List of Turkish football champions

The Turkish football champions are the annual winners of the highest association football competition in Turkey. Brought to the country by Englishmen, the sport had first taken root in Istanbul, where the Istanbul Football League was founded and became the first football league in Turkey. Other regional and local leagues followed in other major cities, such as Ankara (1922), Adana (1924), Eskişehir (1924), and İzmir (1924).

Turkish football championships
Founded1924
CountryTurkey
Number of teams18
Level on pyramidLevel 1
Current championsGalatasaray
(2018–19)
Most championshipsDe facto:
Fenerbahçe (28 titles)
De jure:
Galatasaray (22 titles)

The first competition to bring forth a national champion was the Turkish Football Championship (Turkish: Türkiye Futbol Şampiyonası), which began in 1924 and continued until 1951.[1] The championship format was based on a knockout competition, contested between the winners of each of the country's top regional leagues. At the end of the 1924 edition, Harbiye were the first club to be crowned champions after completing their fixture unbeaten.[2] They are also the only club who have ever changed their name after winning a championship title, changing their name to Harp Okulu after the first of their three titles. Started in 1937, the National Division (Turkish: Millî Küme) was the first national league competition and was held until 1950.[3]

A few years later, in 1959, the professional nationwide league was introduced, currently known as the Süper Lig. The league is contested on a double round-robin basis and the championship is awarded to the team that is top of the league at the end of the season. The league originally contained 16 teams. Today the Süper Lig is contested by 18 teams. Of the founding clubs in the league, only Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe, and Galatasaray have not been relegated to date. Galatasaray are the most successful Süper Lig club with 22 titles. Fenerbahçe are the most successful club including championships before the start of Süper Lig (1957), having won 28 titles in total so far.[4][5] However, the Turkish Football Federation denies and does not recognise the titles won in the former Turkish Football Championship and National Division, even though they were official championships organised by the TFF itself.

History

Early history and former championships

Football in Turkey stems back to the late 19th century, when Englishmen brought the game with them while living in Salonica (then part of the Turkish Empire).[6] The first league competition was the Istanbul Football League, a regional league for Istanbul clubs which took place for the first time in the 1904–05 season. The league went through several variations until the introduction of the professional nationwide league (Süper Lig) in 1959. Shortly after the foundation of the Turkish Republic and the Turkish Football Federation, several other regional leagues were officially established (or gained official status as some were already founded earlier) in various major cities: Ankara (1922), Adana (1924), Bursa (1924), Eskişehir (1924), İzmir (1924), and Trabzon (1922).[7]

The first competition to bring forth a national champion was the Turkish Football Championship (Turkish: Türkiye Futbol Şampiyonası), which began in 1924 and continued until 1951. The championship format was based on a knockout competition, contested between the winners of the country's top regional leagues. In some of the early years, the championship could not be held due to insufficient funds.[8]

Started in 1937, the National Division (Turkish: Millî Küme) was a national league competition between the strongest clubs of Ankara, Istanbul, and İzmir, which hosted the strongest regional leagues in those decades. The league lasted until 1950.[9] From 1940 to 1950, both top-level championships existed at the same time, which resulted in there being two national champions within a year.

The Federation Cup was created in 1956 and took place as a cup competition to decide a national champion. This champion would go on to participate in the European Cup. The competition was held for two years until it was replaced by the Süper Lig (then known as Millî Lig). Beşiktaş won both editions and earned the right to represent Turkey twice in the European Cup during the two-year span. However, since the Turkish Football Federation failed to register them for the draw in time, they were not able to participate in the 1957–58 season after all.[10][11]

Professional nationwide league

The top clubs from Ankara, Istanbul, and İzmir competed in the 1959 National League. The first season took place in the calendar year of 1959, instead of 1958–59, because the qualifying stages took place in 1958. The clubs who competed in the first season were Adalet, Beşiktaş, Galatasaray, Beykoz, Karagümrük, Fenerbahçe, İstanbulspor, Vefa (all from Istanbul), Ankaragücü, Ankara Demirspor, Gençlerbirliği, Hacettepe (all from Ankara), Altay, Göztepe, İzmirspor, and Karşıyaka (all from İzmir). Six of these clubs are currently competing in the Süper Lig: Ankaragücü, Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe, Galatasaray, Gençlerbirliği, and Göztepe. The first champions were Fenerbahçe and the first "Gol Kralı" (top scorer) was Metin Oktay.[12]

The 2. Lig (Second League) was created at the start of the 1963–64 season and the National League (Millî Lig) became known as the 1. Lig (First League). After the creation of a new second division in 2001, from then on known as 1. Lig, the formerly titled 1. Lig became the current Süper Lig.[13]

Champions

Turkish Football Championship (1924–1951)

(not recognised by TFF)

Season Winners[4][14] Runners-up[4] Leading goalscorer[15] Goals
1924 Harbiye (1) Bahriye not available
1925
Not held due to insufficient funds.
1926
1927 Muhafızgücü (1) Altınordu not available
1928
Not held due to insufficient funds.
1929
1930
1931
1932 İstanbulspor (1) Altınordu not available
1933 Fenerbahçe (1) İzmirspor Zeki Rıza (Fenerbahçe) 10
1934 Beşiktaş (1) Altay not available
1935 Fenerbahçe (2) Altınordu not available
1936
Not held due to the introduction of the National Division.
1937
1938
1939
1940 Eskişehir Demirspor (1) Fenerbahçe not available
1941 Gençlerbirliği (1) Beşiktaş not available
1942 Harp Okulu (2) Göztepe not available
1943
Not held
1944 Fenerbahçe (6) Harp Okulu not available
1945 Harp Okulu (3) İzmit Harp Filosu not available
1946 Gençlerbirliği (2) Beşiktaş not available
1947 Ankara Demirspor (1) Fenerbahçe not available
1948
Not held due to the 1948 Summer Olympics in London.
1949 Ankaragücü (1) Galatasaray not available
1950 Göztepe (1) Gençlerbirliği not available
1951 Beşiktaş (5) Altay not available

National Division (1937–1950)

(not recognised by TFF)

Season Winners[4][9] Runners-up[4] Third place[16] Leading goalscorer[15][17] Goals
1937 Fenerbahçe (3) Galatasaray Beşiktaş Said Altınordu (Üçok) 13
1938 Güneş (1) Beşiktaş Galatasaray Şeref Görkey (Beşiktaş) 13
1939 Galatasaray (1) Ankara Demirspor AS-FA Gücü Cemil Erlertürk (Galatasaray)
Hakkı Yeten (Beşiktaş)
13
1940 Fenerbahçe (4) Galatasaray Muhafızgücü Melih Kotanca (Fenerbahçe) 23
1941 Beşiktaş (2) Galatasaray Fenerbahçe Hakkı Yeten (Beşiktaş) 18
1942
Not held as a result of the weather conditions and some international organizations delaying the regional leagues.
1943 Fenerbahçe (5) Galatasaray Beşiktaş Şeref Görkey (Beşiktaş) 13
1944 Beşiktaş (3) Fenerbahçe Göztepe Kemal Gülçelik (Beşiktaş)
Hakkı Yeten (Beşiktaş)
15
1945 Fenerbahçe (7) Beşiktaş Galatasaray Melih Kotanca (Fenerbahçe) 17
1946 Fenerbahçe (8) Beşiktaş Kayagücü Melih Kotanca (Fenerbahçe) 12
1947 Beşiktaş (4) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray İsmet Artun (Vefa)
Şükrü Gülesin (Beşiktaş)
12
1948
Not held due to the 1948 Summer Olympics in London.
1949
Not held due to the Mediterranean Games.
1950 Fenerbahçe (9) Galatasaray Beşiktaş Lefter Küçükandonyadis (Fenerbahçe) 14

Federation Cup (1956–1958)

(not recognised by TFF until 2002)

Season Winners[4][18] Runners-up[16] Third place[16] Leading goalscorer[15][19] Goals
1956–57 Beşiktaş (6) Galatasaray Altay Nazmi Bilge (Beşiktaş) 8
1957–58 Beşiktaş (7) Galatasaray Lefter Küçükandonyadis (Fenerbahçe)
Metin Oktay (Galatasaray)
10

Süper Lig (1959–present)

Season Winners[4][18] Runners-up[16] Third place[16] Leading goalscorer[15][20] Goals
1959 Fenerbahçe (10) Galatasaray Metin Oktay (Galatasaray) 11
1959–60 Beşiktaş (8) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray Metin Oktay (Galatasaray) 33
1960–61 Fenerbahçe (11) Galatasaray Beşiktaş Metin Oktay (Galatasaray) 36
1961–62 Galatasaray (2) Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş Fikri Elma (Ankara Demirspor) 21
1962–63 Galatasaray (3) Beşiktaş Fenerbahçe Metin Oktay (Galatasaray) 38
1963–64 Fenerbahçe (12) Beşiktaş Galatasaray Güven Önüt (Beşiktaş) 19
1964–65 Fenerbahçe (13) Beşiktaş Galatasaray Metin Oktay (Galatasaray) 17
1965–66 Beşiktaş (9) Galatasaray Gençlerbirliği Ertan Adatepe (Ankaragücü) 20
1966–67 Beşiktaş (10) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray Ertan Adatepe (Ankaragücü) 18
1967–68 Fenerbahçe (14) Beşiktaş Galatasaray Fevzi Zemzem (Göztepe) 19
1968–69 Galatasaray (4) Eskişehirspor Beşiktaş Metin Oktay (Galatasaray) 17
1969–70 Fenerbahçe (15) Eskişehirspor Altay Fethi Heper (Eskişehirspor) 13
1970–71 Galatasaray (5) Fenerbahçe Göztepe Ogün Altıparmak (Fenerbahçe) 16
1971–72 Galatasaray (6) Eskişehirspor Fenerbahçe Fethi Heper (Eskişehirspor) 20
1972–73 Galatasaray (7) Fenerbahçe Eskişehirspor Osman Arpacıoğlu (Fenerbahçe) 16
1973–74 Fenerbahçe (16) Beşiktaş Boluspor Cemil Turan (Fenerbahçe) 14
1974–75 Fenerbahçe (17) Galatasaray Eskişehirspor Ömer Kaner (Eskişehirspor) 14
1975–76 Trabzonspor (1) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray Cemil Turan (Fenerbahçe)
Ali Osman Renklibay (Ankaragücü)
17
1976–77 Trabzonspor (2) Fenerbahçe Altay Necmi Perekli (Trabzonspor) 18
1977–78 Fenerbahçe (18) Trabzonspor Galatasaray Cemil Turan (Fenerbahçe) 17
1978–79 Trabzonspor (3) Galatasaray Fenerbahçe Özer Umdu (Adanaspor) 15
1979–80 Trabzonspor (4) Fenerbahçe Zonguldakspor Mustafa Denizli (Altay)
Bahtiyar Yorulmaz (Bursaspor)
12
1980–81 Trabzonspor (5) Adanaspor Galatasaray Bora Öztürk (Adanaspor) 15
1981–82 Beşiktaş (11) Trabzonspor Fenerbahçe Selçuk Yula (Fenerbahçe) 16
1982–83 Fenerbahçe (19) Trabzonspor Galatasaray Selçuk Yula (Fenerbahçe) 19
1983–84 Trabzonspor (6) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray Tarik Hodžić (Galatasaray) 16
1984–85 Fenerbahçe (20) Beşiktaş Trabzonspor Aykut Yiğit (Sakaryaspor) 20
1985–86 Beşiktaş (12) Galatasaray Samsunspor Tanju Çolak (Samsunspor) 33
1986–87 Galatasaray (8) Beşiktaş Samsunspor Tanju Çolak (Samsunspor) 25
1987–88 Galatasaray (9) Beşiktaş Malatyaspor Tanju Çolak (Galatasaray) 39
1988–89 Fenerbahçe (21) Beşiktaş Galatasaray Aykut Kocaman (Fenerbahçe) 29
1989–90 Beşiktaş (13) Fenerbahçe Trabzonspor Feyyaz Uçar (Beşiktaş) 28
1990–91 Beşiktaş (14) Galatasaray Trabzonspor Tanju Çolak (Galatasaray) 31
1991–92 Beşiktaş (15) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray Aykut Kocaman (Fenerbahçe) 25
1992–93 Galatasaray (10) Beşiktaş Trabzonspor Tanju Çolak (Fenerbahçe) 27
1993–94 Galatasaray (11) Fenerbahçe Trabzonspor Bülent Uygun (Fenerbahçe) 22
1994–95 Beşiktaş (16) Trabzonspor Galatasaray Aykut Kocaman (Fenerbahçe) 27
1995–96 Fenerbahçe (22) Trabzonspor Beşiktaş Shota Arveladze (Trabzonspor) 25
1996–97 Galatasaray (12) Beşiktaş Fenerbahçe Hakan Şükür (Galatasaray) 38
1997–98 Galatasaray (13) Fenerbahçe Trabzonspor Hakan Şükür (Galatasaray) 33
1998–99 Galatasaray (14) Beşiktaş Fenerbahçe Hakan Şükür (Galatasaray) 19
1999–00 Galatasaray (15) Beşiktaş Gaziantepspor Serkan Aykut (Samsunspor) 30
2000–01 Fenerbahçe (23) Galatasaray Gaziantepspor Okan Yılmaz (Bursaspor) 23
2001–02 Galatasaray (16) Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş Arif Erdem (Galatasaray)
İlhan Mansız (Beşiktaş)
21
2002–03 Beşiktaş (17) Galatasaray Gençlerbirliği Okan Yılmaz (Bursaspor) 24
2003–04 Fenerbahçe (24) Trabzonspor Beşiktaş Zafer Biryol (Konyaspor) 25
2004–05 Fenerbahçe (25) Trabzonspor Galatasaray Fatih Tekke (Trabzonspor) 31
2005–06 Galatasaray (17) Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş Gökhan Ünal (Kayserispor) 25
2006–07 Fenerbahçe (26) Beşiktaş Galatasaray Alex (Fenerbahçe) 19
2007–08 Galatasaray (18) Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş Semih Şentürk (Fenerbahçe) 17
2008–09 Beşiktaş (18) Sivasspor Trabzonspor Milan Baroš (Galatasaray) 20
2009–10 Bursaspor (1) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray Ariza Makukula (Kayserispor) 21
2010–11 Fenerbahçe (27) Trabzonspor Bursaspor Alex (Fenerbahçe) 28
2011–12 Galatasaray (19) Fenerbahçe Trabzonspor Burak Yılmaz (Trabzonspor) 33
2012–13 Galatasaray (20) Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş Burak Yılmaz (Galatasaray) 24
2013–14 Fenerbahçe (28) Galatasaray Beşiktaş Aatif Chahechouhe (Sivasspor) 17
2014–15 Galatasaray (21) Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş Fernandão (Bursaspor) 22
2015–16 Beşiktaş (19) Fenerbahçe Konyaspor Mario Gómez (Beşiktaş) 26
2016–17 Beşiktaş (20) Başakşehir Fenerbahçe Vágner Love (Alanyaspor) 23
2017–18 Galatasaray (22) Fenerbahçe Başakşehir Bafétimbi Gomis (Galatasaray) 29
2018–19 Galatasaray (23) Başakşehir Beşiktaş Mbaye Diagne (Galatasaray) 30

Performances

Over the history of the Turkish football championships 14 different clubs have won the title. The most successful club are Fenerbahçe with 28 titles to their credit, most of those coming in Süper Lig competition. They are also the most successful pre-Süper Lig club with 9 titles overall in that era, 6 of them won in the National Division and 3 in the former Turkish Football Championship.

All-time performance (1924–present)

In the table below all national championship titles since 1924 are included, including the former Turkish Football Championship and National Division, which are denied and not recognised by the Turkish Football Federation, even though they were official championships organised by the TFF itself.

Club Winners[4] Runners-up Winning years Runners-up years
Fenerbahçe 28 26 1933, 1935, 1937, 1940, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1950, 1959, 1960–61, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1967–68, 1969–70, 1973–74, 1974–75, 1977–78, 1982–83, 1984–85, 1988–89, 1995–96, 2000–01, 2003–04, 2004–05, 2006–07, 2010–11, 2013–14 1940, 1944, 1947, 1947, 1959–60, 1961–62, 1966–67, 1970–71, 1972–73, 1975–76, 1976–77, 1979–80, 1983–84, 1989–90, 1991–92, 1993–94, 1997–98, 2001–02, 2005–06, 2007–08, 2009–10, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2014–15, 2015–16, 2017–18
Galatasaray 23 18 1939, 1961–62, 1962–63, 1968–69, 1970–71, 1971–72, 1972–73, 1986–87, 1987–88, 1992–93, 1993–94, 1996–97, 1997–98, 1998–99, 1999–2000, 2001–02, 2005–06, 2007–08, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2014–15, 2017–18, 2018–19 1937, 1940, 1941, 1943, 1949, 1950, 1956–57, 1957–58, 1959, 1960–61, 1965–66, 1974–75, 1978–79, 1985–86, 1990–91, 2000–01, 2002–03, 2013–14
Beşiktaş 20 19 1934, 1941, 1944, 1947, 1951, 1956–57, 1957–58, 1959–60, 1965–66, 1966–67, 1981–82, 1985–86, 1989–90, 1990–91, 1991–92, 1994–95, 2002–03, 2008–09, 2015–16, 2016–17 1938, 1941, 1945, 1946, 1946, 1962–63, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1967–68, 1973–74, 1984–85, 1986–87, 1987–88, 1988–89, 1992–93, 1996–97, 1998–99, 1999–2000, 2006–07
Trabzonspor 6 8 1975–76, 1976–77, 1978–79, 1979–80, 1980–81, 1983–84 1977–78, 1981–82, 1982–83, 1994–95, 1995–96, 2003–04, 2004–05, 2010–11
Harp Okulu 3 1 1924, 1942, 1945 1944
Gençlerbirliği 2 1 1941, 1946 1950
Ankara Demirspor 1 1 1947 1939
Göztepe 1 1 1950 1942
Muhafızgücü 1 1927
İstanbulspor 1 1932
Güneş 1 1938
Eskişehir Demirspor 1 1940
MKE Ankaragücü 1 1949
Bursaspor 1 2009–10

Performance since 1957

Only five clubs have been champions since the beginning of the Süper Lig in 1959: Galatasaray 22 times, Fenerbahçe 19 times, Beşiktaş 15 times (with an additional two titles counted for star purposes, see note below), Trabzonspor 6 times, and Bursaspor once.

Club Winners[18] Runners-up Winning years Runners-up years
Galatasaray
22 10 1962, 1963, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1987, 1988, 1993, 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2006, 2008, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2018, 2019 1959, 1961, 1966, 1975, 1979, 1986, 1991, 2001, 2003, 2014
Fenerbahçe
19 22 1959, 1961, 1964, 1965, 1968, 1970, 1974, 1975, 1978, 1983, 1985, 1989, 1996, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2011, 2014 1960, 1962, 1967, 1971, 1973, 1976, 1977, 1980, 1984, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2016, 2018
Beşiktaş
15 14 19571, 19581, 1960, 1966, 1967, 1982, 1986, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995, 2003, 2009, 2016, 2017 1963, 1964, 1965, 1968, 1974, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2007
Trabzonspor
6 8 1976, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1984 1978, 1982, 1983, 1995, 1996, 2004, 2005, 2011
Bursaspor 1 2010
Eskişehirspor 3 1969, 1970, 1972
Başakşehir 2 2017, 2019
Adanaspor 1 1981
Sivasspor 1 2009

1 Beşiktaş formally requested that championships won in the 1956–57 and 1957–58 editions of the Turkish Federation Cup be counted as Turkish championship titles to the Turkish Football Federation. The Cup was established in 1956 to find a national champion to represent Turkey, after UEFA decided that only national champions could participate in the European Cup.[4] Beşiktaş had therefore earned the right to represent Turkey in the 1957–58 and 1958–59 seasons of the European Cup.[11] However, since the Turkish Football Federation failed to register them for the draw in time, they were not able to participate in the 1957–58 season after all.[10] The ruling on this matter was announced in a press release on March 25, 2002 which indicated that the championships won by Beşiktaş in the Federation Cup will be considered as national championship titles.

Star rating system

The honor of Golden Stars was introduced to recognize sides that have won multiple championships or other honours by the display of gold stars on their team badges and jerseys. In Turkey clubs are permitted to place a golden star above their crest for every five national championships won. For the 2018–19 season Galatasaray are permitted four golden stars, Fenerbahçe and Beşiktaş are permitted three golden stars, and Trabzonspor are permitted one golden star to be placed above their crest on their jerseys.[21]

Performance by city (1924–present)

Location of Turkish football champions

The 14 clubs that have won the championship are from a total of 6 cities:

City Number of titles Clubs
Istanbul 74 Fenerbahçe (28), Galatasaray (23), Beşiktaş (20), Harbiye (1), İstanbulspor (1), Güneş (1)
Ankara 7 Harp Okulu (2), Gençlerbirliği (2), Muhafızgücü (1), Ankara Demirspor (1), MKE Ankaragücü (1)
Trabzon 6 Trabzonspor (6)
Bursa 1 Bursaspor (1)
Eskişehir 1 Eskişehir Demirspor (1)
İzmir 1 Göztepe (1)

See also

References

  1. "Türkiye Futbol Federasyonu Kuruluyor". tff.org (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Retrieved 26 October 2017. 1936'ya kadar süren bu dönemde ilk Türkiye Şampiyonası Ankara'da yapılmış ve şampiyon Harbiye olmuştur.
  2. "TamSaha dergisi – Memleketin ilk futbol birincisi" (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation, Mehmet Yüce. p. 66. Archived from the original on 25 December 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  3. "Türkiye Futbol Federasyonu Kuruluyor". tff.org (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Retrieved 26 October 2017. ...ilk deplasmanlı lig kapsamındaki Milli Küme maçları da yine bu dönemde tertip edilmiştir.
  4. Baki Demirkiran. "Turkey – List of Champions". rsssf.com. Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Archived from the original on 26 September 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  5. "19 değil, 28 şampiyonluk". trthaber.com (in Turkish). TRT Haber. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  6. "Before the national Turkish leagues". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  7. "The champions of the regional leagues". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  8. "TamSaha – Ayaktopu Hikayeleri (14)" (PDF) (in Turkish). No. 135. Turkish Football Federation. February 2016. p. 90. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 August 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2018. Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  9. "Milli Küme". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  10. "Federation Cup 56/57". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  11. "Federation Cup 57/58". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  12. "1959 Milli Lig". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  13. "1963–1964 1. Lig". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  14. "Türkiye Futbol Birinciliği". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  15. "Turkey – List of Topscorers". rsssf.com. Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
  16. "Turkey – Final Tables". rsssf.com. Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  17. "Türkiye Milli Eğitim Kupası". mackolik.com (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2018-06-12. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  18. "Süper Lig Şampiyonu Takımlar". tff.org (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  19. "Türkiye Federasyon Kupası". mackolik.com (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2018-04-06. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  20. "Ligin Gol Kralları". tff.org (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  21. "15. şampiyonluk, 3 yıldız" (in Turkish). Eurosport. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
Sources

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