List of V-2 test launches

The list of V-2 test launches identifies World War II launches of the A4 rocket (renamed V-2 in 1944). Test launches were made at Peenemünde Test Stand VII, Blizna and Tuchola Forest using experimental and production rockets fabricated at Peenemünde and at the Mittelwerk. Post-war launches were conducted at Cuxhaven, White Sands Proving Grounds, Cape Canaveral, Kapustin Yar, and on the USS Midway during Operation Sandy.

List of test launches at Peenemünde and the Greifswalder Oie

Launch Sites:

  • P-VI = Test Stand VI (Prüfstand VI)
  • P-VII = Test Stand VII (Prüfstand VII)
  • P-X = Test Stand X (Prüfstand X)
  • P-XII = Test Stand XII (Prüfstand XII)
  • Oie = Greifswalder Oie, a small island used for vertical launches
  • Karlshagen = area of destroyed settlement Karlshagen after air raid on 17 August 1943
  • Rail = Launches from a train
Rocket number Date Burning time (s) Range (km) Pad Remarks
1942
V-1 18 March,[1]:160 1942 - 0 Tower The first A-4 flight-test model was completed 25 February 1942,[2] but slipped out of its "corset" after being fully tanked at Test Stand VII, fell 2 meters, smashed three fins, and came to rest on the rim of the engine nozzle.[1]:158 After being repaired and renamed Versuchsmuster 1 (V1: Experimental Type 1),[3]:9,41[4] the rocket failed during a test firing (witnessed by Albert Speer) and was junked without any launch attempt.[1]
V-2 13 June 1942 36 1.3 P-VII After being photographed by a British Supermarine Spitfire on 15 May, the second flight test model was damaged during its fourth firing test on 20 May, and then at the launch (observed by Speer, Erhard Milch, Fromm, Leeb, Witzell); a roll-rate gyro malfunctioned immediately after launch.[1]:161–2 After the rolling missile became supersonic, the propellant feed system failed, telemetry ended at 54 sec (15000 ft), and the missile fell cart-wheeling into the Baltic less than a kilometer[5] away and exploded.[6][7]
V-3 16 August 1942 45 8.7 P-VII Nose broke off
V-4 3 October 1942 58 190 P-VII Too steep due to pitch program error, otherwise success. Altitude 85 – 90 km - approximately the Kármán line altitude (85 ~ 100km), where aerodynamic lift vanishes. It was described at the time as the first rocket to reach the edge of space,[8][9] though not according to the modern FAI definition of 100km altitude. However, both the physical Kármán line and jurisdictional FAI definitions were made much later.
V-5 21 October 1942 84 147 P-VII Steam generator misbehaved
V-6 9 November 1942 54 14 P-VII Vertical, height 67 km
V-7 28 November 1942 37 8.6 P-VII Tumbled, lost vanes
V-9 9 December 1942 4 0.1 P-VII Hydrogen peroxide explosion
1943
V-10 7 January 1943 - 0 P-VII Explosion on ignition
V-11 25 January 1943 64.5 105 P-VII Too steep, rolled
V-12 17 February 1943 61 196 P-VII Too shallow
V-13 19 February 1943 18 4.8 P-VII Fire in tail
V-16 3 March 1943 33 1.0 P-VII Vertical, explosion
V-18 18 March 1943 60 133 P-VII Too steep, rotated
V-19 25 March 1943 28 1.2 P-VII Tumbled, exploded
V-17 3 April 1943 64.5 ? P-VII
V-20 14 April 1943 66 287 P-VII Fell on land
V-21 22 April 1943 59 252 P-VII Fell on land
V-22 14 May 1943 62 250 P-VII Cut-off switch failed
V-26 26 May 1943 66.5 265 P-VII The Kommission für Fernschießen (English: Commission for Long-Range Firing/Weapons/Bombardment), including Albert Speer, Karl Dönitz, and Erhard Milch[3]:45[10]—viewed two successful Peenemünde A-4 launches (V26 around noon, V25 late afternoon),[1]:190 followed by two launches of the V-1 flying bomb[11][12] (both V-1s plunged into the sea.)[5]
V-25 40 27 P-VII Brennschluss (engine cut-off) at 40 s
V-24 27 May 1943 55 138 P-VII -
V-23 1 June 1943 62 235 P-VII Premature engine cutoff
V-29 11 June 1943 63.5 238 P-VII -
V-31 16 June 1943 60.5 221 P-VII Premature engine cutoff
V-28 22 June 1943 62.5 75 P-VII exploded after 75 s
V-30 24 June 1943 65.1 287 P-X Cut-off switch failed, first launch on Prüfstand X
V-36 26 June 1943 64.9 235 P-VII -
V-38 29 June 1943 15 3 P-VII Fell on airport
V-40 63.6 236 P-VII Impact not observed
V-33 1 July 1943 - 0 P-VII Engine cutoff at take-off, exploded
V-41 9 July 1943 4 0.1 P-VII Fell on pump building
V-34 - 0 P-VII Engine cutoff at take-off, exploded
V-54 12 August 1943 64 ? P-VII Successful launch
V-496 October 194368?P-VIISuccessful launch, duration 272 s; first launch after raid on 17 August 1943
V-7115 October 1943??
V-6721 October 1943??
V-6925 October 194363?P-VIISuccessful launch, duration 286 s
V-439 November 1943??
V-734 December 194363?P-VIISuccessful launch, duration 286 s
V-6010 December 194369?P-VIISuccessful launch, duration 247 s
V-5921 December 194333?P-VIIOnly partial success, premature engine cutoff, duration of flight 104 s
V-9130 December 1943??
January 1944
V-327 January 194443?P-VIIExploded 43 s after launch
V-8211 January 1944??
V-7720 January 1944??
V-7525 January 1944??
MW 1700327 January 1944??P-VIIFirst test of Mittelwerk-built rocket detonated three seconds after ignition without liftoff: "We just blew a million marks in order to guess what could have been reported accurately by an instrument probably worth the price of a small motorcycle." (Hartmut Kütchen, Engineer in Charge of Test Stand VII)[5]
February 1944
V-1064 February 1944??
MW 170099 February 1944??
MW 1700710 February 1944??
MW 1701011 February 1944??
MW 1700113 February 1944??
V-9815 February 1944??
MW 1700416 February 1944??P-VII
V-8517 February 1944??
MW 1702118 February 1944??
MW 1700621 February 1944??
MW 1701123 February 1944??
MW 17015??P-VII
V-11228 February 1944??
March 1944
V-842 March 1944??P-VIIExploded
MW 170164 March 1944??
V-1517 March 1944??
V-126??
MW 170209 March 1944??P-VII
V-11610 March 1944??
V-128??
V-8811 March 194459?P-VIIFlight duration 282 s
MW 1702215 March 1944??
MW 1701816 March 1944??
MW 1703318 March 1944??
V-14521 March 1944??
V-12123 March 1944??
MW 1703124 March 1944??
MW 1701927 March 1944??
V-13229 March 1944??
April 1944
MW 170983 April 1944??P-VII
V-865 April 1944??P-VIIexploded after 17s
MW 170437 April 1944??P-VII
MW 1706314 April 1944??P-VII
MW 1710820 April 1944??P-X
May 1944
MW 1720010 May 1944??P-X
V-15212 May 1944??
MW 1732014 May 1944??
V-13616 May 194465?P-VII
MW 1732317 May 1944??
V-14422 May 1944??P-VII
MW 1731223 May 1944??
V-89 MW 1730924 May 1944??P-XLaunch Sequence #89:[13] Beginning with launching 89, temperature measurements at the tip of the rocket were used for diagnosing the airburst problem.[14]
V-17027 May 1944??P-VII
V-14631 May 194458?P-VII
June 1944
MW 175581 June 1944??P-VII
V-1402 June 194460?P-VII
MW 176563 June 1944??P-VII
MW 177466 June 1944??P-VII
MW 175577 June 1944??P-X
V-1718 June 194469?P-VII
MW 17747??P-X
V-1599 June 194411?P-VII
V-15810 June 194468?P-VII
V-20911 June 194461?P-VII
MW 17725??Oie
V-8913 June 1944?350The "Bäckebo Bomb" (Crashed in Sweden)
V-17214 June 1944??P-VII
MW 17727??Oie
MW 1784015 June 1944??P-VII
MW 1783917 June 1944??P-VII
MW 1801218 June 1944??Oie
V-17720 June 1944??
MW 18014??OieApogee 174 km, first man-made object to reach space by the modern definition (100 km altitude).[15]
MW 17940??P-X
MW 1801721 June 1944??Oie
MW 17939??P-VII
V-15722 June 1944??
MW 1800723 June 1944??P-VII
MW 1765724 June 1944??P-VII
MW 18016??Oie
MW 18013??Oie
MW 1800826 June 1944??P-VII
MW 18015??Oie
V-20827 June 194459?P-VII
V-16728 June 1944??
V-17329 June 1944??
V-21130 June 1944??P-X
July 1944
MW 180111 July 1944??P-X
MW 180103 July 1944??P-X
V-2124 July 1944??P-X
MW 181435 July 1944??Oie
MW 181446 July 1944??Oie
V-2147 July 1944??P-X
MW 180208 July 1944??Oie
V-21010 July 194460?P-VII
V-16014 July 1944??P-X
MW 1801921 July 1944??Oie
V-17829 July 1944??Oie
V-20531 July 194467237P-X
August 1944
MW 182071 August 1944??Oie
MW 18203??Oie
MW 182042 August 1944??Oie
V-2023 August 1944??P-X
V-1794 August 1944??Oie
MW 1820012 August 1944??Oie
V-18113 August 1944500,5P-XIIexploded
V-182100.07P-XIIexploded
MW 1826715 August 1944??Oie
MW 18266??Oie
MW 1826316 August 194461227P-VII
V-22717 August 1944??
MW 1823966284P-X
MW 1823820 August 194466239P-X
MW 1824364235P-VII
V-21622 August 194457196P-VII
MW 1823367224P-X
V-22623 August 1944??
MW 1822224 August 194464189P-X
MW 1824026 August 194461226P-X
MW 1829930 August 1944??P-VI
September 1944
V-2251 September 1944??P-X
MW 182932 September 1944??P-VI
V-2064 September 1944??P-X
V-2305 September 1944??P-X
V-2228 September 1944??P-X
V-23113 September 1944??Oie
V-22314 September 1944??P-X
MW 1825715 September 1944??Oie
MW 1833017 September 1944??Oie
V-23419 September 1944??P-X
V-240??Oie
V-21720 September 1944??P-X
V-239??Oie
V-21821 September 1944??P-X
V-232??Oie
V-21922 September 1944??P-X
MW 18179??Oie
V-24126 September 1944??P-X
V-23828 September 1944??P-X
V-24230 September 1944??P-VII
October 1944
MW 187861 October 1944??Karlshagen
V-2353 October 1944??P-VII
MW 18889??Karlshagen
V-2454 October 1944??P-X
V-2367 October 1944??P-VII
MW 18787??Karlshagen
V-2489 October 1944??P-VII
V-24911 October 1944??P-VII
MW 1878112 October 1944??Karlshagen
V-237??P-VII
MW 1878213 October 1944??Karlshagen
V-25014 October 1944??P-VII
MW 18338??Karlshagen
V-25117 October 1944??P-VII
V-25218 October 1944??P-VII
V-24619 October 1944??P-VII
V-25623 October 1944??P-VII
V-24724 October 1944??P-X
V-258??P-VII
V-25725 October 1944??P-VII
V-25930 October 1944??P-VIIHermann Göring attended the launch: "That's terrific! We must have that at the first Party Rally after the war!"[16]:256
V-260??P-VIHermann Göring at the launch: "Why is it that this fellow [ Walter Dornberger ] manages all right and you [ developer Dr. Kramer of Ruhr Steel ] don't? Let him show you how it ought to be done."[16]:257
November 1944
V-2531 November 1944??P-VII
V-2203 November 1944??P-VII
V-2626 November 1944??P-VII
MW 193047 November 1944??P-X
V-2638 November 1944??P-VII
V-2619 November 1944??P-VII
V-264??P-X
V-26613 November 1944??P-VII
V-26515 November 1944??P-VII
V-26717 November 1944??P-VII
V-22120 November 1944??
V-26822 November 1944??P-VII
MW 1986223 November 1944??Karlshagen
MW 19866??Karlshagen
V-27124 November 1944??
MW 1986425 November 1944??Rail
MW 1986126 November 1944??Rail
V-27227 November 1944??
V-27628 November 1944??P-X
MW 19868??Karlshagen
MW 1987329 November 1944??Rail
MW 1930530 November 1944??
December 1944
V-4231 December 1944??
V-269??
MW 19302??Rail
V-2432 December 1944??P-VII
MW 19020??
V-2774 December 1944??
MW 19301??Rail
V-2546 December 1944??
MW 198747 December 1944??Karlshagen
V-2788 December 1944??
MW 190209 December 1944??P-VI
V-28212 December 1944??P-VII
MW 18783??Karlshagen
V-28314 December 1944??P-VII
V-28816 December 1944??P-VII
V-28919 December 1944??P-VII
V-29122 December 1944??P-VII
V-29028 December 1944??P-VII
V-28630 December 1944??
January 1945
V-2873 January 1945??
MW 208354 January 1945?262Karlshagen
MW 208266 January 1945?323Karlshagen
V-2948 January 1945??P-VII
V-2929 January 1945??P-VII
MW 2082111 January 1945?285Karlshagen
MW 2084013 January 1945?314Karlshagen
MW 2083115 January 1945?325Karlshagen
MW 20348??P-X
V-27516 January 1945??P-X
V-293??
MW 20850??Karlshagen
MW 20348??
MW 2083217 January 1945??Karlshagen
V-30119 January 1945??P-X
V-29522 January 1945??P-VII
V-302??P-X
MW 2046525 January 1945??P-VII
MW 20829??Karlshagen
MW 2082727 January 1945??Karlshagen
MW 2033830 January 1945??P-VII
V-30331 January 1945??P-VII
February 1945
V-2843 February 1945??P-X
V-2744 February 1945??P-VII
V-2855 February 1945??P-X
V-3096 February 1945??P-VII
MW 2140247?Karlshagen
V-2967 February 1945??P-VII
MW 21401??Karlshagen
V-3108 February 1945??P-X
V-2979 February 1945??P-VII
V-298??P-X
V-27010 February 1945??P-X
V-313??P-VII
MW 21404?380Karlshagen
V-27312 February 1945??P-VII
MW 21405??Karlshagen
V-29913 February 1945??P-X
V-314??P-VII
MW 21406?358Karlshagen
MW 21403??Karlshagen
V-25514 February 1945??P-VII
MW 2140716 February 1945?380Karlshagen
MW 2139918 February 194536?Karlshagen
MW 2140819 February 1945?430Karlshagen
MW 2140020 February 1945?350Karlshagen

Launches of A4b

Rocket number Date Launch site Range Remarks
G-127 December 1944Pad 100Guidance failure 50 metres above ground
G-213 January 1945Failure. Launch attempt controversial
G-324 January 1945OieSuccessful launch, but wing broke at flight

Blizna test launch list

Launch number Rocket number Date Range (km) Remarks
1943
1 5 November 1943
2 5 December 1943
3 V-96 22 December 1943
January 1944
4 5 January 1944
5 6 January 1944 success
6 7 January 1944 tail explosion
7 success
8 8 January 1944 failure
9 17 January 1944
10 V-107 18 January 1944 failure
11 V-105 29 January 1944 failure
February 1944
12 16 February 1944
13 17 February 1944
14 19 February 1944
15 MW 17 071 23 February 1944 early cut-off
16 MW 17 036 24 February 1944 success
17 26 February 1944
March 1944
18 2 March 1944
19 4 March 1944
20 5 March 1944
21 6 March 1944
22 MW 17047 17 March 1944
23 18 March 1944
24 20 March 1944
25 21 March 1944
26 25 March 1944
27 31 March 1944
April 1944
28 1 April 1944
29 2 April 1944
30 4 April 1944
31 6 April 1944
32 16 April 1944
33 MW 17354 20 April 1944 Attempt cancelled and made on 22 April 1944 as launch number 38
34 MW 17355 257 Airburst
35 MW 17342 21 April 1944 85 Failure
36 MW 17356 157 Airburst
37 MW 17360 216 Airburst
38 MW 17354 22 April 1944 261 Airburst
39 MW 17382 257 Airburst
40 MW 17344 23 April 1944 Failed at launch
41 MW 17341 28 April 1944 256 Airburst
42 MW 17349 255 Airburst
43 MW 17351 29 April 1944 254 Airburst
44 MW 17378 257 Impact
45 MW 17350 30 April 1944 255 Impact
46 MW 17361 150 Airburst
May 1944
47 MW 17359 1 May 1944 338 Airburst
48 MW 17381 253 Airburst
49 MW 17388 29 Failure
50 MW 17352 3 May 1944 5.2 Failure
51 MW 17353 0.1 Failed after lift-off
52 MW 17357 nil Failure
53 MW 17365 Failure
54 MW 17369 257 Airburst
55 MW 17358 4 May 1944 250 Airburst
56 MW 17367 Failure
57 MW 17368 Failure
58 MW 17362 5 May 1944 Failure; also failed on attempt on 9 May 1944
59 MW 17366 259 Airburst
60 MW 17385 258 Airburst
61 MW 17364 6 May 1944 258 Airburst
62 MW 17386 258 Airburst
63 MW 17392 1.7 Failure
64 MW 17383 7 May 1944 293 Airburst
65 MW 17387 294.0 Guidance failure
66 MW 17348 8 May 1944 nil Failed at launch
67 MW 17333 9 May 1944 Failed
68 MW 17389 Failure
69 MW 17332 10 May 1944 259 Impact
70 MW 17384 4.8 Failure
71 MW 17327 11 May 1944 262 Impact
72 MW 17331 260 Impact
73 MW 17398 12 May 1944 300 Airburst
74 MW 17 399 success
75 MW 17330 13 May 1944 258 Airburst
76 MW 17390 14 May 1944 161 Impact
77 MW 17334 15 May 1944 261 Airburst
78 MW 17393 258 Airburst
79 MW 17401 17 May 1944 259 Airburst
80 MW 17683 18 May 1944 4.3 Failure
81 MW 17687 32.0 Guidance failure
82 MW 17686 20 May 1944 Failure
83 MW 17748 21 May 1944 254 Impact
84 MW 17749 Failure
85 MW 17753 Failure
86 MW 17757 259 Airburst
87 MW 17760 Failure
88 MW 17764 330 Airburst
89 MW 17750 22 May 1944 255 Airburst
90 MW 17762 130 Airburst
91 MW 17766 Failure
92 MW 17767 109 Airburst
93 MW 17751 23 May 1944 2 Failure
94 MW 17752 253 Airburst
95 MW 17754 258 Airburst
96 MW 17755 Failed
97 MW 17758 255 Airburst; Re-launch from 21 May 1944
98 MW 17759 251 Airburst
99 MW 17761 263 Airburst
100 MW 17765 256 Airburst
101 MW 17768 337 Airburst
102 MW 17403 24 May 1944 264 Airburst
103 MW 17769 252 Impact; (Failed attempt on 22 May)
104 MW 17682 26 May 1944 259 Airburst
105 MW 17397 27 May 1944 178 Airburst
106 MW 17400 262 Airburst
107 MW 17405 Failure
108 MW 17688 86 Airburst
109 MW 17773 162 Airburst
110 MW 17774 28 May 1944 244 Airburst
111 MW 17329 29 May 1944 129 Airburst
112 MW 17402 Failure
113 MW 17670 257 Impact
114 MW 17770 207 Airburst
115 MW 17775 251 Airburst
116 MW 17782 240 Impact
117 MW 17783 240 Airburst
118 MW 17771 30 May 1944 254 Impact
119 MW 17784 226 Airburst
June 1944
120 MW 17776 1 June 1944 202 Impact
121 MW 17779 153 Impact
122 MW 17780 178.0 Guidance failure
123 MW 17781 45.5 Guidance failure
124 MW 17777 5 June 1944 58 Failure
125 MW 17772 6 June 1944 199 Airburst
126 MW 17802 213 Impact
127 MW 17 809 14 June 1944 success
128 MW 17 796 failure
129 MW 17 995 15 June 1944 success
130 MW 18022 16 June 1944 270 Airburst
131 MW 18024 270 Airburst
132 MW 18025 333 Airburst
133 MW 18027 203 Airburst
134 MW 18028 267 Airburst
135 MW 18026 17 June 1944 270 Airburst
136 MW 18029 231 Airburst
137 MW 18030 115 Airburst
138 MW 18031 270 Airburst
139 MW 18032 268 Airburst
140 MW 18035 133 Impact
141 MW 18037 13 Failure
142 MW 18038 132 Airburst
143 MW 18042 262 Airburst
144 MW 18033 18 June 1944 258 Impact
145 MW 18039 296 Airburst
146 MW 18047 276 Impact
147 MW 18048 269 Airburst
148 MW 18050 269 Airburst
149 MW 18051 Failed
150 MW 18056 270 Airburst
151 MW 18058 334 Airburst
152 MW 18059 Failed
153 MW 18060 224 Airburst
154 MW 18061 262 Airburst
155 MW 18 041
156 MW 18040 19 June 1944 136 Airburst
157 MW 18043 Failed
158 MW 18044 303 Airburst
159 MW 18046 20 June 1944 5 Failed
160 MW 18049 Failed
161 MW 18062 Failed on lift-off
162 MW 18064 226 Airburst
163 MW 18065 206 Airburst
164 MW 18066 204 Airburst
165 MW 18067 308 Airburst
166 MW 18068 253 Airburst
167 MW 18069 272 Airburst
168 MW 18070 283 Airburst
169 MW 18073 270 Airburst
170 MW 18079 214 Airburst
171 MW 18080 287 Airburst
172 MW 18052 21 June 1944 300 Airburst
173 MW 18057 Failed
174 MW 18093 Failed
175 MW 18053 22 June 1944 209 Airburst
176 MW 18054 219 Airburst
177 MW 18091 Failed
178 MW 18092 278 Airburst
179 MW 18094 242 Airburst
180 MW 18103 217 Airburst
181 MW 18072 24 June 1944 Failed
182 MW 18087 155 Impact
183 MW 18097 211 Impact
184 MW 18098 119 Impact
185 MW 18085 25 June 1944 243 Airburst
186 MW 18086 249 Airburst
187 MW 18096 26 June 1944 289 Airburst
188 MW 18099 285 Airburst
189 MW 18113 261 Impact
190 MW 18114 266 Impact
191 MW 18116 282 Impact
192 MW 18115 27 June 1944 Failed
193 269 Airburst
194 MW 18123 Exploded on pad
195 MW 18124 Impact
196 MW 18125 161 Airburst
197 MW 18126 251 Impact
198 MW 18112 28 June 1944 295 Impact
199 MW 18117 266 Impact
200 MW 18118 32.5 Failed
201 MW 18121 274 Airburst
202 MW 18122 221 Airburst
203 MW 18 089 30 June 1944 success
204 MW 18 108 success

Tuchola forest test launch list

Launch number Ongoing number Rocket destination Date Range (km) Remarks
September 1944
1 127 MW 18757 10 September 1944 Abandoned
2 128 MW 18769 12 September 1944 221
3 129 MW 18767 13 September 1944 Failed on pad
4 130 MW 18761 178
5 131 MW 18765 220
6 132 MW 18745 14 September 1944 218
7 133 MW 18758 210
8 134 MW 18751 Failed on pad. Returned to HAP
9 135 MW 18756 15 September 1944 4 Guidance failed after lift-off
10 136 MW 18763 12 Propulsion system explosion
11 137 MW 18746 16 September 1944 217
12 138 MW 18750 193 Airburst
13 139 MW 18752 17 September 1944 168 Airburst
14 140 MW 18754 164 Airburst
15 141 MW 18755 18 September 1944 165 Impact
16 142 MW 18747 171 Impact
17 143 MW 18766 166 Airburst
18 144 MW 18762 141 Impact
19 145 MW 18753 19 September 1944 199 Airburst
20 146 MW 18764 162 Airburst
21 147 MW 18822 21 September 1944 160 Impact
22 148 MW 18824 173 Impact
23 149 MW 18825 22 September 1944 143 Impact
24 150 MW 18826 177 Impact
25 151 MW 18823 23 September 1944 42 Early impact
26 152 MW 18821 151 Impact
27 153 MW 18831 242 Impact
28 154 MW 18827 24 September 1944 141 Impact
29 155 MW 18820 Abort. Returned to HAP.
30 157 MW 18806 25 September 1944 168 Airburst
31 158 MW 18807 143 Airburst
32 159 MW 18808 164 Airburst
33 160 MW 18815 164 Impact
34 161 MW 18803 162 Airburst
35 162 MW 18801 26 September 1944 171 Airburst
36 163 MW 18804 165 Impact
37 164 MW 18805 166 Airburst
38 165 MW 18802 162 Airburst
39 166 MW 18803 Abandoned; damaged fin. Launch tried on 5 October 1944
40 167 MW 18770 92 Airburst
41 156 MW 18837 27 September 1944 138 Airburst
42 168 MW 18771 160 Airburst
43 169 MW 18774 30 September 1944 170 Airburst
44 170 MW 18788 167 Impact
45 171 MW 18794 179 Impact
October 1944
46 172 MW 18777 1 October 1944 166
47 173 MW 18772 170
48 174 MW 18773 173
49 175 MW 18778 2 October 1944 132
50 176 MW 18776 170
51 177 MW 18796 247 Airburst
52 178 MW 18795 236 Airburst
53 179 MW 18799 5 October 1944 229 Airburst
54 180 MW 18798 230 Airburst
55 181 MW 18792 225 Impact
56 182 MW 18797 252 Airburst
57 183 MW 18803 228 Impact
58 184 MW 18791 233 Impact
59 185 MW 18790 183 Airburst
60 187 MW 19041 6 October 1944 222
61 188 MW 19048 225
62 189 MW 19045 9 October 1944 213
63 190 MW 19047 210
64 191 MW 19039 205 Impact
65 192 MW 19043 7 Failed after launch
66 193 MW 19042 219
67 194 MW 19046 10 October 1944 220
68 195 MW 19040 224 Airburst
69 196 MW 19044 209
70 197 MW 18810 239 Airburst
71 198 MW 18813 209 Impact
72 199 MW 18809 200
73 200 MW 18811 11 October 1944 272 Impact
74 201 MW 18816 217 Airburst
75 202 MW 18814 216 Impact
76 203 MW 18818 220 Airburst
77 204 MW 18812 14 October 1944 245 Impact
78 205 MW 18819 44 Damaged at launch
79 206 MW 18817 245 Impact
80 207 MW 19487 28 October 1944 223
81 208 MW 19486 29 October 1944 224
82 209 MW 19484 30 October 1944 217
83 210 MW 19498 223
84 211 MW 19488 31 October 1944 223
85 212 MW 19491 223
86 213 MW 19489 231
November 1944
87 214 MW 19504 1 November 1944 2
88 215 MW 19490 221
89 216 Ma241 Failed on pad
90 217 MW 19492 2 November 1944 223 Impact
91 218 MW 19493 218 Impact
92 219 MW 19494 3 November 1944 214 Impact
93 220 MW 19496 221 Impact
94 221 MW 19495 4 November 1944 226 Impact
95 222 MW 19497 224 Airburst
96 223 MW 19502 5 November 1944 224 Airburst
97 224 MW 19500 116 Airburst
98 225 MW 19501 222 Airburst
99 226 MW 19499 112 Airburst
100 227 MW 19508 6 November 1944 250 Impact
101 228 MW 19511 7 November 1944 290 Impact
102 229 MW 19514 250 Airburst
103 230 MW 19506 293 Airburst
104 231 MW 19507 250 Impact
105 232 MW 19509 8 November 1944 1 Failed after launch
106 236 MW 19520 9 November 1944 257 Impact
107 MW 19519 Returned to Mittelwerk
108 238 MW 19516 10 November 1944 248 Airburst
109 239 MW 19518 35 Impact
110 MW 19529 11 November 1944 Returned to MW
111 235 MW 19510 12 November 1944 49 Exploded after launch
112 237 MW 19528 245 Impact
113 233 MW 19513 13 November 1944 267 Airburst
114 234 MW 19512 90 Impact
115 241 19525 14 November 1944 250 Impact
116 242 MW 19517 250 Impact
117 243 MW 19549 15 November 1944 197
118 244 MW 19548 196
119 245 MW 19544 18 November 1944 76
120 246 MW 19547 19 November 1944 159
121 247 MW 19545 168
122 248 MW 19553 20 November 1944 183
123 249 MW 19550 194
124 250 MW 19552 189
125 251 MW 19551 21 November 1944 113
126 252 MW 19546 168
127 253 MW 19829 233 Impact
128 254 MW 19843 22 November 1944 229 Airburst
129 255 MW 19830 190 Impact
130 256 MW 19832 Engine failure
131 257 MW 19862 23 November 1944 385 No data returned
132 258 MW 19866 289 Airburst
133 260 MW 19833 24 November 1944 219 Impact
134 261 MW 19834 35 Guidance failure
135 MW 19839 Returned to Mittelwerk
136 262 MW 19835 25 November 1944 58 Guidance failure
137 259 MW 19864 323 No data returned
138 263 MW 19836 26 November 1944 232 Impact
139 MW 19842 Returned to Mittelwerk
140 267 MW 19861 0 Exploded on pad
141 264 MW 19831 27 November 1944 235 Airburst
142 265 MW 19844 230 Airburst
143 266 MW 19840 Failure
144 269 MW 19827 28 November 1944 231 Airburst
145 268 MW 19868 279 No data returned
146 270 MW 19841 29 November 1944 166 Impact
147 271 MW 19825 231 Impact
148 274 MW 19873 315 No data returned
149 272 MW 19846 30 November 1944 132 Failure
150 273 MW 19849 232 Impact
151 MW 19826 Returned to MW
December 1944
152 276 MW 19848 1 December 1944 214 Airburst
153 277 MW 19850 2 Explosion after launch
154 MW 19869 Returned to field station; leaking
155 275 MW 19302 320 No data returned
156 278 MW 19301 4 December 1944 293 No data returned
157 279 MW 19883 5 December 1944 250 Airburst
158 280 MW 19893 246 Impact
159 281 MW 19905 251 Airburst
160 282 MW 19913 6 December 1944 167 Impact
161 283 MW 19891 Failure
162 285 MW 19874 7 December 1944 349 No data returned
163 284 MW 19901 224 Impact
164 285 MW 19894 8 December 1944 243 Impact
165 286 MW 19888 215 Impact
166 290 MW 19020 9 December 1944 347 No data returned
167 287 MW 19900 270 Impact
168 288 MW 19895 Returned to Mittelwerk
169 291 MW 19856 11 December 1944 245
170 292 MW 18783 284 No data returned
171 293 MW 19855 12 December 1944 0 Exploded above pad
172 294 MW 19858 243
173 295 MW 19854 246
174 MW 19871 Returned to field station
175 296 MW 19859 13 December 1944 244
176 297 MW 19870 239
177 298 MW 19857 68 Airburst
178 299 MW 19865 14 December 1944 1 Airburst
179 300 MW 19847 December 1944 230 Airburst
180 301 MW 19837 16 December 1944 216 Impact
181 302 MW 19838 228 Airburst
182 303 MW 19851 17 December 1944 128 Failure
183 305 19828 19 December 1944 52 Failure
184 304 MW 19872 243
185 306 MW 19845 20 December 1944 0 Control failure at lift-off at15m height
186 307 MW 19852 81 Guidance failure
187 308 MW 19853 232 Airburst
188 MW 19186 21 December 1944 229 Impact
189 MW 19676 260 Impact
190 MW 19778 228 Impact
191 MW 19886 23 December 1944 232 Impact
192 MW 19674 222 Impact
193 MW 19776 224 Airburst
194 MW 19650 25 December 1944 225 Impact
195 MW 19681 228 Airburst
196 309 MW 20853 27 December 1944 212
197 310 MW 20844 28 December 1944 234
198 311 MW 20845 229
199 312 MW 20848 Failed
200 313 MW 20820 30 December 1944 230
201 314 MW 20816 231
202 315 MW 20847 31 December 1944 226
203 316 MW 20825 227
January 1945
204 317 MW 20852 1 January 1945 34 Failed
205 Ma419 ( MW 20843) Attempt abandoned - launched on 8 January 1945
206 318 MW 20815 2 January 1945 232
207 319 MW 20817 232
208 320 MW 20818 231
209 321 MW 20838 3 January 1945 229
210 322 MW 20841 224
211 323 MW 20851 223
212 324 MW 20823 4 January 1945 228
213 325 MW 20814 Failed shortly after launch
214 326 MW 20843 8 January 1945 231
215 327 MW 20819 234
215 330 MW 20705 10 January 1945 215
216 331 MW 20808 56 Failed
217 332 MW 20809 227
218 334 MW 20810 11 January 1945 226
219 335 MW 20807 161 Failed
220 336 MW 20811 231
221 337 MW 20804 223
222 338 MW 20806 226 High altitude airburst
223 MW 20824 Abandoned
224 MW 20812 Abandoned

Operation Backfire launches near Cuxhaven

Under Operation Backfire, the British collected together and assembled a small number of V-2s to be fired for demonstration purposes.

Date Launch time Maximum height Length of flight Remarks
2 October 194514:4169.4 km249.4 km
4 October 194514:1617.4 km24 kmEngine failure shortly after launch
15 October 194515:0664 km233 kmSome sources indicate launch took place on 14 October 1945

Launches of captured V-2 rockets in the United States after 1945

The Upper Atmosphere Research Panel conducted experiments on US flights of V-2s.

Rocket numberDateLaunch sitePadMaximum altitude (kilometres)Remarks
1946
115 March 1946White Sandsn/aStatic test firing of V-2 Engine
216 April 1946White SandsPad 335.5Radio cut-off 19.5 s after launch, Fin 4 failed prior to cut off
310 May 1946White SandsPad 33112.6Nominal flight
429 May 1946White SandsPad 33112.1Nominal flight
513 June 1946White SandsPad 33117.4Nominal flight
628 June 1946White SandsPad 33107.8Nose separation failure
79 July 1946White SandsPad 33134.4Nominal performance
819 July 1946White SandsPad 334.824Oxygen pump exploded
930 July 1946White SandsPad 33161.5Nominal performance
1015 August 1946White SandsPad 336.4Radio cut-off 16.5 s after launch
1122 August 1946White SandsPad 330Control failure led to cut-off command at 6.5s
1210 October 1946White SandsPad 33173.8Nominal performance
1324 October 1946White SandsPad 33104.6Sub-normal propulsion performance, camera took the first picture of Earth from outer space.
147 November 1946White SandsPad 330.32Guidance failure preceded emergency cut-off at 31s
1521 November 1946White SandsPad 33101.4Sub-normal propulsion performance
165 December 1946White SandsPad 33152.9Control system failed at altitude
1717 December 1946White SandsPad 33183.4Rocket exploded at 440s.
1947
1810 January 1947White SandsPad 33116.2Degraded performance led to roll rate of 60 rpm.
1923 January 1947White SandsPad 3349.9Degraded performance led to roll rate of 80 rpm.
2020 February 1947White SandsPad 33109.4Blossom 1 - Propulsion degraded at 55.5s.
217 March 1947White SandsPad 33162.5Nominal performance
221 April 1947White SandsPad 33129.2Nominal performance
238 April 1947White SandsPad 33102.2Nominal performance
2417 April 1947White SandsPad 33142.4Successful test of ram-jet payload
2615 May 1947White SandsPad 33135.2Internal explosion at 64.3s.
H-II # 029 May 1947White SandsPad 3379.3Hermes II prototype with dummy Organ ramjet test. Lost control after 4s and crashed outside range near Juarez, Mexico.
2910 July 1947White SandsPad 3316.25Early yaw led to termination at 32s.
3029 July 1947White SandsPad 33160.7Near vertical trajectory.
286 September 1947USS Midway1.5Operation Sandy. Aircraft carrier launch successful. Exploded at 1524 m
279 October 1947White SandsPad 33156.1Internal explosion at 83.5s
GE-Sp20 November 1947White SandsPad 3326.7GE technology proving flight
288 December 1947White SandsPad 33104.6Stable flight but less than planned altitude
1948
3422 January 1948White SandsPad 33159.3Payload separation failure
366 February 1948White SandsPad 33111Successfully manoeuvred by ground control for first 40s of flight
3919 March 1948White SandsPad 335.5Low altitude flight prevented any data recovery
252 April 1948White SandsPad 33144Three previous launch attempts failed in year prior. Excellent performance
3819 April 1948White SandsPad 3356Faulty steering led to high roll rate and then flight termination
Bumper-113 May 1948White SandsPad 33127.3Bumper 1 Premature cut-off of WAC 2nd stage
3527 May 1948White SandsPad 33139.7Steady flight with low roll rate
3711 June 1948White SandsPad 3362.3Blossom 2 - Cut-off at 57.7s; payload separation at 96s
4026 July 1948White SandsPad 3386.9Turbine overspeed led to premature propellad cut-off at 61s. 2rpm roll began at 70s
435 August 1948White SandsPad 33165.7Nominal performance
Bumper-219 August 1948White SandsPad 3313.4Bumper 2 First stage failed due to propellant flow interruption
332 September 1948White SandsPad 33150.6Vehicle broke up at 370s at 84 km altitude.
Bumper-330 September 1948White SandsPad 33150.3Bumper 3 WAC stage failed
Bumper-41 November 1948White SandsPad 334.8Bumper 4 Explosion in tail of V-2
4418 November 1948White SandsPad 33145.3First Hermes B 'Organ' test of ramjet diffuser in place of payload section. Nominal performance.
429 December 1948White SandsPad 33108.4Vane failure at 22s caused erratic flight
1949
H-II # 113 January 1949White SandsPad 331st Hermes II test
4528 January 1949White SandsPad 3359.9Defective performance
4817 February 1949White SandsPad 33100.6Nominal performance
Bumper-524 February 1949White SandsPad 33129Successful flight. Separation of stages at 32.2 km
4121 March 1949White SandsPad 33133.5Blossom 3 - Parachute not ejected
5011 April 1949White SandsPad 3387.2Degraded performance from 43s
Bumper-621 April 1949White SandsPad 3349.9Premature V-2 cut-off; WAC stage failed to fire
465 May 1949White SandsPad 338.85Second Hermes II 'Organ' test of ramjet diffuser in place of payload section
4714 June 1949White SandsPad 33133.5Blossom 4 - Nominal performance.
3216 September 1949White SandsPad 334.2Blossom 5 - payload. Explosions led to early termination
4929 September 1949White SandsPad 33150.8Nominal performance.
H-II # 26 October 1949White SandsPad 332nd Hermes II test.
5618 November 1949White SandsPad 33123.9Nominal performance.
318 December 1949White SandsPad 33130.3Blossom 6 - Excellent performance
1950
5317 February 1950White SandsPad 33148.7Nominal performance.
Bumper-824 July 1950Cape CanaveralLC 316.1Low-angle atmospheric flight over 320 km range
Bumper-729 July 1950Cape CanaveralLC 316.1Low-angle atmospheric flight over 320 km range
5131 August 1950White SandsPad 33136.4Blossom 7- Nominal performance.
6126 October 1950White SandsPad 338Explosion at 50s at Mach 3 terminated flight
H-II # 311 November 1950White SandsPad 333rd and Final Hermes II test
1951
5418 January 1951White SandsPad 331.6Stalled on pad for 13s then rose slowly for 38s before exploding
578 March 1951White SandsPad 333.1Blossom 8 - Three explosions at 15.5; 18.5 and 19.5s destroying tail section
5514 June 1951White SandsPad 330Exploded on pad at start of main-stage thrust after rising 6-inches
5228 June 1951White SandsPad 335.8Blossom 9 - Tail explosion at 8s and then cut-off signal given at 22s.
TF-122 August 1951White SandsPad 33213.4Army training test (last 5 launches by "Broomstick Scientists")[17][18]
6029 October 1951White SandsPad 33140.9Army training test. Payload released but damaged on impact.
1952
5920 May 1952White SandsPad 33103.5Army training test. * Also designated TF-2
TF-322 August 1952White SandsPad 3378Army training test. Thrust decreased after 53s. Tail separation at 217s.
TF-519 September 1952White SandsPad 3327Army training test. Tail explosion at 27s terminating thrust.

Launches of V2 by Soviet Union

The USSR captured the V-2 production centre at Nordhausen and assembled their own V-2s. Subsequently, they moved the equipment to the USSR and developed their own copy, the R-1

Rocket number Date Launch site Range Remarks
T-0118 October 1947Kapustin Yar207Vehicle disintegrated at atmospheric reentry
T-0220 October 1947Kapustin Yar231Deviated 181 kilometres from intended flight path
T-0323 October 1947Kapustin Yar29Observation of vehicle was hampered by low cloud cover. Vehicle disintegrated, possibly due to the warhead failure.
T-0428 October 1947Kapustin Yar29Success
T-0531 October 1947Kapustin Yar2Started rolling after lift-off and crashed
T-062 November 1947Kapustin Yar260Success
T-072 November 1947Kapustin Yar260Lost fins after launch
T-084 November 1947Kapustin Yar268Success
T-0910 November 1947Kapustin Yar24Control failure
T-1013 November 1947Kapustin Yar270Broke up upon re-entry. Landed within 180 m of target.
T-1113 November 1947Kapustin Yar270Launched 5 hours after previous rocket and landed within 700 m of target

Notes and references

^1 The rocket designation "V" is for Versuchsmuster (German: Test/Experimental Type).[4]

^2 The rocket designation "MW" is for rockets produced at the Mittelwerk.

  1. Neufeld, Michael J (1995). The Rocket and the Reich: Peenemünde and the Coming of the Ballistic Missile Era. New York: The Free Press. pp. 158, 160–2, 190.
  2. Braun, Wernher von; Ordway III; Frederick I (1985). Space Travel: A History. Harper & Row. p. 107.
  3. Klee, Ernst; Merk, Otto (1965) [1963]. The Birth of the Missile:The Secrets of Peenemünde'. Hamburg: Gerhard Stalling Verlag. pp. 9, 41, 45.
  4. Huzel, Dieter K (1960). Peenemünde to Canaveral. Prentice Hall. p. 68.
  5. Ordway, Frederick I, III; Sharpe, Mitchell R (1979). The Rocket Team. Apogee Books Space Series 36. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell. pp. 46, 57.
  6. Ley, Willy (1958) [1958]. Rockets, Missiles and Space Travel. The Viking Press. p. 218.
  7. Speer, Albert (1995). Inside the Third Reich. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 495. ISBN 9781842127353.
  8. Walter Dornberger, Peenemunde
  9. Walter Riedel, Rocket Development with Liquid Propellant
  10. Pocock, Rowland F. (1967). German Guided Missiles of the Second World War. New York: Arco Publishing Company, Inc. p. 14.
  11. Irving, David (1964). The Mare's Nest. London: William Kimber and Co. p. 58.
  12. Garliński, Józef (1978). Hitler's Last Weapons: The Underground War against the V1 and V2. New York: Times Books. p. 68.
  13. "A-4 Launching Trials from Peenemünde". A-4 Contents. Retrieved 2007-05-14.
  14. Klee, Ernst; Merk, Otto (1963). The Birth of the Missile:The Secrets of Peenemünde (English translation 1965 ed.). Hamburg: Gerhard Stalling Verlag.
  15. Neufeld, Michael J (1995). The Rocket and the Reich: Peenemünde and the Coming of the Ballistic Missile Era. New York: The Free Press. pp. 158, 160–162, 190.
  16. Dornberger, Walter (1954) [1952 V2--Der Schuss ins Weltall]. V-2. New York: Viking Press. pp. 17, 256–7.
  17. Kennedy, Gregory P. (1983). Vengeance Weapon 2: The V-2 Guided Missile. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 62.
  18. Egermeier, Robert P. (September 2001). "Former Broomstick Scientist". Aerospace America. p. 7.
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