N 3°56′46″E
(iii), (iv), (vi)
1,101 (2,720)2015This site includes historic vineyards of Hautvillers, Aÿ and Mareuil-sur-Aÿ, Saint-Nicaise Hill in Reims and Avenue de Champagne and Fort Chabrol in Épernay.[42]
Chartres Cathedral FranceChartres,
48°26′51″N 1°29′14″E
(i), (ii), (iv)
1.06 (2.6)1979The cathedral was started in 1145 and rebuilt after a fire in 1194. It is a masterpiece of French Gothic art. The sculptures are from the 12th century and the stained-glass windows are from the 12th and 13th centuries.[43]
Chaîne des Puys - Limagne fault tectonic arena FranceAuvergne-Rhône-Alpes,
45.5°N 2.8°E / 45.5; 2.8 (Chaîne des Puys)
24,223 (59,860)2018[44]
La Chaux-de-Fonds / Le Locle, Watchmaking Town Planning SwitzerlandCanton of Neuchâtel,
47°6′14″N 6°49′58″E
284 (700)2009The site consists of two towns situated close to one another in a remote environment in the Swiss Jura mountains. Due to poor agricultural land, the watchmaking industry developed in the towns in the 19th century. After several devastating fires the towns were rebuilt to support this single industry. The town of La Chaux-de-Fonds was described by Karl Marx as a “huge factory-town” in Das Kapital where he analyzed the division of labour in the watchmaking industry of the Jura.[45]
Cistercian Abbey of Fontenay FranceMarmagne, Côte-d'Or,
47°38′22″N 4°23′21″E
5.77 (14.3)1981The monastery was founded by St Bernard in 1119. The abbey was built to be self-sufficient and to isolate the residents from the outside world. In addition to the church and monks' quarters, it had a bakery and ironworks to help make it independent.[46]
City of Bath United KingdomSomerset, England,
 United Kingdom
51°22′53″N 2°21′31″W
(i), (ii), (iv)
2,900 (7,200)1987Founded by the Romans as a spa, an important centre of the wool industry in the medieval period, and a spa town in the 18th century, Bath has a varied history. The city is preserved for its Roman remains and Palladian architecture.[47]
City of Graz – Historic Centre and Schloss Eggenberg AustriaStyria,
47°4′27″N 15°23′30″E
(ii), (iv)
1999A branch of the Habsburg family lived in Graz for centuries. The Habsburgs and other local nobles beautified and expanded Graz over centuries, leading to a city with grand buildings in a number of styles.[48]
City of Luxembourg: its Old Quarters and Fortifications Luxembourg Luxembourg
49°36′36″N 6°7′59.988″E
30 (74)1994Luxembourg occupies a strategically important location in the region. Over the centuries it was traded back and forth by the great powers in Europe, each of which fortified and expanded the city. Though many of the walls were dismantled in 1867, portions still remain.[49]
Classical Weimar GermanyThuringia,
50°58′39″N 11°19′43″E
(iii), (vi)
1998Weimar became a cultural center in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Among the many artists and writers, the city was home to Goethe and Schiller. During this same period elegant buildings and parks were built in Weimar.[50]
The Climats, terroirs of Burgundy FranceCôte-d'Or,
47°03′29″N 4°51′52″E
(iii), (v)
13,219 (32,660)2015[51]
Collegiate Church, Castle, and Old Town of Quedlinburg GermanyHarz,
51°47′0″N 11°9′0″E
90 (220)1994The preservation of old Quedlinberg allows tourists to see 16th- and 17th-century timber-framed houses and walk down medieval-patterned streets, while the Romanesque castle and cathedral, housing the bodies of Henry I and his wife, tower over the town.[52]
Cologne Cathedral GermanyCologne,
50°56′28″N 6°57′26″E
(i), (ii), (iv)
1996While work on the Cologne Cathedral began in 1248, it remained incomplete until the Prussians picked up the task centuries later, finishing the job in 1880. It was heavily bombed in the Second World War, but restorations allowed it to become the most visited landmark in Germany, boasting 6.5 million visitors per year as of 2011.[53][54]
Convent of St Gall SwitzerlandSt. Gallen,
47°25′24″N 9°22′40″E
(ii), (iv)
1983The Carolingian Convent of St Gall was one of the most important in Europe. It was in operation from the 8th century to its secularization in 1805. Its library is one of the richest and oldest in the world and contains a number of precious manuscripts such as the Plan of Saint Gall. Portions of the building were rebuilt in the Baroque style.[55]
Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape United KingdomSouth West England,
 United Kingdom
50°8′10″N 5°23′1″W
(ii), (iii), (iv)
19,719 (48,730)2006Tin and copper mining in Devon and Cornwall boomed in the 18th and 19th centuries, and at its peak the area produced two-thirds of the world's copper. The techniques and technology involved in deep mining developed in Devon and Cornwall were used around the world.[56]
Decorated Cave of Pont d’Arc, known as Grotte Chauvet-Pont d’Arc, Ardèche FranceVallon-Pont-d'Arc,
44°23′20″N 4°24′59″E
(i), (iii)
9 (22)2014The cave is home to over 1000 paintings and drawing from about 30,000 to 32,000 years before present as well as flora and fauna remains. It contains the earliest and best preserved examples of prehistoric cave art. The art is especially notable for its use of color, motion, anatomical precision and three-dimensionality.[57]
Defence Line of Amsterdam NetherlandsAmsterdam,
52°22′28″N 4°53′35″E
(ii), (iv), (v)
14,953 (36,950)1996Known in Dutch as the Stelling van Amsterdam, the 135-kilometre (84 mi) defence line surrounding the city was completed in 1920 to protect it from naval threats coming through the Markermeer. It was designed to temporarily flood the area comprising the line, enabling the 45 armed forts along it to effectively stage their countermeasures.[58]
Derwent Valley Mills United KingdomDerbyshire, England,
 United Kingdom
53°1′44″N 1°29′17″W
(ii), (iv)
1,229 (3,040)2001The Derwent Valley Mills was the birthplace of the factory system; the innovations in the valley, including the development of workers' housing – such as at Cromford – and machines such as the water frame, were important in the Industrial Revolution. The Derwent Valley Mills influenced North America and Europe.[59][60]
Dorset and East Devon Coast United KingdomDorset, England,
 United Kingdom
50°42′20″N 2°59′23.6″W
2,550 (6,300)2001The cliffs that make up the Dorset and Devon coast are an important site for fossils and provide a continuous record of life on land and in the sea in the area since 185 million years ago.[61]
Droogmakerij de Beemster (Beemster Polder) NetherlandsNorth Holland,
52°32′56″N 4°54′40″E
(i), (ii), (iv)
1999The early 17th-century Beemster Polder is a series of fields, roads, canals, dykes and settlements all built on land reclaimed from the sea.[62]
Durham Castle and Cathedral United KingdomDurham, England,
 United Kingdom
54°46′29″N 1°34′34″W
(ii), (iv), (vi)
8.79 (21.7)1986Durham Cathedral is the "largest and finest" example of Norman architecture in England and vaulting of the cathedral was part of the advent of Gothic architecture. The cathedral houses relics of St Cuthbert and Bede. The Norman castle was the residence of the Durham prince-bishops.[63]
The English Lake District United KingdomNorth West England,
 United Kingdom
54°28′36″N 3°4′57″W
(ii), (v), (vi)
229,205.19 (566,378.4)2017The combined work of nature and human activity has produced a harmonious landscape in which the mountains are mirrored in the lakes. Grand houses, gardens and parks have been purposely created to enhance the beauty of this landscape. This landscape was greatly appreciated from the 18th century onwards by the Picturesque and later Romantic movements, which celebrated it in paintings, drawings and words. It also inspired an awareness of the importance of beautiful landscapes and triggered early efforts to preserve them.[64]
Episcopal City of Albi FranceTarn,
43°55′42″N 2°8′33″E
(iv), (v)
19 (47)2010The once powerful Albi, founded as an agricultural town, gradually shifted its theme from fortifications to a much more classical Renaissance look that survives as a testament to the two eras in human history.[65]
Erzgebirge/Krušnohoří Mining Region GermanySaxony, Germany and
Czech Republic
 Czech Republic
50°24′23″N 12°50′14″E
(ii), (iii), (iv)
6,766.057 (16,719.29)2019The mountains in south-west Germany and north-west Czechia have been a source of metals including silver, tin and uranium beginning in the 12th century. The cultural landscape of the region was shaped by mining and smelting innovations.[66]
Fagus Factory in Alfeld GermanyAlfeld,
51°59′1″N 9°48′40″E
(ii), (iv)
1.88 (4.6)2011Built by Walter Gropius in 1910, the factory designed to manufacture shoe last was renowned for redefining decorative values of the time period, particularly in the wide use of glass to render the building much more homogeneous, which foreshadowed his later work with the Bauhaus.[67]
Fertö / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape AustriaBurgenland and Győr-Moson-Sopron County,
47°43′9.4″N 16°43′21.8″E
52 (130)2001The Fertö/Neusiedler Lake area has been occupied by different peoples for eight millennia. A number of 18th- and 19th-century villages and castles were built on top of the ancient settlements and landscape.[68]
Flemish Béguinages BelgiumFlanders,
51°1′52″N 4°28′26″E
(ii), (iii), (iv)
60 (150)1998The communities, called "béguinages", were built by the Béguines, religious women who "dedicated their lives to God without retiring from the world". Entire Flemish towns were created in the 13th century based on this principle of life.[69]
Forth Bridge United KingdomScotland,
 United Kingdom
56°0′3″N 3°23′23″W
(i), (iv)
7.5 (19)2015The Forth Bridge is a cantilever railway bridge over the Firth of Forth, 9 miles (14 kilometres) west of Edinburgh City Centre. It is considered an iconic structure and a symbol of Scotland, and was designed by the English engineers Sir John Fowler and Sir Benjamin Baker.[70]
Fortifications of Vauban France France
50°16′57″N 2°45′32″E
(i), (ii), (iv)
1,153 (2,850)2008The UNESCO entry covers 12 groups of fortified buildings in France engineered by Sébastien Le Prestre, who worked under Louis XIV in the 17th century.[71]
The Four Lifts on the Canal du Centre and their Environs, La Louvière and Le Roeulx BelgiumLa Louvière,
50°28′52″N 4°8′14″E
(iii), (iv)
67 (170)1998The hydraulic lifts along the Canal du Centre were made to overcome the 89.46-metre (293.5 ft) height difference between Mons and Charleroi. They are the last functioning lifts built at the turn of the 20th century.[72]
Frontiers of the Roman Empire GermanyCentral Lowlands,
Northern England,
and Southern Germany
 United Kingdom*
54°59′33″N 2°36′4″W
(ii), (iii), (iv)
527 (1,300)1987Hadrian's Wall was built in 122 AD and the Antonine Wall was constructed in 142 AD to defend the Roman Empire from "barbarians".[73] The World Heritage Site was previously listed as Hadrian's Wall alone, but was later expanded to include all the frontiers of the Roman Empire at its zenith in the 2nd century, ranging from Antonine's Wall in the north to Trajan's Wall in eastern Europe.[74]
Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz GermanySaxony-Anhalt,
51°50′33″N 12°25′15″E
(ii), (iv)
14,500 (36,000)2000"The Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz is an outstanding example of the application of the philosophical principles of the Age of the Enlightenment to the design of a landscape that integrates art, education and economy in a harmonious whole."[75]
Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast United KingdomCounty Antrim, Northern Ireland,
 United Kingdom
55°15′0″N 6°29′7″W
(vii), (viii)
70 (170)1986The causeway is made up of 40,000 basalt columns projecting out of the sea. It was created by volcanic activity in the Tertiary period.[76]
La Grand-Place, Brussels BelgiumBrussels,
50°50′48.048″N 4°21′9″E
(ii), (iv)
1.48 (3.7)1998Featuring Brussels' city hall, houses and other historic buildings, La Grand Place is a well-preserved testament to the social and cultural life of the late 17th century.[77]
Gulf of Porto: Calanche of Piana, Gulf of Girolata, Scandola Reserve FranceCorsica,
42°19′31″N 8°37′43.8″E
(vii), (viii), (x)
11,800 (29,000)1983The Gulf of Porto is part of the Corsica Regional Park, hosting a variety of marine and avian life, as well as shrubland.[78]
Hallstatt-Dachstein / Salzkammergut Cultural Landscape AustriaSalzkammergut,
47°33′34″N 13°38′47″E
(iii), (iv)
28,446 (70,290)1997The region built itself around salt mining, which began as early as 2,000 BCE and continued in the modern era. The region is also known for its mountain ranges and caves, the longest of the latter reaching a length of 81 km (50 mi).[79]
Hanseatic City of Lübeck GermanySchleswig-Holstein,
53°52′0″N 10°41′30″E
81 (200)1987Lübeck was the trading capital of the influential Hanseatic League, which monopolised trade in much of the Northern Europe. Although a fifth of the city was entirely destroyed in World War II, much of the original 12th-century architecture remains.[80]
Heart of Neolithic Orkney United KingdomMainland, Scotland,
 United Kingdom
58°59′45.8″N 3°11′19″W
(i), (ii),
(iii), (iv)
15 (37)1999A collection of Neolithic sites with purposes ranging from occupation to ceremony. It includes the settlement of Skara Brae, the chambered tomb of Maes Howe and the stone circles of Stenness and Brodgar.[81]
Historic Centre of Avignon: Papal Palace, Episcopal Ensemble and Avignon Bridge FranceVaucluse,
43°57′10″N 4°48′22″E
(i), (ii), (iv)
8.2 (20)1995[82]
Historic Centre of Brugge BelgiumWest Flanders,
51°12′32.076″N 3°13′30.972″E
(ii), (iv), (vi)
410 (1,000)2000One of the economic and commercial capitals of Europe in the late-Medieval period, Bruges boasts its intact Gothic and neo-Gothic architecture, which respectively documents its style from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance.[83]
Historic Centre of Salzburg AustriaSalzburg,
47°48′2″N 13°2′36″E
(ii), (iv), (vi)
236 (580)1996Best associated with Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Salzburg is known for its ecclesiastic city-state qualities only second to Vatican City. It is also where German and Italian cultures intersected, which is reflected by its blend of Gothic- and Baroque-style buildings.[84]
Historic Centre of Vienna Austria Austria
48°13′0″N 16°22′59″E
(ii), (iv), (vi)
371 (920)2001"The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, as well as the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings, monuments and parks."[85]
Historic Centres of Stralsund and Wismar GermanyMecklenburg-Vorpommern,
54°18′9″N 13°5′7″E
(ii), (iv)
168 (420)2002The two towns were major Hanseatic League trading centres in the 14th and 15th centuries. They then served as defensive and administrative centres for Sweden two hundred years later, notably during the Thirty Years' War. The architectural styles from both of these periods remain and are well-preserved.[86]
Historic Fortified City of Carcassonne FranceAude,
43°12′38″N 2°21′32″E
(ii), (iv)
11 (27)1997[87]
Historic Site of Lyon FranceRhône,
45°46′2″N 4°50′0″E
(ii), (iv)
427 (1,060)1998[88]
Ir.D.F. Woudagemaal (D.F. Wouda Steam Pumping Station) NetherlandsLemmer,
52°50′45″N 5°40′44″E
(i), (ii), (iv)
7.32 (18.1)1998[89]
Ironbridge Gorge United KingdomShropshire, England,
 United Kingdom
52°37′35″N 2°28′22″W
(i), (ii),
(iv), (vi)
1986Ironbridge Gorge contains mines, factories, workers' housing, and the transport infrastructure that was created in the gorge during the Industrial Revolution. The development of coke production in the area helped start the Industrial Revolution. The Iron Bridge was the world's first bridge built from iron and was architecturally and technologically influential.[90]
Jodrell Bank Observatory United KingdomCheshire, England,
 United Kingdom
53°14.5′N 2°18.7′W
(i), (ii),
(iv), (vi)
17.38 (42.9)2019[91]
Jurisdiction of Saint-Émilion FranceGironde,
44°53′41″N 0°9′19″E
(iii), (iv)
7,847 (19,390)1999The act of cultivating grapes was introduced to the region by the Romans around 27 BCE and became a large and enduring part of its economy over the course of the following millennia, despite wars and the changes of rule. Occupying 67.5% of the total commune, the vineyards accompany historic monuments and buildings in documenting a monocultural community's history.[92]
Mill Network at Kinderdijk-Elshout NetherlandsAlblasserdam and Nieuw-Lekkerland,
51°52′57″N 4°38′58″E
(i), (ii), (iv)
1997The first canals and pumps to drain the land for farming were built here in the Middle Ages. They have continued to be used and expanded into the present day. The network includes a number of dykes, reservoirs, pumping stations, administrative buildings and a series of windmills.[93]
Lavaux, Vineyard Terraces SwitzerlandVaud,
46°29′31″N 6°44′46″E
(iii), (iv), (v)
1,408 (3,480)2007The Lavaux Vineyard Terraces stretch for about 30 km (19 mi) along the south-facing northern shores of Lake Geneva from Chillon Castle to the eastern outskirts of Lausanne in the Vaud region. The current terraces can be traced back to the 11th century, when Benedictine and Cistercian monasteries controlled the area.[94]
Le Havre, the City Rebuilt by Auguste Perret FranceSeine-Maritime,
49°29′34″N 0°6′27″E
(ii), (iv)
133 (330)2005After their city was heavily bombed in World War II, Le Havre officials commissioned Auguste Perret to lead a reconstruction project. Perret's final product was a city blending its original layout and spirit with modern construction methods, urban planning and an innovative exploitation of concrete.[95]
Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City United KingdomMerseyside, England,
 United Kingdom
53°24′24″N 2°59′40″W
(ii), (iii), (iv)
136 (340)2004In the 18th and 19th centuries, Liverpool was one of the largest ports in the world. Its global connections helped sustain the British Empire, and it was a major port involved in the slave trade until its abolition in 1807, and a departure point for emigrants to North America. The docks were the site of innovations in construction and dock management.[96]
The Loire Valley between Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes FranceLoire Valley,
47°23′56″N 0°42′10″E
(i), (ii), (iv)
85,394 (211,010)2000The Loire Valley contains historic towns and villages, castles and cultivated lands along the banks of the river Loire.[97]
Luther Memorials in Eisleben and Wittenberg GermanySaxony-Anhalt,
51°51′53″N 12°39′10″E
(iv), (vi)
Major Mining Sites of Wallonia BelgiumWallonia,
50°26′7″N 3°50′18″E
(ii), (iv)
118 (290)2012[99]
Major Town Houses of the Architect Victor Horta (Brussels) BelgiumBrussels,
50°49′41″N 4°21′44″E
(i), (ii), (iv)
Margravial Opera House Bayreuth GermanyBayreuth, Bavaria
49°56′40″N 11°34′43″E
(i), (iv)
0.19 (0.47)2012[101]
Maritime Greenwich United KingdomLondon, England,
 United Kingdom
51°28′45″N 0°0′0″E
(i), (ii),
(iv), (vi)
110 (270)1997As well as the presence of the first example of Palladian architecture in England, and works by Christopher Wren and Inigo Jones, the area is significant for the Royal Observatory where the understanding of astronomy and navigation were developed.[102]
Maulbronn Monastery Complex GermanyMaulbronn,
49°0′2.988″N 8°48′47.016″E
(ii), (iv)
1993The Cistercian Maulbronn Monastery is considered the most complete and best-preserved medieval monastic complex north of the Alps. The main buildings were constructed between the 12th and 16th centuries, along with the monastery walls. The monastery's church, mainly in Transitional Gothic style, helped spread the Gothic style across northern and central Europe. The monastery also had a large, elaborate water-management system.[103]
Messel Pit Fossil Site GermanyMessel,
49°55′0″N 8°45′14″E
42 (100)1995Messel Pit is the richest site in the world for understanding the environment of the Eocene, between 57 million and 36 million years ago. In particular, it shows the early stages of mammalian evolution and includes exceptionally well-preserved mammal fossils. Some of the most notable discoveries include fully articulated skeletons and the contents of the stomachs of animals.[104]
Mines of Rammelsberg, Historic Town of Goslar and Upper Harz Water Management System GermanyGoslar,
Upper Harz,
51°49′12″N 10°20′24″E
(i), (ii),
(iii), (iv)
1,010 (2,500)1992The Upper Harz water management system was developed over a period of some 800 years to assist in mining and extracting ore. The mines and their ponds began under the Cistercian monks in the Middle Ages. However, most of the works were built from the end of the 16th century until the 19th century. It is made up of an extremely complex system of artificial ponds, small channels, tunnels and underground drains. The mines were a major site for mining innovation in the western world.[105]
Monastic Island of Reichenau GermanyBaden-Württemberg,
47°41′55.4″N 9°3′40.7″E
(iii), (iv), (vi)
2000The site includes traces of the Benedictine monastery, founded in 724, which exercised remarkable spiritual, intellectual and artistic influence throughout the surrounding region. The churches of St Mary and Marcus, St Peter and St Paul, and St George, were mainly built between the 9th and 11th centuries. Their wall paintings and decorations show an impressive artistic activity.[106]
Mont-Saint-Michel and its Bay FranceManche,
48°38′8″N 1°30′38″W
(i), (iii), (vi)
6,558 (16,210)1979Perched on a rocky islet in the midst of vast sandbanks exposed to powerful tides between Normandy and Brittany stands a Gothic-style Benedictine abbey, and the village that grew up under its walls. Both the abbey and the village had to overcome a number of challenges due to the small, rocky island. Built between the 11th and 16th centuries, the abbey is an incredible technical and artistic project.[107]
Monte San Giorgio SwitzerlandTicino,
45°53′20″N 8°54′50″E
3,207 (7,920)2010The pyramid-shaped, wooded mountain of Monte San Giorgio beside Lake Lugano is regarded as the best fossil record of marine life from the Triassic Period (245–230 million years ago). The sequence records life in a tropical lagoon environment, sheltered and partially separated from the open sea by an offshore reef. Diverse marine life flourished within this lagoon, including reptiles, fish, bivalves, ammonites, echinoderms and crustaceans. Because the lagoon was near land, the remains also include land-based fossils of reptiles, insects and plants, resulting in an extremely rich source of fossils.[108]
Museumsinsel (Museum Island), Berlin GermanyBerlin,
52°31′11″N 13°23′55″E
(ii), (iv)
8.6 (21)1999The five museums on the Museumsinsel in Berlin, built between 1824 and 1930, are a unified but diverse collection of museum collections and buildings. Each museum was built to mesh with the collection and represents the aesthetic of the different times. The collections trace the development of civilizations throughout the ages.[109]
Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski PolandUpper Lusatia,
51°34′46″N 14°43′35″E
(i), (iv)
348 (860)2004A landscaped park astride the Neisse River and the border between Poland and Germany, it was created by Prince Hermann von Puckler-Muskau from 1815 to 1844. Designed as a ‘painting with plants’, it used local plants to enhance the existing landscape. The park spreads into the town of Muskau with parks and other green spaces. The site also features a reconstructed castle, bridges and an arboretum.[110]
Naumburg Cathedral GermanyNaumburg,
51°9′17″N 11°48′14″E
(i), (ii)
1.82 (4.5)2018[111]
Van Nellefabriek NetherlandsRotterdam,
51°55′24″N 4°25′6″E
(ii), (iv)
6.94 (17.1)2014The factory was built in the 1920s as an "ideal factory", embracing the modernist and functionalist style of architecture. It was built of steel and glass with a large glass curtain wall to allow light fill the space. .[112]
Neolithic Flint Mines at Spiennes (Mons) BelgiumSpiennes,
50°25′51″N 3°58′44″E
(i), (iii), (iv)
172 (430)2000The Neolithic flint mines at Spiennes are the largest and earliest concentration of ancient mines in Europe. They are also remarkable for the diversity of innovations used in mining and due to a nearby Neolithic settlement.[113]
New Lanark United KingdomLanark, Scotland,
 United Kingdom
55°39′48″N 3°46′59″W
(ii), (iv), (vi)
146 (360)2001Prompted by Richard Arkwright's factory system developed in the Derwent Valley, the community of New Lanark was created to provide housing for workers at the mills. Philanthropist Robert Owen bought the site and turned it into a model community, providing public facilities, education, and supporting factory reform.[114]
Nord-Pas de Calais Mining Basin FranceNord-Pas de Calais,
50°27′45″N 3°32′46″E
(ii), (iv), (vi)
3,943 (9,740)2012[115]
Notre-Dame Cathedral in Tournai BelgiumTournai,
50°36′22″N 3°23′21″E
(ii), (iv)
0.5 (1.2)2000The Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Tournai was built in the first half of the 12th century. The nave, transept and towers are all in the romanesque style. The choir was rebuilt in the following century in the gothic style. It is one of Wallonia's major heritage sites.[116]
Old City of Bern SwitzerlandBern,
46°56′53″N 7°27′1″E
84,684 (209,260)1983Founded in the 12th century on a hill site surrounded by the Aare River, Bern developed along the peninsula. Following a devastating fire, the entire town was rebuilt in a unified style. The early wooden buildings were replaced with sandstone, followed by arcades in the 15th century, arcades and fountains in the 16th century. The medieval town was rebuilt in the 18th century, but retained its earlier character.[117]
Old and New Towns of Edinburgh United KingdomEdinburgh, Scotland,
 United Kingdom
55°57′0″N 3°13′0″W
(ii), (iv)
1995The Old Town of Edinburgh was founded in the Middle Ages, and the New Town was developed in 1767–1890. It contrasts the layout of settlements in the medieval and modern periods. The layout and architecture of the new town, designed by luminaries such as William Chambers and William Playfair, influenced European urban design in the 18th and 19th centuries.[118]
Old town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof GermanyRegensburg,
49°1′14″N 12°5′57″E
(ii), (iii), (iv)
183 (450)2006This medieval town contains many notable buildings that span almost two millennia and include ancient Roman, Romanesque and Gothic buildings. Regensburg’s 11th- to 13th-century architecture created a town of narrow, dark lanes flanked by tall buildings and surrounded by a city wall. It includes medieval patrician houses and towers, a large number of churches and monasteries as well as the 12th-century Old Bridge. Regensburg was a center of the Holy Roman Empire that turned to Protestantism.[119]
Palace and Gardens of Schönbrunn AustriaVienna,
48°11′12″N 16°18′48″E
(i), (iv)
186 (460)1996The residence of the Habsburg emperors from the 18th century to 1918. It was built in the rococo style as a single, unified project. It was designed by the architects Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach and Nicolaus Pacassi and was the site of the world's first zoo.[120]
Palace and Park of Fontainebleau FranceFontainebleau,
48°24′7″N 2°41′53″E
(ii), (vi)
144 (360)1981Used by the kings of France from the 12th century, the medieval royal hunting lodge of Fontainebleau was transformed, enlarged and embellished in the 16th century by François I, who wanted to make a 'New Rome' of it. Surrounded by an immense park, the Italianate palace combines Renaissance and French artistic elements.[121]
Palace and Park of Versailles FranceVersailles,
48°48′18″N 2°7′10″E
(i), (ii), (vi)
1,070 (2,600)1979The Palace of Versailles was the principal residence of the French kings from the time of Louis XIV to Louis XVI. Embellished by several generations of architects, sculptors, decorators and landscape architects, it provided Europe with a model of the ideal royal residence for over a century.[122]
Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin GermanyBerlin, Potsdam,
52°23′59″N 13°1′59″E
(i), (ii), (iv)
2,064 (5,100)1990This site contains 500 ha (1,200 acres) of parks and 150 buildings constructed between 1730 and 1916. It extends into the district of Berlin-Zehlendorf, with the palaces and parks lining the banks of the River Havel and Lake Glienicke. Voltaire stayed at the Sans-Souci Palace, built under Frederick II between 1745 and 1747.[123]
Paris, Banks of the Seine FranceParis,
48°51′30″N 2°17′39″E
(i), (ii), (iv)
365 (900)1991The river Seine runs through the heart of Paris. The banks of the river are lined with many of Paris' most famous sites including the Louvre, the Eiffel Tower, the Place de la Concorde, the Cathedral of Notre-Dame, the Sainte Chapelle and the Grand and Petit Palais. The architecture and Haussmann's design with wide squares and boulevards influenced late 19th- and 20th-century town planning all over the world.[124]
Pilgrimage Church of Wies GermanySteingaden,
47°40′53″N 10°54′1″E
(i), (iii)
0.1 (0.25)1983The Church of Wies (1745–54) is the work of architect Dominikus Zimmermann and is a masterpiece of the Bavarian Rococo.[125]
Place Stanislas, Place de la Carrière and Place d'Alliance in Nancy FranceNancy,
48°41′37″N 6°10′59″E
(i), (iv)
7 (17)1983Nancy is the oldest example of a capital city built as a unified whole and on modern principles. It was built between 1752 and 1756 by a brilliant team led by the architect Héré and is famous for the harmonious suite of axial spaces he developed, extending from the Place Stanislas to the Palais du Gouvernement.[126]
Plantin-Moretus House-Workshops-Museum Complex BelgiumAntwerp,
51°13′6″N 4°23′52″E
(ii), (iii),
(iv), (vi)
0.23 (0.57)2005The Plantin-Moretus Museum is a printing plant and publishing house dating from the Renaissance and Baroque periods. It is associated with the history of the invention and spread of typography. Its name refers to the greatest printer-publisher of the second half of the 16th century: Christophe Plantin (c. 1520–89). The museum contains a collection made up of the work of the most prolific printing and publishing house in Europe in the late 16th century. The building of the company, which remained in activity until 1867, contains a large collection of old printing equipment, an extensive library, archives and works of art, among them a painting by Rubens.[127]
Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal United KingdomWrexham, Wales,
 United Kingdom
52°58′13″N 3°5′16″W
(i), (ii), (iv)
105 (260)2009The aqueduct was built to carry the Ellesmere Canal over the Dee Valley. Completed during the Industrial Revolution and designed by Thomas Telford, the aqueduct made innovative use of cast and wrought iron, influencing civil engineering across the world.[128]
Pont du Gard (Roman Aqueduct) FranceVers-Pont-du-Gard,
43°56′50″N 4°32′7″E
(i), (iii), (iv)
0.33 (0.82)1985The Pont du Gard was built shortly before the Christian era in Rome to allow the aqueduct of Nîmes (which is almost 50 km (31 mi) long) to cross the Gard river. The Roman architects and hydraulic engineers who designed this bridge created a technical as well as an artistic masterpiece. The bridge stands almost 50 m (160 ft) high and is on three levels with the longest measuring 275 m (902 ft).[129]
Prehistoric Pile Dwellings around the Alps Austria Austria*,
47°16′42″N 8°12′27″E
(iv), (v)
3,961 (9,790)2011Contains 111 small individual sites with the remains of prehistoric pile-dwelling (or stilt house) settlements in and around the Alps built from around 5000 to 500 BC on the edges of lakes, rivers or wetlands. While only some of the sites have been excavated, they contain a wealth of information on life and trade in agrarian Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures in Alpine Europe. Fifty-six of the sites are located in Switzerland.[130]
Prehistoric Sites and Decorated Caves of the Vézère Valley FranceLascaux,
45°3′27″N 1°10′12″E
(i), (iii)
1979The Vézère valley contains 147 prehistoric sites dating from the Palaeolithic and 25 decorated caves. The most interesting discoveries are the cave paintings, especially those of the Lascaux Cave, whose discovery in 1940 was of great importance for the history of prehistoric art. The hunting scenes show some 100 animal figures with remarkable color and detail.[131]
Provins, Town of Medieval Fairs FranceProvins,
48°33′35″N 3°17′56″E
(ii), (iv)
108 (270)2001The fortified medieval town of Provins is situated in the former territory of the powerful Counts of Champagne. It was a center of international trading fairs and the wool industry. Many parts of the town were built especially for the fairs and markets.[132]
Pyrénées Mont Perdu FranceHautes-Pyrénées and
Province of Huesca,
42°41′8″N 0°0′2″E
(iii), (iv), (v),
(vii), (viii)
30,639 (75,710)1997This mountain landscape, which crosses the French and Spanish borders is centred around the peak of Mount Perdu. Mount Perdu is a calcareous massif that rises to 3,352 m (10,997 ft). The site includes two of Europe's largest and deepest canyons on the Spanish side and three major cirque valleys on the French side. In addition to the mountains, the site includes the cultural lifestyle of the seasonal herding migration in the mountains. This was one a common a way of life in the mountain valleys in Europe, but now mostly survives only in isolated areas such as this region in the Pyrénées.[133]
Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes SwitzerlandGraubünden and Tirano,
46°29′54″N 9°50′47″E
(ii) (iv)
109,386 (270,300)2008The Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes, brings together two historic railway lines that cross the Swiss Alps through those two passes. The railways provided a rapid and easy route into many formerly isolated alpine settlements. Building the railroads required overcoming a number of technical challenges with bridges and tunnels.[134]
Rietveld Schröderhuis (Rietveld Schröder House) NetherlandsUtrecht,
52°5′7″N 5°8′50″E
(i), (ii)
2000The Rietveld Schröder House in Utrecht was built in 1924. A small family house with flexible interior rooms and a unique exterior. It is an example of the De Stijl group of artists and architects from the 1920s, and is an example of the Modern Movement in architecture.[135]
Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier GermanyTrier,
49°45′0″N 6°37′59″E
(iv), (vi)
1986The Roman colony at Trier was founded in the 1st century AD. It grew into a major town and became one of the capitals of the Tetrarchy at the end of the 3rd century. Many of the Roman era structures are still standing in Trier. The cathedral is the oldest church in Germany, being built on the ruins of Roman buildings by Maximin of Trier in 329-346.[136]
Roman Theatre and its Surroundings and the "Triumphal Arch" of Orange FranceOrange,
44°8′9″N 4°48′30″E
(iii), (vi)
9.45 (23.4)1981The ancient theatre of Orange, is one of the best preserved of all the great Roman theatres. The theatre features an intact 103 m (338 ft) facade. The Roman arch was built between A.D. 10 and 25 as a triumphal arch during the reign of Augustus.[137]
Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France France France
45°11′3″N 0°43′23″E
(ii), (iv), (vi)
1998The site consists of a number of churches and hospitals that are places related to the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in Western Spain, a part of the Way of Saint James.[138]
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew United KingdomLondon, England,
 United Kingdom
51°28′55″N 0°17′39″E
(ii), (iii), (iv)
132 (330)2003Created in 1759, the influential Kew Gardens were designed by Charles Bridgeman, William Kent, Capability Brown, and William Chambers. The gardens were used to study botany and ecology and furthered the understanding of the subjects.[139]
From the Great Saltworks of Salins-les-Bains to the Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans, the Production of Open-pan Salt FranceArc-et-Senans,
46°56′15″N 5°52′35″E
(i), (ii), (iv)
10.48 (25.9)1982This site consists of two open pan saltworks. The Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans was built in 1775 during the reign of Louis XVI. It was built according to the principles of the Enlightenment, with a rational organization and layout. The other site, the Great Saltworks of Salins-les-Bains was active for at least 1200 years until stopping activity in 1962. The Saltworks of Salins has an underground gallery from the 13th century along with a 19th-century hydraulic pump and a boiler house. From 1780 to 1895, its salt water traveled through 21 km (13 mi) of wood pipes to the Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans.[140]
Saltaire United KingdomCity of Bradford, England,
 United Kingdom
53°50′21″N 1°47′18″W
Cultural:United Kingdom
(ii), (iv)
20 (49)2001Saltaire was founded by mill-owner Titus Salt as a model village for his workers. The site, which includes the Salts Mill, featured public buildings for the inhabitants and was an example of 19th century paternalism.[141]
Schokland and Surroundings NetherlandsNoordoostpolder,
52°38′19″N 5°46′18″E
(iii), (v)
1,306 (3,230)1995Schokland was a peninsula on the Zuider Zee that became an island by the 15th century. When the waters rose, it was abandoned in 1859. However, after the draining of the Zuider Zee in the 1940s, it was once again repopulated.[142]
Semmering railway AustriaGloggnitz,
Simmering in Styria,
47°38′56″N 15°49′41″E
(ii), (iv)
156 (390)1998The Semmering Railway, was built between 1848 and 1854 and covers 41 km (25 mi) of rugged mountains. This project was undertaken in the early days of railroad construction and required a number of innovations. The tunnels, viaducts and other works are still in use today.[143]
Seventeenth-Century Canal Ring Area of Amsterdam inside the Singelgracht NetherlandsAmsterdam,
52°21′54″N 4°53′16″E
(i), (ii), (iv)
198 (490)2010By strategically draining the swamp land surrounding the port city via canal digging, Amsterdam quickly became a force in long-term city-planning, filling concentric voids with housing and infrastructure that would later accommodate the influx of free-thinking Europeans who help the city prosper.[144]
Sceilg Mhichíl IrelandCounty Kerry,
51°46′19″N 10°32′19″W
(iii), (iv)
22 (54)1996The monastery at Skellig Michael is from the 7th century. It is located on the rocky island of Skellig Michael, some 12 km (7.5 mi) off the coast of south-west Ireland. It shows the harsh and spartan lives of the first Irish Christians.[145]
Speicherstadt and Kontorhaus District with Chilehaus GermanyHamburg,
53°32′36″N 9°59′31″E
26 (64)2015The district's name means "warehouse district" in German. Located in the port of Hamburg, it is the largest warehouse district in the world where the buildings stand on timber-pile foundations, oak logs, in this particular case. It was built from 1883 to 1927, as a free zone to transfer goods without paying customs.[146]
Speyer Cathedral GermanySpeyer,
49°19′0″N 8°26′35″E
1981The romanesque Speyer Cathedral, was founded by Conrad II in 1030 and remodelled at the end of the 11th century. It was one of the grandest romanesque cathedrals in the Holy Roman Empire and the burial place of German emperors for almost 300 years.[147]
St Kilda United KingdomSt Kilda, Scotland,
 United Kingdom
57°49′2″N 8°34′36″W
(iii), (v), (vii),
(ix), (x)
24,201 (59,800)1986Although inhabited for over 2,000 years, the isolated archipelago of St Kilda has had no permanent residents since 1930. The islands' human heritage includes various unique architectural features from the historic and prehistoric periods. St Kilda is also a breeding ground for many important seabird species including the world's largest colony of gannets and up to 136,000 pairs of puffins.[148][149]
St Mary's Cathedral and St Michael's Church at Hildesheim GermanyHildesheim,
52°9′10″N 9°56′38″E
(i), (ii), (iii)
0.58 (1.4)1985The site consists of two churches in Hildesheim. The Ottonian romanesque St Michael's Church was built between 1010 and 1020. Inside it is decorated with a notable wooden ceiling, painted stucco-work, and the Bernward Column. The treasures of the Romanesque Hildesheim Cathedral contain the Bernward Doors, the Hezilo chandelier and the Azelin chandelier.[150]
Stoclet House BelgiumBrussels,
50°50′6″N 4°24′58″E
(i), (ii)
0.86 (2.1)2009This house was built by the architect Josef Hoffmann for the banker Adolphe Stoclet starting in 1905. The house and garden were completed in 1911 and the angular undecorated design marked a turning point in Art Nouveau movement. The house is an excellent example of the Vienna Secession movement in art and architecture. The house is decorated with works by Koloman Moser and Gustav Klimt.[151]
Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites United KingdomWiltshire, England,
 United Kingdom
51°10′44″N 1°49′31″W
(i), (ii), (iii)
4,985 (12,320)1986The Neolithic sites of Avebury and Stonehenge are two of the largest and most famous megalithic monuments in the world. They relate to man's interaction with his environment. The purpose of the henges has been a source of speculation, with suggestions ranging from ceremonial to interpreting the cosmos. "Associated sites" includes Silbury Hill, Beckhampton Avenue, and West Kennet Avenue.[152]
Strasbourg, Grande île and Neustadt FranceStrasbourg,
48°34′53″N 7°43′48″E
(i), (ii), (iv)
183 (450); buffer zone 708 (1,750)1988[nb 3]The Grande Ile (Big Island) is the historic center of the Alsatian capital and includes a number of historic buildings. Some of the most notable include the cathedral, the four ancient churches and the Palais Rohan (the former residence of the prince-bishops).[153]
Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey United KingdomNorth Yorkshire, England,
 United Kingdom
54°6′58″N 1°34′23″W
(i), (iv)
309 (760)1986Before the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the mid-16th century, Fountains Abbey was one of the largest and richest Cistercian abbeys in Britain and is one of only a few that survives from the 12th century. The later garden, which incorporates the abbey, survives to a large extent in its original design and influenced garden design in Europe.[154]
Swiss Alps Jungfrau-Aletsch SwitzerlandCantons of Bern and Valais,
46°30′0″N 8°1′59″E
(vii), (viii), (ix)
82,400 (204,000)2007The site includes several of the highest mountains in the Central Alps along with the largest glacier in Eurasia. The landscape provides information on the succession of plants after the retreat of a glacier and allows study of the retreat of glaciers resulting from climate change. The impressive landscape has also played an important role in European art, literature, mountaineering and tourism.[155]
Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona SwitzerlandGlarus,
St. Gallen
and Graubünden
46°55′0″N 9°15′0″E
32,850 (81,200)2008The Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona in the north-eastern part of the country covers a mountainous area which features seven peaks that rise above 3,000 m (9,800 ft). The area displays an exceptional example of mountain building through continental collision and displays a clear example of tectonic thrust, i.e. the process whereby older, deeper rocks are carried onto younger, shallower rocks. The site has been a key site for the geological sciences since the 18th century.[156]
Three Castles, Defensive Wall and Ramparts of the Market-Town of Bellinzona SwitzerlandBellinzona,
46°11′35″N 9°1′21″E
5 (12)2000The Bellinzona site consists of a group of fortifications grouped around the castle of Castelgrande, which stands on a rocky peak looking out over the entire Ticino valley. Running from the castle, a series of fortified walls protect the ancient town and block the passage through the valley. A second castle (Montebello) forms an integral part of the fortifications, while a third but separate castle (Sasso Corbaro) was built on an isolated rocky promontory south-east of the other fortifications.[157]
Tower of London United KingdomLondon, England,
 United Kingdom
51°30′29″N 0°4′34″W
(ii), (iv)
1988Begun by William the Conqueror in 1066 during the Norman conquest of England, the Tower of London is a symbol of power and an example of Norman military architecture that spread across England. Additions by Henry III and Edward I in the 13th century made the castle one of the most influential buildings of its kind in England.[158]
Town Hall and Roland on the Marketplace of Bremen GermanyBremen,
53°4′34″N 8°48′27″E
(iii), (iv), (vi)
0.29 (0.72)2004The site consists of the Town Hall and the statue of Roland that stands near the town hall. The town hall was built in the 15th century when Bremen joined the Hanseatic League. It was renovated in the 17th century and a new Town Hall was built nearby in the early 20th. Under the Holy Roman Empire, Bremen had extensive autonomy which allowed the town to grow and made the town hall a center of power. Both the old and new Town Halls survived bombings during World War II. The statue of Roland was built in 1404. It stands 5.5 m (18 ft) high.[159]
Town of Bamberg GermanyBamberg,
49°53′30″N 10°53′20″E
142 (350)1993In 1007, Bamberg became the center of a dioesce that was intended to help spread Christianity to the Slavs. During the 12th century the Bishops of Bamberg began a program of monumental public construction. The architecture that developed influenced construction in northern Germany and Hungary. In the 18th century it became a center of the Enlightenment when writers such as Hegel and Hoffmann settled in the town.[160]
Upper Middle Rhine Valley GermanyRhineland-Palatinate,
50°10′25″N 7°41′39″E
(ii), (iv), (v)
27,250 (67,300)2002A 65 km (40 mi) stretch of the Middle Rhine Valley in Germany. The region is home to many castles, historic towns and vineyards and has been an inspirition for many writers, artists and composers.[161]
Vézelay, Church and Hill FranceVézelay,
47°27′59″N 3°44′54″E
(i), (vi)
183 (450)1979The Benedictine abbey of Vézelay has existed since the 9th century and has been an important pilgrimage site since that time. Bernard of Clairvaux preached the crowd into a frenzy to start the Second Crusade in 1146 at Vézelay. Leaders in the Third Crusade Richard the Lion-Hearted and Philip II of France assembled at the abbey before they left on the Crusade.[162]
Völklingen Ironworks GermanyVölklingen,
49°14′40″N 6°50′59″E
(ii), (iv)
6 (15)1994The recently closed ironworks are the only intact example in western Europe and North America of an intact ironworks built in the 19th and 20th centuries.[163]
Wachau Cultural Landscape AustriaWachau,
48°21′52″N 15°26′3″E
(ii), (iv)
18,387 (45,440)2000The Wachau is a 40 km (25 mi) long valley along the Danube river between Melk and Krems. The valley was settled in prehistoric times and has been an important region since then. It is home to a number of historic towns, villages, monasteries, castles and ruins.[164]
Wadden Sea Germany Denmark*,
53°31′43″N 8°33′22″E
(viii), (ix), (x)
968,393 (2,392,950)2009, 2011, 2014The Wadden Sea contains the Dutch Wadden Sea Conservation Area and the German Wadden Sea National Parks of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein. The coast line is generally flat and has may mudflats, marshes and dunes. The site covers two-thirds of the entire Wadden Sea and is home to many plant and animal species. It is a breeding ground for up to 12 million birds annually and supports more than 10 percent of the population of 29 species. Was expanded in 2011 to include the German Wadden Sea National Park of Hamburg and in 2014 to include the Danish part of the Wadden Sea.[165]
Wartburg Castle GermanyEisenach,
50°58′0″N 10°18′25″E
(iii), (vi)
1999Wartburg Castle is located on a 410 m (1230 ft) precipice above Eisenach. It expanded in several sections and only a few of the medieval structures still remain. The castle was rebuilt in the 19th century to its present appearance. Martin Luther translated the New Testament into German while in exile at Wartburg.[166]
Water Management System of Augsburg GermanyAugsburg,
48°21′56″N 10°54′07″E
(ii), (iv)
112 (280)2019The water systems of Augsburg were built between the 14th century and today. A network of canals, water towers, pumping equipment and hydroelectric power stations have provided drinking water and power for the city for centuries.[167]
Westminster Palace, Westminster Abbey and Saint Margaret's Church United KingdomLondon, England,
 United Kingdom
51°29′59″N 0°7′43″W
(i), (ii), (iv)
10 (25)1987The site has been involved in the administration of England since the 11th century, and later the United Kingdom. Since the coronation of William the Conqueror, all English and British monarchs have been crowned at Westminster Abbey. Westminster Palace, home to the British Parliament, is an example of Gothic Revival architecture; St Margaret's Church is the palace's parish church, and although it pre-dates the palace and was built in the 11th century, it has been rebuilt since.[168][169][170]
Würzburg Residence with the Court Gardens and Residence Square GermanyWürzburg,
49°47′34″N 9°56′20″E
(i), (iv)
15 (37)1981The large and ornate Baroque palace was created under the patronage of the prince-bishops Lothar Franz and Friedrich Carl von Schönborn. It is one of the largest palaces in Germany.[171]
Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex in Essen GermanyEssen,
51°29′29″N 7°2′46″E
(ii), (iii)
2001The Zollverein industrial complex in Nordrhein-Westfalen contains all the equipment of a historic coal mine which started operation about 150 years ago. Some of the 20th-century buildings are also notable.[172]

See also


  1. Extended in 2011 to include the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany and name change from Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians. Extended again in 2017 to include additional sites in other countries and changed named again to present name.
  2. Extended in 2017 to include new sites in Dessau and Bernau and name changed from Bauhaus and its sites in Weimar and Dessau to the present name.
  3. Extended in 2017 to include the new town and name change from Strasbourg - Grande île to the present name.


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  47. "City of Bath". UNESCO. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  48. "City of Graz – Historic Centre and Schloss Eggenberg". UNESCO. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  49. "City of Luxembourg: its Old Quarters and Fortifications". UNESCO. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  50. "Classical Weimar". UNESCO. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  51. "The Climats, terroirs of Burgundy". UNESCO. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
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  58. "Defence Line of Amsterdam". UNESCO. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
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  61. "Dorset and East Devon Coast". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  62. "Droogmakerij de Beemster (Beemster Polder)". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  63. "Durham Castle and Cathedral". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
  64. "The English Lake District". UNESCO. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  65. "Episcopal City of Albi". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
  66. "Erzgebirge/Krušnohoří Mining Region". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  67. "Fagus Factory in Alfeld". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
  68. "Fertö / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  69. "Flemish Béguinages". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
  70. "Forth Bridge". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  71. "Fortifications of Vauban". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
  72. "The Four Lifts on the Canal du Centre and their Environs, La Louvière and Le Roeulx (Hainault)". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
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  74. "Frontiers of the Roman Empire". UNESCO. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  75. "Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
  76. "Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
  77. "La Grand-Place, Brussels". UNESCO. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  78. "Gulf of Porto: Calanche of Piana, Gulf of Girolata, Scandola Reserve". UNESCO. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  79. "Hallstatt-Dachstein / Salzkammergut Cultural Landscape". UNESCO. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  80. "Hanseatic City of Lübeck". UNESCO. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  81. "Heart of Neolithic Orkney". UNESCO. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  82. "Historic Centre of Avignon: Papal Palace, Episcopal Ensemble and Avignon Bridge". UNESCO. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  83. "Historic Centre of Brugge". UNESCO. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  84. "Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg". UNESCO. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  85. "Historic Centre of Vienna". UNESCO. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  86. "Historic Centres of Stralsund and Wismar". UNESCO. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  87. "Historic Fortified City of Carcassonne". UNESCO. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  88. "Historic Site of Lyon". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
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  94. "Lavaux, Vineyard Terraces". UNESCO. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  95. "Le Havre, the City Rebuilt by Auguste Perret". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  96. "Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  97. "The Loire Valley between Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes". UNESCO. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  98. "Luther Memorials in Eisleben and Wittenberg". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  99. "Major Mining Sites of Wallonia". UNESCO. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  100. "Major Town Houses of the Architect Victor Horta (Brussels)". UNESCO. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
  101. "Margravial Opera House Bayreuth". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  102. "Maritime Greenwich". UNESCO. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
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  108. "Monte San Giorgio". UNESCO. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
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  116. "Notre-Dame Cathedral in Tournai". UNESCO. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
  117. "Old City of Bern". UNESCO. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  118. "Old and New Towns of Edinburgh". UNESCO. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  119. "Old town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof". UNESCO. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
  120. "Palace and Gardens of Schönbrunn". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
  121. "Palace and Park of Fontainebleau". UNESCO. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  122. "Palace and Park of Versailles". UNESCO. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
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  156. "Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona". UNESCO. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
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  158. "Tower of London". UNESCO. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
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