List of United States Navy four-star admirals

This is a complete list of four-star admirals in the United States Navy. The rank of admiral (or full admiral, or four-star admiral) is the highest rank normally achievable in the U.S. Navy. It ranks above vice admiral (three-star admiral) and below fleet admiral (five-star admiral).

There have been 270 four-star admirals in the history of the U.S. Navy. Of these, 229 achieved that rank while on active duty, 40 were promoted upon retirement in recognition of combat citations, and one was promoted posthumously. Admirals entered the Navy via several paths: 235 were commissioned via the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA), 20 via Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC), 8 via Officer Candidate School (OCS), 2 via warrant, 2 via Aviation Officer Candidate School (AOCS), one via direct commission (direct), one via the Naval Aviation Cadet (NAVCAD) program, and one via the U.S. Merchant Marine.

List of admirals

Entries in the following list of four-star admirals are indexed by the numerical order in which each officer was promoted to that rank while on active duty, or by an asterisk (*) if the officer did not serve in that rank while on active duty. Each entry lists the admiral's name, date of rank,[1] active-duty positions held while serving at four-star rank,[2] number of years of active-duty service at four-star rank (Yrs),[3] year commissioned and source of commission,[4] number of years in commission when promoted to four-star rank (YC),[5] and other biographical notes.[6]

# Name Photo Date of rank [1] Position [2] Yrs [3] Commission [4] YC [5] Notes [6]
1David G. Farragut 25 Jul 1866   4 1810 (warrant)56(18011870) Brother-by-adoption of Navy four-star admiral David D. Porter Jr.
2David D. Porter Jr. 15 Aug 1870  
  • Admiral of the Navy, 18701891.
  • Head, Board of Inspection, 18771891.
21 1829 (warrant)41(18131891) Superintendent, U.S. Naval Academy, 18651869. Brother-by-adoption of Navy four-star admiral David G. Farragut.
3George Dewey 02 Mar 1899   18 1858 (USNA)41(18371917) Promoted to The Admiral of the Navy, 24 Mar 1903, with date of rank 02 Mar 1899. Candidate for Democratic Party nomination for U.S. President, 1900.
4Frank F. Fletcher 10 Mar 1915  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANT), 19141916.
2 1875 (USNA)40(18551928) [7] Awarded Medal of Honor, 1914. Uncle of Navy four-star admiral Frank J. Fletcher.
5Thomas B. Howard 11 Mar 1915   1 1873 (USNA)42(18541920) [7] Superintendent, U.S. Naval Observatory, 19171919.
6Walter C. Cowles 12 Mar 1915   1 1873 (USNA)42(18531917) [7]
7Albert G. Winterhalter 09 Jul 1915   2 1877 (USNA)38(18561920) [7]
8Cameron M. Winslow 13 Sep 1915   1 1875 (USNA)40(18541932) [7]
9Henry T. Mayo 19 Jun 1916  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANT), 19161919.
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet (CINCUS), 1919.
3 1876 (USNA)41(18571937) [7][8] Governor, U.S. Naval Home, 19241928.
10William B. Caperton 28 Jul 1916   3 1875 (USNA)41(18551941) [7][8] Special Representative of the President in Brazil, 1918.
11William S. Benson 29 Aug 1916   3 1877 (USNA)[9]39(18551932) [7][8] Chairman/Commissioner, U.S. Shipping Board, 19191928.
12Austin M. Knight 04 Apr 1917   1 1873 (USNA)[9]44(18541927) [7] Brother of Seattle Mayor Bertha Knight Landes.
13William S. Sims 04 Dec 1918   2 1880 (USNA)[9]38(18581936) [7][8] Awarded Pulitzer Prize for History, 1921.
14Henry B. Wilson Jr.



30 Jun 1919  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANT), 19191921.
2 1881 (USNA)[9]38(18611954) [7][8] Superintendent, U.S. Naval Academy, 19211925. Father-in-law of U.S. Secretary of War Patrick J. Hurley.
15Hugh Rodman 01 Jul 1919   2 1880 (USNA)[9]39(18591940) [7][8] U.S. Minister and Envoy to Peru, 1921.
16Albert Gleaves



01 Sep 1919   2 1877 (USNA)[9]42(18581937) [7][8] Governor, U.S. Naval Home, 19281931.
17Robert E. Coontz 01 Nov 1919   6 1885 (USNA)[9]34(18641935) [7][8] Governor of Guam, 19121913.
18Joseph Strauss 04 Feb 1921   1 1885 (USNA)[9]36(18611948) [7][8]
19Hilary P. Jones 30 Jun 1921  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANT), 19211922.
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet (CINCUS), 19221923.
2 1884 (USNA)[9]37(18651939) [7][8]
20Edward W. Eberle 05 Jul 1921   6 1885 (USNA)[9]36(18641929) [7] Superintendent, U.S. Naval Academy, 19151919.
21Edwin A. Anderson 28 Aug 1922   1 1882 (USNA)[9]40(18601933) [7] Awarded Medal of Honor, 1914.
22Samuel S. Robison 30 Jun 1923  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Battle Fleet (COMBATFLT), 19231925.
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet (CINCUS), 19251926.
3 1888 (USNA)[9]35(18671952) [7][10] Military Governor of Santo Domingo, 19211922; Superintendent, U.S. Naval Academy, 19281931; Superintendent, Admiral Farragut Academy, 19311948. Brother-in-law of Navy four-star admiral Charles F. Hughes.
23Thomas Washington 11 Oct 1923   2 1887 (USNA)[9]36(18651954) [7][10] Governor, U.S. Naval Home, 19311937.
24Charles F. Hughes 14 Oct 1925   5 1888 (USNA)[9]37(18661934) [7] Brother-in-law of Navy four-star admiral Samuel S. Robison; daughter married brother of Navy five-star admiral Chester W. Nimitz.
25Clarence S. Williams



14 Oct 1925   2 1884 (USNA)[9]41(18631951) [7][10]
26Richard H. Jackson



04 Sep 1926   1 1887 (USNA)[9]39(18661971) [7][10] Distant cousin of Air Force four-star general Charles P. Cabell.
27Henry A. Wiley 08 Sep 1927  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet (CINCUS), 1927-1929.
2 1888 (USNA)[9]39(18671943) [7] Chairman/Commissioner, U.S. Maritime Commission, 19361940.
28Mark L. Bristol 09 Sep 1927   2 1887 (USNA)[9]40(18681939) [7] U.S. High Commissioner, Turkey, 19191927.
29Louis R. de Steiguer



10 Sep 1927   1 1889 (USNA)[9]38(18671947) [7][10]
30William V. Pratt 26 Jun 1928   5 1889 (USNA)[9]39(18691957) [7][11]
31Louis M. Nulton 21 May 1929   1 1889 (USNA)[9]40(18691954) [7][10] Superintendent, U.S. Naval Academy, 19251928.
32Charles B. McVay Jr.



09 Sep 1929   2 1890 (USNA)[9]39(18681949) [7][10]
33Frank H. Schofield 24 May 1930  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Battle Fleet (COMBATFLT), 19301931.
  • Commander, Battle Force, U.S. Fleet (COMBATFOR), 1931.
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet (CINCUS), 19311932.
2 1890 (USNA)[9]40(18691942) [7]
34Jehu V. Chase 17 Sep 1930  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet (CINCUS), 19301931.
1 1890 (USNA)[9]40(18691937) [7]
35Montgomery M. Taylor



01 Sep 1931   2 1890 (USNA)[9]41(18691952) [7][10] Grandnephew of U.S. President Zachary Taylor; distant cousin of Army four-star general Montgomery C. Meigs.
36Richard H. Leigh 15 Sep 1931  
  • Commander, Battle Force, U.S. Fleet (COMBATFOR), 19311932.
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet (CINCUS), 19321933.
2 1891 (USNA)[9]40(18701946) [7][10]
37Luke McNamee 11 Aug 1932  
  • Commander, Battle Force, U.S. Fleet (COMBATFOR), 19321933.
1 1892 (USNA)[9]40(18711952) [7][10] Governor of Guam, 1907.
38William H. Standley 20 May 1933   4 1895 (USNA)[9]38(18721963) [7][11][12] U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union, 19421943.
39David F. Sellers



10 Jun 1933  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet (CINCUS), 19331934.
1 1894 (USNA)[9]39(18741949) [7][10] Superintendent, U.S. Naval Academy, 19341938.
40Joseph M. Reeves



01 Jul 1933  
  • Commander, Battle Force, U.S. Fleet (COMBATFOR), 19331934.
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet (CINCUS), 19341936.
3 1894 (USNA)[9]39(18721948) [7][10][13]
41Frank B. Upham



18 Aug 1933   2 1893 (USNA)[9]40(18721939) [7] Married aunt of Navy four-star admiral Robert B. Carney.
42Frank H. Brumby



15 Jun 1934  
  • Commander, Battle Force, U.S. Fleet (COMBATFOR), 19341935.
1 1895 (USNA)[9]39(18741950) [7][10]
43Harris Laning 01 Apr 1935  
  • Commander, Battle Force, U.S. Fleet (COMBATFOR), 19351936.
1 1895 (USNA)[9]40(18731941) [7] Governor, U.S. Naval Home, 19371941.
44Orin G. Murfin



04 Oct 1935   1 1897 (USNA)[9]38(18761956) [7][10]
45William D. Leahy 30 Mar 1936   10 1897 (USNA)[9]39(18751959) [14] Promoted to fleet admiral, 15 Dec 1944. Governor of Puerto Rico, 19391940; U.S. Ambassador to France, 19411942. Wife's niece married Navy four-star admiral David W. Bagley.
46Arthur J. Hepburn 24 Jun 1936  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet (CINCUS), 19361938.
2 1897 (USNA)[9]39(18771964) [7][10]
47Harry E. Yarnell 30 Oct 1936   3 1897 (USNA)[9]39(18751959) [7][10][15]
48Claude C. Bloch



02 Jan 1937  
  • Commander, Battle Force, U.S. Fleet (COMBATFOR), 19371938.
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet (CINCUS), 19381940.
3 1899 (USNA)[9]38(18781967) [7][16]
49Edward C. Kalbfus 29 Jan 1938  
  • Commander, Battle Force, U.S. Fleet (COMBATFOR), 19381939.
1 1899 (USNA)[9]39(18771954) [7][10]
50James O. Richardson 24 Jun 1939  
  • Commander, Battle Force, U.S. Fleet (COMBATFOR), 19391940.
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet (CINCUS), 19401941.
2 1902 (USNA)[9]37(18781974) [7][16] Relieved, 1941.
51Thomas C. Hart 25 Jul 1939   3 1897 (USNA)[9]42(18771971) [17] Superintendent, U.S. Naval Academy, 19311934; U.S. Senator from Connecticut, 19451946.
52Harold R. Stark 01 Aug 1939   6 1903 (USNA)[9]36(18801972)
53Charles P. Snyder 06 Jan 1940  
  • Commander, Battle Force, U.S. Fleet (COMBATFOR), 19401941.
1 1900 (USNA)[9]40(18791964) [7][16]
54Husband E. Kimmel 01 Feb 1941  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet/Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet (CINCPAC/CINCUS), 1941.
0 1904 (USNA)[9]37(18821968) [7] Relieved, 1941. Brother-in-law of Navy four-star admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid.
55Ernest J. King 01 Feb 1941  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANT), 1941.
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet (COMINCH), 19411942.
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet/Chief of Naval Operations (COMINCH/CNO), 19421945.
  • Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), 1945.
  • Special duty, 19451956.
4 1901 (USNA)[9]40(18781956) Promoted to fleet admiral, 17 Dec 1944. Awarded Congressional Gold Medal, 1946. Father-in-law of Air Force four-star general Frederic H. Smith Jr.
56Chester W. Nimitz 31 Dec 1941   6 1905 (USNA)[9]36(18851966) Promoted to fleet admiral, 19 Dec 1944. Brother married daughter of Navy four-star admiral Charles F. Hughes.
57Royal E. Ingersoll 01 Jul 1942  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANT), 19411944.
  • Commander, Western Sea Frontier (COMWESTSEAFRON), 19441946.
  • Deputy Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet/Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (DCOMINCH/DCNO), 19441945.
3 1905 (USNA)[9]37(18831976)
58William F. Halsey Jr. 18 Nov 1942   3 1904 (USNA)[9]38(18821959) Promoted to fleet admiral, 04 Dec 1945.
59Raymond A. Spruance 16 Feb 1944   4 1906 (USNA)[9]38(18861969) U.S. Ambassador to the Philippines, 19521955.
60Jonas H. Ingram 15 Nov 1944  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANT), 19441946.
2 1909 (USNA)[9]35(18861952) Commissioner, All-America Football Conference, 19471949. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1914.
61Frederick J. Horne 15 Dec 1944   1 1899 (USNA)[9]45(18801959)
62Richard S. Edwards Jr. 03 Apr 1945   2 1907 (USNA)[9]38(18851956)
63H. Kent Hewitt 03 Apr 1945   4 1907 (USNA)[9]38(18871972)
64Thomas C. Kinkaid 03 Apr 1945   5 1908 (USNA)[9]37(18881972) Brother-in-law of Navy four-star admiral Husband E. Kimmel.
65Richmond K. Turner 24 May 1945   2 1908 (USNA)[9]37(18851961)
66Samuel M. Robinson 27 Aug 1945   1 1903 (USNA)[9]42(18821972) Administrator, Webb Institute of Naval Architecture, 19461951. First engineering officer to attain rank of admiral.
*John S. McCain Sr. 06 Sep 1945  
  • (posthumous)
0 1906 (USNA)[9]39(18841945) Father of Navy four-star admiral John S. McCain Jr.; grandfather of U.S. Senator John S. McCain III.
67John H. Towers 07 Nov 1945   2 1906 (USNA)[9]39(18851955)
68DeWitt C. Ramsey 28 Dec 1945   4 1912 (USNA)33(18881961)
69Louis E. Denfeld 07 Jan 1946   2 1912 (USNA)34(18911972) [18] Candidate for Republican Party nomination for Governor of Massachusetts, 1950. Relieved, 1949.
70Charles M. Cooke Jr. 08 Jan 1946   2 1910 (USNA)[9]36(18861970)
71Marc A. Mitscher 01 Mar 1946  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANTFLT), 19461947.
1 1910 (USNA)[9]36(18871947) Died in office.
72Ben Moreell 11 Jun 1946   0 1917 (direct)29(18921978) First staff corps officer to attain rank of admiral.
73Richard L. Conolly 23 Sep 1946   4 1914 (USNA)32(18921962) [19] President, Long Island University, 19531962.
74William H.P. Blandy 03 Feb 1947  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANTFLT), 1947.
  • Commander in Chief, Atlantic Command/Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANT/CINCLANTFLT), 19471950.
3 1913 (USNA)34(18901954)
75Arthur W. Radford 07 Apr 1949   8 1916 (USNA)33(18961973) Married aunt of Army four-star general Michael S. Davison.
76Forrest P. Sherman 02 Nov 1949   2 1917 (USNA)32(18961951) Died in office.
77William M. Fechteler 01 Feb 1950  
  • Commander in Chief, Atlantic Command/Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANT/CINCLANTFLT), 19501951.
  • Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), 19511953.
  • Commander in Chief, Allied Forces Southern Europe (CINCSOUTH), 19531956.
6 1916 (USNA)34(18961967)
78Robert B. Carney 02 Oct 1950   5 1916 (USNA)34(18951990) Aunt married Navy four-star admiral Frank B. Upham.
79Lynde D. McCormick 22 Dec 1950  
  • Vice Chief of Naval Operations (VCNO), 19501951.
  • Commander in Chief, Atlantic Command/Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANT/CINCLANTFLT), 19511952.
  • Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic/Commander in Chief, Atlantic Command/Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (SACLANT/CINCLANT/CINCLANTFLT), 19521954.
4 1915 (USNA)35(18951956) [20]
80Donald B. Duncan 09 Aug 1951   5 1917 (USNA)34(18961975) Governor, U.S. Naval Home, 19571962. Brother-in-law of U.S. Secretary of Commerce Harry L. Hopkins.
81Felix B. Stump 27 Jun 1953   5 1917 (USNA)36(18941972)
82Jerauld Wright 06 Apr 1954   6 1917 (USNA)37(18981995) U.S. Ambassador to China, 19631965.
83John H. Cassady 07 Apr 1954   2 1918 (USNA)36(18961969)
84Arleigh A. Burke 06 Jun 1955   6 1923 (USNA)32(19011996) Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1977.
85Robert P. Briscoe 30 Apr 1956  
  • Commander in Chief, Allied Forces Southern Europe (CINCSOUTH), 19561959.
3 1918 (USNA)38(18971968)
86Walter F. Boone 01 May 1956   4 1920 (USNA)36(18981995) Superintendent, U.S. Naval Academy, 19541956; Deputy Associate Administrator for Defense Affairs, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 19621968.
87Harry D. Felt 01 Sep 1956   8 1923 (USNA)33(19021992)
88Maurice E. Curts 29 Apr 1957   1 1919 (USNA)38(18981976) [19]
89James L. Holloway Jr. 01 Jan 1958   1 1918 (USNA)40(18981984) Superintendent, U.S. Naval Academy, 19471950; Governor, U.S. Naval Home, 19621966. Father of Navy four-star admiral James L. Holloway III.
90Herbert G. Hopwood 01 Feb 1958   2 1919 (USNA)39(18981966)
91James S. Russell 21 Jul 1958   7 1926 (USNA)32(19031996)
92Charles R. Brown



01 Jan 1959  
  • Commander in Chief, Allied Forces Southern Europe (CINCSOUTH), 19591961.
2 1921 (USNA)38(18991983)
93Robert L. Dennison 01 Feb 1959   4 1923 (USNA)36(19011980)
94Harold Page Smith 01 Feb 1960   5 1924 (USNA)36(19041993) Uncle of Navy four-star admiral Leighton W. Smith, Jr.
95John H. Sides 01 Mar 1960   3 1925 (USNA)35(19041978)
96George W. Anderson Jr. 01 Aug 1961   2 1927 (USNA)34(19061992) U.S. Ambassador to Portugal, 19611963.
97Claude V. Ricketts 01 Nov 1961   3 1929 (USNA)32(19061964) Died in office.
98David L. McDonald 01 Apr 1963   4 1928 (USNA)35(19061997)
99Charles D. Griffin 26 Jun 1963   5 1927 (USNA)36(19061996)
100U.S. Grant Sharp Jr. 27 Sep 1963   5 1927 (USNA)36(19062001) Great-aunt married U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant.
101Thomas H. Moorer 26 Jun 1964   10 1933 (USNA)31(19122004)
102Horacio Rivero Jr. 31 Jul 1964   8 1931 (USNA)33(19102000) U.S. Ambassador to Spain, 19721974.
103John S. Thach 25 Mar 1965   2 1927 (USNA)38(19051981)
104Alfred G. Ward 27 Mar 1965   3 1932 (USNA)33(19091982)
105Roy L. Johnson 31 Mar 1965   2 1929 (USNA)36(19061999)
106John S. McCain Jr. 01 May 1967   5 1931 (USNA)36(19111981) Son of Navy four-star admiral John S. McCain Sr.; father of U.S. Senator John S. McCain III.
107Ignatius J. Galantin 19 May 1967   3 1933 (USNA)34(19102004)
108Ephraim P. Holmes 17 Jun 1967   3 1930 (USNA)37(19081997)
109John J. Hyland Jr. 01 Dec 1967   3 1934 (USNA)33(19121998)
110Bernard A. Clarey 17 Jan 1968   5 1934 (USNA)34(19121996)
111Waldemar F.A. Wendt 12 Jul 1968   3 1933 (USNA)35(19121997)
112Elmo R. Zumwalt Jr. 01 Jul 1970   4 1942 (USNA)28(19202000) Democratic Party nominee for U.S. Senator from Virginia, 1976. Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1998.
113Charles K. Duncan 01 Sep 1970   2 1933 (USNA)37(19111994)
114Jackson D. Arnold 14 Oct 1970   1 1934 (USNA)36(19122007) First restricted line officer to attain rank of admiral.
115Ralph W. Cousins 1970-10-3030 Oct 1970   5 1937 (USNA)33(19152009)
116William F. Bringle 01 Jul 1971   2 1937 (USNA)34(19131999)
117Isaac C. Kidd Jr. 01 Dec 1971   7 1942 (USNA)29(19191999)
118Richard G. Colbert 01 Jun 1972  
  • Commander in Chief, Allied Forces Southern Europe (CINCSOUTH), 19721973.
1 1937 (USNA)35(19151973)
119Noel A.M. Gayler 01 Sep 1972   4 1935 (USNA)37(19142011) Director, National Security Agency, 19691972.
120Maurice F. Weisner 01 Sep 1972   7 1941 (USNA)31(19172006)
121James L. Holloway III 01 Sep 1973   5 1942 (USNA)31(19222019) Son of Navy four-star admiral James L. Holloway Jr.
122Worth H. Bagley 01 Sep 1973   2 1947 (USNA)26(19242016) Son of Navy four-star admiral David W. Bagley; brother of Navy four-star admiral David H. Bagley; great-aunt married Navy five-star admiral William D. Leahy; great-aunt married U.S. Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels.
123Hyman G. Rickover 16 Nov 1973   9 1922 (USNA)51(19001986) [21] Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1980; Congressional Gold Medal, 1958 and 1982.
124Means Johnston Jr. 25 Nov 1973  
  • Commander in Chief, Allied Forces Southern Europe (CINCSOUTH), 19731975.
2 1939 (USNA)34(19161989)
125Harold E. Shear 24 May 1974   6 1942 (USNA)32(19181999) Administrator, U.S. Maritime Administration, 19811985.
126John P. Weinel 02 Aug 1974   3 1939 (USNA)35(19162004)
127Frederick H. Michaelis 19 Apr 1975   3 1940 (USNA)35(19171992)
128David H. Bagley 21 May 1975   2 1943 (USNA)32(19201992) Son of Navy four-star admiral David W. Bagley; brother of Navy four-star admiral Worth H. Bagley; great-aunt married Navy five-star admiral William D. Leahy; great-aunt married U.S. Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels.
129Stansfield Turner 01 Sep 1975   4 1946 (USNA)29(19232018)
130Daniel J. Murphy 1976  
  • Deputy to the Director of Central Intelligence for the Intelligence Community (D/DCI/IC), 19761977.
1 1943 (OCS)33(19222001) U.S. Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for Policy, 19771981; Chief of Staff to the U.S. Vice President, 19811985.
131Thomas B. Hayward 12 Aug 1976   6 1947 (USNA)29(1924       )
132Robert L. J. Long 05 Jul 1977   6 1943 (USNA)34(19202002)
133Donald C. Davis 09 May 1978   3 1943 (USNA)35(19211998)
134Alfred J. Whittle Jr. 01 Aug 1978   3 1945 (USNA)33(19241993)
135Harry D. Train II 01 Oct 1978   4 1949 (USNA)29(1927       )
136James D. Watkins 18 Sep 1979   7 1949 (USNA)30(19272012) U.S. Secretary of Energy, 19891993.
137William J. Crowe Jr. 30 May 1980   9 1947 (USNA)33(19252007) U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom, 19941997. Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 2000.
138Bobby R. Inman 12 Feb 1981   1 1952 (OCS)29(1931       ) [22] Director, National Security Agency, 19771981. First naval intelligence specialist to attain rank of admiral.
139William N. Small 01 Jul 1981   4 1948 (USNA)33(19272016)
140John G. Williams Jr. 01 Jul 1981   2 1947 (USNA)34(19241991)
141George E.R. Kinnear II 31 Jul 1981   1 1948 (OCS)33(19282015)
142Kinnaird R. McKee 02 Mar 1982   6 1951 (USNA)31(19292013) Superintendent, U.S. Naval Academy, 19751978.
143Sylvester R. Foley Jr. 28 May 1982   3 1950 (USNA)32(1928       ) U.S. Assistant Secretary of Energy for Defense Programs, 19851988.
144Wesley L. McDonald 01 Oct 1982   3 1946 (USNA)36(19242009)
145Ronald J. Hays 29 Apr 1983   5 1950 (USNA)33(1928       )
146Steven A. White 01 Aug 1983   2 1952 (NROTC)31(1928       ) Manager of Nuclear Power, Tennessee Valley Authority, 19861988.
147Lee Baggett Jr. 30 May 1985   3 1950 (USNA)35(19271999)
148James A. Lyons Jr. 16 Sep 1985   2 1952 (USNA)33(19272018)
149Carlisle A.H. Trost 04 Oct 1985  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet/Deputy Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Command (CINCLANTFLT/DCINCLANT), 19851986.
  • Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), 19861990.
5 1953 (USNA)32(1930       )
150James B. Busey IV 17 Oct 1985   4 1954 (NAVCAD)31(1932       ) Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, 19891991; U.S. Deputy Secretary of Transportation, 19911992.
151Arthur S. Moreau Jr. 15 Nov 1985  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Naval Forces Europe/Commander in Chief, Allied Forces Southern Europe (CINCUSNAVEUR/CINCSOUTH), 19851986.
1 1953 (USNA)32(19311986)
152Frank B. Kelso II 13 Jun 1986  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet/Deputy Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Command (CINCLANTFLT/DCINCLANT), 1986.
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANTFLT), 19861988.
  • Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic/Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Command (SACLANT/USCINCLANT), 19881990.
  • Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), 19901994.
8 1956 (USNA)30(19332013)
153Huntington Hardisty 11 Mar 1987   4 1952 (USNA)35(19292003)
154Powell F. Carter Jr. 01 Oct 1987  
  • U.S. Military Representative, NATO Military Committee (USMILREP), 19871988.
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANTFLT), 19881991.
4 1955 (USNA)32(19312017)
155David E. Jeremiah 01 Oct 1987   7 1956 (OCS)32(19342013)
156Leon A. Edney 01 Oct 1988   4 1957 (USNA)31(1935       )
157Bruce DeMars 01 Nov 1988   8 1957 (USNA)31(1935       )
158James R. Hogg 01 Dec 1988   3 1956 (USNA)32(1934       )
159Jonathan T. Howe 01 Jun 1989   3 1957 (USNA)32(1935       ) U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Politico-Military Affairs, 19821984; Special Representative of the U.N. Secretary General for Somalia, 19931994.
160Charles R. Larson 01 Mar 1990   8 1958 (USNA)32(19362014) [23] Superintendent, U.S. Naval Academy, 19831986; Democratic Party nominee for Lieutenant Governor of Maryland, 2002.
161Jerome L. Johnson 01 Jul 1990   2 1956 (NROTC)34(1935       )
162Paul D. Miller 01 Feb 1991   3 1964 (OCS)27(1941       )
163William D. Smith 22 Feb 1991   2 1955 (USNA)36(1933       )
164Robert J. Kelly 01 Mar 1991   3 1959 (USNA)32(1938       )
165Jeremy M. Boorda 02 Mar 1992   4 1962 (OCS)30(19381996) Died in office.
166William O. Studeman 09 Apr 1992   3 1962 (NROTC)30(1940       ) Director, National Security Agency, 19881992.
167Stanley R. Arthur 06 Jul 1992   3 1957 (NROTC)35(1935       ) [24]
168Henry H. Mauz Jr. 01 Aug 1992  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANTFLT), 19921994.
2 1959 (USNA)33(1936       )
169Henry G. Chiles Jr. 14 Feb 1994   2 1960 (USNA)34(1938       )
170William A. Owens 01 Mar 1994   2 1962 (USNA)32(1940       )
171Leighton W. Smith Jr. 01 May 1994  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Naval Forces Europe/Commander in Chief, Allied Forces Southern Europe (CINCUSNAVEUR/CINCSOUTH), 19941996.
2 1962 (USNA)32(1939       ) Nephew of Navy four-star admiral Harold Page Smith.
172Richard C. Macke 01 Oct 1994   2 1960 (USNA)34(1938       ) [7] Relieved, 1996.
173Ronald J. Zlatoper 05 Oct 1994   2 1963 (NROTC)31(1941       )
174William J. Flanagan Jr. 01 Nov 1994  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANTFLT), 19941996.
2 1964 (MMA)[25]30(1943       )
175Joseph W. Prueher 01 Jun 1995   4 1964 (USNA)31(1942       ) U.S. Ambassador to China, 19992001.
176Jay L. Johnson 01 Apr 1996   4 1968 (USNA)28(1946       )
177Thomas J. Lopez 31 Jul 1996  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Naval Forces Europe/Commander in Chief, Allied Forces Southern Europe (CINCUSNAVEUR/CINCSOUTH), 19961998.
2 1964 (NROTC)32(1940       )
178Frank L. Bowman 01 Oct 1996   8 1966 (NROTC)30(1944       )
179Harold W. Gehman Jr. 01 Oct 1996   4 1965 (NROTC)31(1942       )
180Archie R. Clemins 01 Jan 1997   2 1966 (NROTC)31(1943       )
181Joseph P. Reason 01 Feb 1997  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANTFLT), 19961999.
2 1965 (USNA)32(1941       ) First African-American to achieve the rank of admiral.
182Donald L. Pilling 30 Oct 1997   3 1965 (USNA)32(19432008)
183Richard W. Mies 01 Aug 1998   3 1967 (USNA)31(1944       )
184Charles S. Abbot 01 Sep 1998  
  • Deputy Commander in Chief, U.S. European Command (DCINCEUR), 19982000.
2 1966 (USNA)32(1945       ) Deputy Director, Office of Homeland Security, 20012003.
185James O. Ellis 01 Jan 1999   5 1969 (USNA)30(1947       )
186Dennis C. Blair 01 May 1999   3 1968 (USNA)31(1946       ) President, Institute for Defense Analyses, 20032006; Director of National Intelligence, 20092010.
187Vernon E. Clark 01 Nov 1999   6 1968 (OCS)31(1944       )
188Thomas B. Fargo 01 Dec 1999   6 1970 (USNA)29(1948       )
189Robert J. Natter 01 Sep 2000  
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANTFLT), 20002001.
  • Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet/Commander, Fleet Forces Command (CINCLANTFLT/COMFLTFORCOM), 20012002.
  • Commander, Fleet Forces Command/Commander, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (COMFLTFORCOM/COMLANTFLT), 20022003.
3 1967 (USNA)33(1945       )
190William J. Fallon 01 Nov 2000   8 1967 (NROTC)33(1944       ) Resigned, 2008.
191Gregory G. Johnson 24 Oct 2001   3 1969 (NROTC)32(1946       )
192Walter F. Doran 04 May 2002   3 1967 (NROTC)35(1945       )
193Edmund P. Giambastiani Jr. 02 Oct 2002   5 1970 (USNA)32(1948       )
194Michael G. Mullen 28 Aug 2003   8 1968 (USNA)35(1946       )
195John B. Nathman 01 Dec 2004  
  • Vice Chief of Naval Operations (VCNO), 20042005.
  • Commander, Fleet Forces Command/Commander, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (COMFLTFORCOM/COMLANTFLT), 20052006.
  • Commander, U.S. Fleet Forces Command (COMUSFF), 20062007.
3 1970 (USNA)34(1948       )
196Timothy J. Keating 01 Jan 2005   5 1971 (USNA)34(1949       )
197Kirkland H. Donald 01 Jan 2005   8 1975 (USNA)30(1953       )
198Robert F. Willard 18 Mar 2005   7 1973 (USNA)32(1950       )
199Henry G. Ulrich III 22 Jul 2005   2 1972 (USNA)33(1950       )
200Gary Roughead 01 Sep 2005   6 1973 (USNA)32(1951       )
201James G. Stavridis 18 Oct 2006   7 1976 (USNA)30(1955       )
202Patrick M. Walsh 05 Apr 2007   5 1977 (USNA)30(1955       )
203Eric T. Olson 06 Jul 2007   4 1973 (USNA)34(1952       ) First Navy SEAL to achieve the rank of admiral.
204Jonathan W. Greenert 29 Sep 2007   8 1975 (USNA)32(1953       )
205Mark P. Fitzgerald 30 Nov 2007   3 1973 (NROTC)34(1951       )
206John C. Harvey Jr. 24 Jul 2009  
  • Commander, U.S. Fleet Forces Command (COMUSFF), 20092012.
3 1973 (USNA)36(1951       )
207James A. Winnefeld, Jr. 19 May 2010   5 1978 (NROTC)32(1956       )
208Samuel J. Locklear III 06 Oct 2010   5 1977 (USNA)33(1954       )
209William H. McRaven 08 Aug 2011   3 1977 (NROTC)34(1955       )
210Mark E. Ferguson III 22 Aug 2011   5 1978 (USNA)33(1956       )
211Cecil D. Haney 20 Jan 2012   4 1978 (USNA)34(1955       )
212Bruce W. Clingan 24 Feb 2012   2 1977 (NROTC)34(1955       )
213William E. Gortney 14 Sep 2012   4 1977 (AOCS)35(1955       )
214John M. Richardson 02 Nov 2012   7 1982 (USNA)31(1960       )
215Harry B. Harris Jr. 16 Oct 2013   5 1978 (USNA)35(1956       ) First Asian-American to achieve the rank of admiral.
216Michael S. Rogers 03 Apr 2014   4 1981 (NROTC)33(1959       ) First Information Warfare Community officer to achieve the rank of admiral.
217Michelle J. Howard 01 Jul 2014   3 1982 (USNA)32(1960       ) First woman to achieve the rank of admiral.
218Philip S. Davidson 19 Dec 2014  
  • Commander, U.S. Fleet Forces Command/Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Northern Command (COMUSFF/COMUSNAVNORTHCOM), 20142018.
  • Commander, U.S. Indo-Pacific Command (CDRUSINDOPACOM), 2018present.
5 1982 (USNA)32(1960       )
219Scott H. Swift 27 May 2015   3 1979 (AOCS)36(1957       )
220James F. Caldwell, Jr. 14 Aug 2015   4 1981 (USNA)34(1959       )
221Kurt W. Tidd 14 Jan 2016   2 1978 (USNA)38(1956       )
222William F. Moran 31 May 2016   3 1981 (USNA)35(c.1959       )
223James G. Foggo III 20 Oct 2017   2 1981 (USNA)36(1959       )
224Christopher W. Grady 4 May 2018  
  • Commander, U.S. Fleet Forces Command/Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Northern Command (COMUSFF/COMUSNAVYNORTH), 20182019.
  • Commander, U.S. Fleet Forces Command/Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Northern Command/Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Strategic Command/Joint Force Maritime Component Commander (COMUSFF/COMUSNAVYNORTH/NAVSTRAT/JFMCC), 2019present.
1 1984 (NROTC)34(1961       )
225John C. Aquilino 17 May 2018   1 1984 (USNA)34(1962       )
226Craig S. Faller 26 Nov 2018   1 1983 (USNA)35(196?       )
227Robert P. Burke 10 June 2019   0 198? (NROTC)3?(1961       )
228Michael M. Gilday 22 August 2019   0 1985 (USNA)34(1962       )
229Charles A. Richard 18 November 2019   0 1982 (NROTC)37(19??       )

Tombstone admirals

The Act of Congress of March 4, 1925, allowed officers in the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard to be promoted one grade upon retirement if they had been specially commended for performance of duty in actual combat. Combat citation promotions were colloquially known as "tombstone promotions" because they conferred all the perks and prestige of the higher rank including the loftier title on their tombstones but no additional retirement pay. The Act of Congress of February 23, 1942, enabled tombstone promotions to three- and four-star grades. Tombstone promotions were subsequently restricted to citations issued before January 1, 1947, and finally eliminated altogether effective November 1, 1959. The practice was terminated in an effort to encourage senior officer retirements prior to the effective date of the change to relieve an overstrength in the senior ranks.

Any admiral who actually served in a grade while on active duty receives precedence on the retired list over any tombstone admiral holding the same retired grade. Tombstone admirals rank among each other according to the dates of their highest active duty grade.

The following list of tombstone admirals is sortable by last name, date of rank as vice admiral, date retired, and year commissioned.

Name Photo Date of rank (VADM) Date retired Commission [4] Notes
1William L. Calhoun 16 Jun 1942   Dec 1946   1906 (USNA)[9](18851963) [26] Great-grandson of U.S. Vice President John C. Calhoun.
2Frank J. Fletcher 26 Jun 1942   May 1947   1906 (USNA)[9](18851973) Awarded Medal of Honor, 1914. Nephew of Navy four-star admiral Frank F. Fletcher.
3Aubrey W. Fitch 28 Dec 1942   Jul 1947   1906 (USNA)[9](18831948) Superintendent, U.S. Naval Academy, 19451947.
4John Howard Hoover 01 Jan 1943   Jul 1948   1906 (USNA)[9](18871970)
5Alan G. Kirk 10 Sep 1944   Mar 1946   1909 (USNA)[9](18881963) U.S. Ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg, 19461947; to Soviet Union, 19491952; to China, 19621963.
6George D. Murray 29 Nov 1944   Aug 1951   1911 (USNA)[9](18891956)
7Jesse B. Oldendorf 07 Dec 1944   Sep 1948   1909 (USNA)[9](18871974)
8Arthur S. Carpender 03 Apr 1945   Nov 1946   1908 (USNA)[9](18841959) Superintendent, Admiral Farragut Academy, 194819??
9Harry W. Hill 22 Apr 1945   1952-05-00May 1952   1911 (USNA)[9](18901971) Superintendent, U.S. Naval Academy, 19501952; Governor, U.S. Naval Home, 19521954.
10Frederick C. Sherman 13 Jul 1945   Mar 1947   1910 (USNA)[9](18801957)
11John L. Hall Jr. 10 Dec 1945   May 1953   1913 (USNA)(18911978)
12Oscar C. Badger II 13 Dec 1945   Jun 1952   1911 (USNA)[9](18901958) Awarded Medal of Honor, 1914. Cousin of U.S. Secretary of the Navy George E. Badger.
13John D. Price 31 Aug 1946   Jun 1954   1916 (USNA)(18921957)
14Francis S. Low 12 Mar 1947   Jul 1956   1915 (USNA)(18941964)
15David W. Bagley 01 Apr 1947   Apr 1947   1904 (USNA)[9](18831960) Father of Navy four-star admiral David H. Bagley and Navy four-star admiral Worth H. Bagley; grandson of North Carolina Governor Jonathan Worth; aunt married U.S. Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels; wife's aunt married Navy five-star admiral William D. Leahy.
16Harold B. Sallada 11 May 1947   Oct 1949   1917 (USNA)(18951977)
17Arthur D. Struble 26 Apr 1948   Jul 1956   1915 (USNA)[27](18941983)
18Russell S. Berkey 01 Jul 1948   Sep 1950   1916 (USNA)(18931984)
19John W. Reeves, Jr. 01 Apr 1949   May 1950   1911 (USNA)[9](18881967) General Manager, Los Angeles International Airport, 19501952.
20C. Turner Joy 01 Aug 1949   Jul 1954   1916 (USNA)(18951956) Superintendent, U.S. Naval Academy, 19521954.
21Thomas L. Sprague 15 Aug 1949   Apr 1952   1917 (USNA)(18941972)
22John J. Ballentine 01 Nov 1949   May 1954   1917 (USNA)(18961970)
23Matthias B. Gardner 01 Oct 1950   Aug 1956   1919 (USNA)(18971975)
24Albert G. Noble 29 Dec 1950   Oct 1951   1917 (USNA)(18851980)
25Harold M. Martin 01 Feb 1951   Feb 1956   1919 (USNA)(18961972)
26Arthur C. Davis 12 Feb 1951   Apr 1955   1915 (USNA)(18931965)
27Laurence T. DuBose 30 Mar 1951   Jun 1955   1913 (USNA)(18931967)
28James Fife Jr. 09 Aug 1951   Aug 1955   1918 (USNA)(18971975) Director, Mystic Seaport, 19561975
29Frank G. Fahrion 28 Dec 1951   May 1956   1917 (USNA)(18941970)
30Joseph J. Clark 07 Mar 1952   Dec 1953   1918 (USNA)(18931971)
31Roscoe F. Good 27 Mar 1953   Mar 1958   1919 (USNA)(18971974)
32William K. Phillips 28 Jul 1953   Aug 1955   1918 (USNA)(18941986)
33John E. Gingrich 30 Jul 1953   Oct 1954   1919 (USNA)(18971960)
34Alfred M. Pride 09 Oct 1953   Oct 1959   1918 (OCS)[28](18971988)
35Edmund T. Wooldridge 06 Apr 1954   Aug 1958   1920 (USNA)(18971968)
36Austin K. Doyle 07 May 1954   Aug 1958   1920 (USNA)(18981970)
37Stuart S. Murray 07 Dec 1955   Aug 1956   1918 (USNA)(18981980) Nephew of Oklahoma governor William H. Murray.
38Cato D. Glover Jr. 08 Dec 1955   Sep 1957   1919 (USNA)(18971988)
39John M. Will 17 Apr 1956   Jul 1959   1923 (USNA)(18991981)
40Byron N. Hanlon 01 Nov 1957   Oct 1958   1921 (USNA)(19001977)

Timeline

Four-star positions

1866–1940

The rank of admiral was created in 1866 to honor the Civil War achievements of David Farragut. Upon his death, another Civil War hero, David D. Porter Jr., succeeded to the title. In 1873, Congress stated that further vacancies in the grade would not be filled, and the rank lapsed with Porter's death in 1890. Congress revived the rank in 1899 to honor George Dewey, stipulating that the grade would again cease to exist upon his death or retirement. In 1903, Dewey was promoted to the unique rank of The Admiral of the Navy, which during his lifetime was considered to be equivalent to an admiral of the fleet, but was later declared to be senior to the five-star grade of fleet admiral.

The Act of March 3, 1915, provided that the commanders in chief of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Asiatic Fleets would have the rank of admiral while so serving, and their seconds in command the rank of vice admiral. In 1916, the chief of naval operations was also made an admiral while so serving, ranking next after The Admiral of the Navy. The ranks of admiral and vice admiral were strictly temporary appointments for the duration of an officer's tour in designated billets, and the temporary admiral reverted to his permanent grade of rear admiral immediately upon vacating the office bearing the title.

In 1917, Congress accommodated the Navy's desire to reorganize the fleet by authorizing the President to appoint three admirals and three vice admirals for any six fleet command positions. All fleet command tours lasted one year except for the commander in chief of the U.S. Fleet, whose term was sometimes renewed for a second year, and the commander in chief of the Asiatic Fleet, whose command was considered a backwater. (The chief of naval operations was appointed for four years.) Officers would typically "fleet up" to admiral or vice admiral for their year of fleet command and then revert to rear admiral to mark time until mandatory retirement.

1941–present

During World War II, the President was authorized to create as many admirals and vice admirals as he deemed necessary for the duration of the emergency. Most of these new creations retired at the end of the war, having been promoted to reward service in the fleet or headquarters, or to achieve parity with wartime counterparts. Although three- and four-star ranks remained temporary appointments, the practice of reverting to a lower grade pending retirement largely halted after 1942, when Congress authorized officers to be retired in the highest grade in which they served on active duty.[29] The rank of fleet admiral was created in 1944, and the four officers promoted to that grade were allowed to remain on active duty permanently.

By 1956, the Navy had equilibrated at a total of seven permanent billets bearing four-star rank: the chief of naval operations (CNO); the vice chief of naval operations (VCNO), the commanders in chief of the unified commands in the Pacific (CINCPAC) and Atlantic (CINCLANT); the commander in chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet (CINCPACFLT); the commander in chief of U.S. Naval Forces, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean (CINCNELM) (retitled commander in chief of U.S. Naval Forces Europe (CINCUSNAVEUR) in 1960); and the commander in chief of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) forces in Southern Europe (CINCSOUTH). In 1965, an eighth billet was added when the chief of naval material (CNM) was promoted to admiral. Occasionally this count would fluctuate when a Navy officer was selected as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS), as the chairman's four-star representative to the NATO Military Committee (USMILREP), or as the director or deputy director of central intelligence; or by special legislation.[23]

When the long-serving director of the naval nuclear reactor program, Hyman G. Rickover, was finally compelled to retire in 1982, his successor was promoted to admiral and appointed director of naval nuclear propulsion, institutionalizing the position as a permanent four-star billet. To compensate, another four-star billet was eliminated by merging Allied Forces Southern Europe with U.S. Naval Forces Europe. Similarly, when the U.S. Atlantic Fleet commander (CINCLANTFLT) was separated from the Atlantic unified commander in 1985, the number of four-star billets was conserved by eliminating the chief of naval material position. The U.S. Atlantic Fleet was replaced by U.S. Fleet Forces Command (COMUSFF) in 2006.

With the end of the Cold War, U.S. Atlantic Command was repurposed as the joint force trainer, becoming U.S. Joint Forces Command in 1999. The change in mission cost the Navy its traditional monopoly over that command, which has since rotated among all the services, but the Navy made up the difference through repeated appointments to other combatant commands and to the vice chairmanship of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (VCJCS). All military commanders in chief were retitled "Commanders" in 2002, when the title of "Commander in Chief" was reserved solely to the President of the United States.

See also

Notes

  1. Dates of rank are taken, where available, from the Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, or from the U.S. Navy register of active and retired commissioned officers, or from the World Almanac and Book of Facts. The date listed is that of the officer's first promotion to admiral, and may differ from the officer's entry in the U.S. Navy register, which lists admirals who reverted to their permanent ranks of rear admiral as ranking from the date of the legislation that ultimately restored them to the rank of admiral, not from the dates of their original appointments.
  2. Positions listed are those held by the officer when promoted to admiral. Dates listed are for the officer's full tenure, which may predate promotion to four-star rank or postdate retirement from active duty.
  3. The number of years of active-duty service at four-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Date of rank" column from the last year in the "Position" column. Time spent between active-duty four-star assignments is not counted, nor is time spent on special duty as an unassigned fleet admiral.
  4. The year commissioned is taken to be the year the officer graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy, or equivalent, which may precede the officer's actual date of commission by up to two years. Prior to 1912, graduates of the U.S. Naval Academy were required by law to serve two years at sea as passed midshipmen before receiving their commission as ensign. Sources of commission are listed in parentheses after the year of commission and include: the United States Naval Academy (USNA), Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC), Officer Candidate School (OCS), warrant; the Massachusetts Maritime Academy (MMA), and the United States Military Academy (USMA).
  5. The number of years in commission before being promoted to four-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Commission" column from the year in the "Date of rank" column.
  6. Notes include years of birth and death; awards of the Medal of Honor, Congressional Gold Medal, Presidential Medal of Freedom, or honors of similar significance; major government appointments; university presidencies or equivalents; familial relationships with other four-star officers or significant government officials such as U.S. Presidents, cabinet secretaries, U.S. Senators, or state governors; and unusual career events such as premature relief or death in office.
  7. Reverted to permanent rank of rear admiral upon vacating an office bearing the temporary rank of admiral.
  8. Advanced to admiral on the retired list with date of rank 21 Jun 1930, as highest grade held during World War I.
  9. Commissioned as ensign after two years of sea duty.
  10. Advanced to admiral on the retired list with date of rank 16 Jun 1942, as highest rank held on the active list.
  11. Advanced to admiral on the retired list with date of rank 14 Aug 1938, as highest rank held while Chief of Naval Operations.
  12. Retired as rear admiral, 01 Jan 1937; advanced to admiral on the retired list, 14 Aug 1938; recalled as admiral, 13 Feb 1941; retired, 11 Feb 1942; recalled as admiral, 12 Apr 1944; retired, 31 Aug 1945.
  13. Retired as rear admiral, Dec 1936; recalled as rear admiral, 13 May 1940; advanced to vice admiral on the retired list, 23 Feb 1942; advanced to admiral on the retired list, 16 Jun 1942; retired, Dec 1946.
  14. Retired as admiral, Aug 1939; recalled as admiral, 06 Jul 1942; promoted to fleet admiral, 15 Dec 1944; rank made permanent, 13 May 1946 (Act of 23 Mar 1946).
  15. Retired as rear admiral, 1939; recalled as rear admiral, 1941; advanced to vice admiral on the retired list, 23 Feb 1942; advanced to admiral on the retired list, 16 Jun 1942; retired, 15 Jan 1943; recalled as admiral, 23 Jun 1943; retired, 15 Jan 1945.
  16. Retired as admiral, as highest rank held on active list.
  17. Retired as admiral, Jul 1942, by Act of Congress; recalled as admiral, Jul 1942; retired, Feb 1945.
  18. Promoted to admiral, 1947, with date of rank 07 Jan 1946.
  19. Reverted to vice admiral for final tour; retired as admiral.
  20. Reverted to vice admiral for final tour; died in office.
  21. Retired as vice admiral, 1964; retained on active duty until 1982; advanced to admiral on the retired list, Dec 1973, with date of rank 16 Nov 1973.
  22. Nomination as U.S. Secretary of Defense withdrawn, 1994.
  23. In 1994, special legislation authorized Charles R. Larson to resume the superintendency of the U.S. Naval Academy, then a two-star billet, as a full admiral.
  24. Nomination as commander in chief, U.S. Pacific Command (USCINCPAC) withdrawn, 1994.
  25. Transferred from U.S. Merchant Marine, 1967.
  26. Retired as vice admiral, Dec 1946; advanced to admiral on the retired list by reason of combat citation, Jan 1954.
  27. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-12-24. Retrieved 2008-11-16.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Struble entered the U.S. Naval Academy in 1911 and received his commission in 1915.
  28. Transferred from U.S. Naval Reserve, 1921.
  29. Act of Congress of July 16, 1942.

References

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