List of Soviet Union military equipment of World War II

The following is a list of Soviet military equipment of World War II which includes artillery, vehicles and vessels. World War II was the deadliest war in history which started in 1939 and ended in 1945. Following political instability built-up in Europe from 1930, Germany, which aimed to dominate Europe, attacked Poland on 1 September 1939, marking the start of World War II. The USSR (Soviet Union) joined the attack on Poland from 17 September 1939. The war in Europe ended on 8 May 1945 with the capitulation of Germany to the allied (including Soviet) forces. By the end of the war, the Soviet Union produced 19.8 million rifles.[1]

Knives

Name Type Origin Photo Notes
NR-40Knife Soviet UnionSoviet combat knife that was produced after the Winter War in 1940.
AVS-36Bayonet/Knife Soviet UnionSoviet bayonet knife issued with the AVS-36 automatic rifle. The fact that the AVS-36 was used in very limited numbers; most without the bayonet; made it very rare.

Small arms

Pistols (manual and semi-automatic)

Name Type Cartridge Origin Photo Notes
Nagant M1895Revolver7.62×38mmR Russian Empire7-round cylinder.
Tokarev TT-33Semi-automatic pistol7.62×25mm Tokarev Soviet Union8-round magazine. Widely used by officers, did not fully replace the Nagant M1895.
Mauser C96Semi-automatic pistol7.63×25mm Mauser German Empire10-round internal magazine. Small amount captured from German forces.

Rifles, sniper rifles and battle rifles

Name Type Cartridge Origin Photo Notes
Mosin–Nagant M1891/30Bolt-action rifle / Sniper rifle (with 3.5× PU scope attached)7.62×54mmR Soviet Union5-round internal magazine. Most widely used bolt-action rifle by the Red Army.
Mosin–Nagant M1938 CarbineBolt-action rifle7.62×54mmR Soviet Union5-round internal magazine.
Mosin–Nagant M1944 CarbineBolt-action rifle7.62×54mmR Soviet Union5-round internal magazine.
Tokarev SVT-38Semi-automatic rifle7.62×54mmR Soviet Union10-round magazine.
Tokarev SVT-40Semi-automatic rifle / Sniper rifle (with 3.5× PU scope attached)7.62×54mmR Soviet Union10-round magazine. Most widely used semi-automatic rifle by the Red Army.
Federov AvtomatBattle rifle6.5×50mmSR Arisaka Russian Empire25-round magazine. Deployed during the Winter War from stockpiles due to a shortage of submachine guns.[2]
Simonov AVS-36Battle rifle7.62×54mmR Soviet Union15-round magazine. Produced from 1934–1940, it was mostly withdrawn in 1941 due to issues. Used primarily during the Winter War.
Tokarev AVT-40Battle rifle7.62×54mmR Soviet Union10-round magazine. Modified SVT-40 with a different firing selector. Produced from May 1942 until halted in the summer of 1943 due to mostly uncontrollable automatic fire and breakage.

Submachine guns

Name Type Cartridge Origin Photo Notes
PPD-34Submachine gun7.62×25mm Tokarev Soviet Union25-round magazine. Based and adapted from the Suomi KP/-31, was not produced in larger quantities until 1937-1939.
PPD-34/38 / PPD-40Submachine gun7.62×25mm Tokarev Soviet Union71-round magazine.
PPSh-41Submachine gun7.62×25mm Tokarev Soviet Union35, 71-round magazine. Most widely used Soviet submachine gun.
PPS-42 / PPS-43Submachine gun7.62×25mm Tokarev Soviet Union35-round magazine.
Thompson M1928A1Submachine gun11.43×23mm (.45 ACP) United States20, 30, 50-round magazine. 137,790 supplied by the United States during the Lend-Lease program.
M50 ReisingSubmachine gun.45 ACP United States12, 30-round magazine. Supplied by the United States during the Lend-Lease program.

Machine guns

Name Type Cartridge Origin Photo Notes
DP-27 / DP-28Light machine gun7.62×54mmR Soviet Union47-round magazine. Most widely used light machine gun by the Red Army.
DS-39Medium machine gun7.62×54mmR Soviet Union250-round belt.
SG-43 GorunovMedium machine gun7.62×54mmR Soviet Union200, 250-round belt.
PM M1910Heavy machine gun7.62×54mmR Russian Empire250-round belt.
DShK 1938Heavy machine gun12.7×108mm Soviet Union50-round belt.
RPDLight Machine Gun7.62x39mm Soviet Union100-round belt. Saw limited service during the end of WW2.
Bren GunLight Machine Gun303 British United Kingdom30-round detachable box magazine. 2487 supplied by the British Empire during the Lend-Lease program, many mounted on Universal Carriers.

Explosives, hand-held anti-tank and incendiary weapons

Grenades and grenade launchers

Name Type Diameter Origin Photo Notes
Model 1914 grenadeFragmentation grenade45mm Russian EmpireLimited usage during World War II.
F1 grenadeFragmentation grenade55mm Russian EmpireWidely produced grenade. Nicknamed the "limonka" (lemon).
RG-41Fragmentation grenade55mm Soviet Union5 meter kill radius.
RG-42Fragmentation grenade54mm Soviet UnionProduced in 1942 to replace the complex RGD-33. Soviet partisans made copies of it when they were located behind enemy lines.
RGD-33 grenadeFragmentation grenade45mm, 54mm (with fragmentation sleeve) Soviet Union10-15 meter kill radius.
RPG-40 / RPG-41Anti-tank grenade20 cm Soviet UnionEffective against tanks up to 20mm of armour.
RPG-43Anti-tank grenade95mm Soviet UnionImproved version of the RPG-40. Effective against tanks up to 75mm of armour.
RPG-6Anti-tank grenade103mm Soviet UnionImproved version of the RPG-43. Effective against tanks up to 100mm of armour.
Dyakonov grenade launcherGrenade launcher40.5mm Soviet UnionGrenade launcher attachment for Mosin-Nagant rifle. There were four other versions of the grenade besides the main high explosive one.

Mines

Name Type Detonation Origin Photo Notes
TM-35 mineAnti-tank minePressure Soviet Union2.8 kg of TNT.
TM-41 mineAnti-tank minePressure Soviet Union3.9 kg of Amatol or TNT, short cylinder with the entire top surface being used as a pressure plate.
TM-44 mineAnti-tank minePressure Soviet Union5.4 kg of Amatol, broadly similar to the earlier, smaller, TM-41 mine.
TMD-40 mineAnti-tank minePressure Soviet Union3.6 kg of Amatol.
TMD-44 / TMD-B minesAnti-tank minePressure Soviet Union9-9.7 kg of Amatol.

Recoilless rifles

Name Type Calibre Origin Photo Notes
76 K/DRPRecoilless rifle76mm Soviet UnionUsed during the Winter War. It was designed by L.V. Kurchevsky in 1930 and entered service in 1932. It was able to be mounted on GAZ-A trucks, becoming SU-4 self-propelled guns.[3]

Infantry anti-tank rifles and rocket launchers

Name Type Calibre Origin Photo Notes
PTRD-41Anti-tank rifle14.5×114mm Soviet UnionSingle-shot reloadable rifle.
PTRS-41Anti-tank rifle14.5×114mm Soviet Union5-round internal magazine.
M1 BazookaRecoilless anti-tank rocket launcher60 mm United StatesSingle-shot reloadable launcher. 8,500 supplied by the United States during the Lend-Lease program.
PIATAnti-tank projectile launcher83mm United KingdomSingle-shot reloadable launcher. 1,000 supplied by the British Empire during the Lend-Lease program.
PanzerschreckAnti-tank rocket launcher88mm Nazi GermanySingle-shot reloadable launcher. Captured from German forces.
PanzerfaustAnti-tank recoilless gun149mm Nazi GermanySingle-shot disposable launcher. Some were captured in 1944, while many were captured in 1945 from retreating German soldiers and Volkssturm.

Flamethrowers and anti-tank incendiaries

Name Type Origin Photo Notes
FOG-2Flamethrower Soviet UnionFrom 1941, around 15,000 were produced and used during World War 2.
ROKS-2 / ROKS-3Flamethrower Soviet UnionProduced from 1935-1945. Used also during the Soviet-Finnish War (1941—1944).
Molotov cocktailImprovised incendiary bottle SpainImprovised incendiary bottles that were thrown at armoured vehicles.Invented by the Spanish Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War. First widely used by Finnish troops against the Soviets during the Winter War.
AmpulomyotIncendiary anti-tank ampulla-thrower Soviet Union125mm incendiary spherical glass projectile. Use of it was limited in 1941, and became obsolete by 1942.
Zuckermann's bottle-throwerIncendiary anti-tank bottle launcher Soviet UnionAttachment for Mosin-Nagant rifles. Special bottles with incendiary mixtures were used. The bottles were produced in 1942, but became obsolete once Red Army troops were equipped with more anti-tank guns and rifles.

Artillery

Light and heavy infantry mortars

Name Type Origin Photo Notes
RM-3850mm Infantry mortar Soviet UnionLight infantry mortar.
82-BM-3782mm Infantry mortar Soviet UnionLight infantry mortar.
M1938 mortar120mm Heavy mortar Soviet UnionHeavy infantry mortar.
107mm M1938 mortar107mm Infantry mortar Soviet UnionIt was a lighter version of the M1938 mortar made for Soviet mountain troops.

Rocket launchers

Name Type Origin Photo Notes
BM-13 "Katyusha"132mm Multiple rocket launcher Soviet UnionMost widely used multiple rocket launcher by the Red Army. It became known as "Stalin's organ" by German soldiers.
BM-882mm Multiple rocket launcher Soviet UnionSmaller rocket launchers that were mounted on T-40 and T-60 light tanks.
BM-31 "Andryusha"300mm Multiple rocket launcher Soviet UnionHeavy rocket launcher with 12 rocket tubes which used the chassis of a ZIS-12 and the American Lend-Lease Studebaker US6 U3 truck.

Vehicular guns

Name Type Origin Photo Notes
45mm 20-K tank gun45mm Anti-tank gun Soviet UnionMany tanks and other armoured vehicles later used it as their main armament.
57mm ZiS-4 tank gun57mm Anti-tank gun Soviet Union
76.2 mm L-10 tank gun76mm Anti-tank gun Soviet UnionThe main armament of the T-28 tank.
L-11 76.2 mm tank gun76mm Anti-tank gun Soviet UnionThe main armament of the T-34 Model 1940 tank.
F-32 tank gun76mm Anti-tank gun Soviet UnionThe main armament of the KV-1 Model 1940 tank.
F-34 tank gun76mm Anti-tank gun Soviet UnionThe main armament of T-34-76 and KV-1 tanks.
D-10 tank gun100mm Anti-tank gun Soviet UnionThe main armament of the SU-100 tank destroyer.

Field artillery

Name Type Origin Photo Notes
76 mm divisional gun M1902/3076mm Field gun Soviet Union
76 mm divisional gun M1936 (F-22)76mm Field gun Soviet UnionUsed during the Winter War.
76 mm divisional gun M1939 (USV)76mm Field gun Soviet Union
76 mm divisional gun M1942 (ZiS-3)76mm Field gun Soviet Union
76 mm mountain gun M193876mm Mountain gun Soviet Union
76 mm regimental gun M192776mm Infantry support gun Soviet Union
76 mm regimental gun M194376mm Infantry support gun Soviet Union
76 mm mountain gun M190976mm Mountain gun FranceIt became obsolete after it was replaced with several other mountain guns.
100 mm field gun M1944 (BS-3)100mm Field gun / Anti-tank gun Soviet Union
107 mm divisional gun M1940 (M-60)107mm Field gun Soviet Union
107 mm gun M1910/30107mm Field gun Soviet Union
122 mm gun M1931 (A-19)122mm Field gun Soviet Union
122 mm gun M1931/37 (A-19)122mm Field gun Soviet Union
122 mm howitzer M1909/37122mm Field howitzer Soviet Union
122 mm howitzer M1910/30122mm Field howitzer Soviet Union
122 mm howitzer M1938 (M-30)122mm Field howitzer Soviet Union
152 mm gun M1910/34152mm Field gun Soviet Union
152 mm gun M1935 (Br-2)152mm Heavy gun Soviet UnionIt was used by the Red Army in the Battle of Kursk and Battle of the Seelow Heights.
152 mm howitzer M1909/30152mm Field howitzer Soviet UnionMost numerously used 152mm howitzer by the Red Army.
152 mm howitzer M1910/37152mm Field howitzer Soviet Union
152 mm howitzer M1938 (M-10)152mm Field howitzer Soviet Union
152 mm howitzer M1943 (D-1)152mm Field howitzer Soviet Union
152 mm howitzer-gun M1937 (ML-20)152mm Field howitzer Soviet Union

Fortress and siege guns

Name Type Origin Photo Notes
152 mm gun M1910/30152mm Field howitzer Soviet Union
203 mm howitzer M1931 (B-4)203mm Heavy howitzer Soviet UnionIt was used by the Red Army in the Battle of Berlin.
210 mm gun M1939 (Br-17)210mm Heavy howitzer Soviet Union
280 mm mortar M1939 (Br-5)280mm Heavy mortar Soviet Union
305 mm howitzer M1939 (Br-18)210mm Heavy howitzer Soviet Union

Anti-tank guns

Name Type Origin Photo Notes
37 mm anti-tank gun M1930 (1-K)37mm Anti-tank gun Soviet UnionThe gun was closely related to the German PaK 35/36.
45 mm anti-tank gun M1932 (19-K)45mm Anti-tank gun Soviet Union
45 mm anti-tank gun M1937 (53-K)45mm Anti-tank gun Soviet Union
45 mm anti-tank gun M1942 (M-42)45mm Anti-tank gun Soviet Union
57 mm anti-tank gun M1943 (ZiS-2)57mm Anti-tank gun Soviet Union
100 mm field gun M1944 (BS-3)100mm Anti-tank gun / Field gun Soviet Union

Ground-based anti-aircraft weapons

Light anti-aircraft guns

Name Type Calibre Origin Photo Notes
DShK 1938Heavy machine gun12.7×108mm Soviet Union50-round belt.
25 mm automatic air defense gun M1940 (72-K)Air-defence gun25x218mmSR Soviet Union
37 mm automatic air defense gun M1939 (61-K)Air-defence gun37×250mmR Soviet Union200-rounds.
45 mm anti-aircraft gun (21-K)Semi-automatic air-defence gun45×386mmSR Soviet UnionIt was used by the Soviet Navy for most of their ships from 1934 as its primary light anti-aircraft gun until replaced by the fully automatic 37 mm 70-K gun from 1942 to 1943.
37 mm 70-K gunAutomatic air-defence gun37×250mmR Soviet UnionNaval version of 37mm M1939 (61-K).

Heavy anti-aircraft guns

Name Type Calibre Origin Photo Notes
76 mm air defense gun M1938Semi-automatic air-defence gun76.2×558mmR Soviet Union
85 mm air defense gun M1939 (52-K)Semi-automatic air-defence gun85×558mmR Soviet UnionIt was successfully used against level bombers and medium/high altitude targets.

Soviet vehicles

Tankettes

Name Type Origin Quantity Photo Notes
T-27Tankette Soviet Union2,157 (1941)The main armament was the 7.62mm DT light machine gun. Some were captured by Romanian forces.

Tanks

Name Type Origin Photo Notes
T-18 (MS-1)Light tank Soviet UnionBased on the French Renault FT tank.
T-26Light tank Soviet UnionInterwar period light tank that became the most numerous tank during the German invasion.
T-37AAmphibious light tank Soviet Union
T-38Amphibious light tank Soviet Union
T-40Amphibious scout tank Soviet Union
T-30Light tank Soviet Union
T-50Light infantry tank Soviet Union
T-60Light scout tank Soviet UnionReplacement of the obsolete T-38 and T-30 tanks.
T-70Light tank Soviet Union
BT-2Light cavalry tank Soviet Union
BT-5Light cavalry tank Soviet Union
BT-7Light cavalry tank Soviet Union
T-24Medium tank Soviet Union
T-28Medium tank Soviet Union
T-34-76Medium tank Soviet UnionOne of the most widely used tanks in the Red Army. 35,120 were produced.
T-34-85Medium tank Soviet UnionIt was the most influential and produced tank in World War 2. 48,950 were produced.
T-44Medium tank Soviet Union
T-35Heavy tank Soviet UnionDuring the war, they were slow and proved to be mechanically unreliable. 61 were produced.
SMKHeavy tank prototype Soviet UnionOnly one was produced, it was used during the Winter War. It was replaced by the KV tank series.
T-100Heavy tank prototype Soviet UnionTwo were produced. There were unsuccessful trial uses of it during the Winter War. It was replaced by the KV tank series.
KV-1Heavy tank Soviet UnionKnown for its strong armour, it became known as the "Russischer Koloss" – "Russian Colossus" by the German Army.
KV-2Heavy tank / Assault gun Soviet UnionThe main armament was the 152mm howitzer. Due to its combat ineffectiveness, only 334 were produced .
KV-85Heavy tank Soviet UnionIt became the basis for the IS Series tanks.
IS-1Heavy tank Soviet UnionThe IS series was a successor to the KV tank series. IS-1 was a prototype version, which had 130 produced.
IS-2Heavy tank Soviet Union3,854 IS-2s were produced.
IS-3Heavy tank Soviet Union2,311 IS-3s were produced.

Tank-based self-propelled guns

Name Type Origin Photo Notes
SU-5-1 / SU-5-2 / SU-5-3Self-propelled gun Soviet UnionA self-propelled gun that was on the T-26 light tank chassis. SU-5-1 was armed with the 76.2mm divisional gun mod. 1902/30. SU-5-2 was armed with the 122mm howitzer mod. 1910/30.
SU-5-3Self-propelled gun Soviet UnionIt was on the T-26 chassis. Equipped with the 152mm mortar M1931.
SU-14Self-propelled gun prototype Soviet UnionOne was built as a prototype. The main armament was the 152 mm gun (U-30 or BR-2).
SU-100YSelf-propelled gun prototype Soviet UnionOne prototype was made, based on the SU-100 tank and was used during the Winter War. The main armament was the 130mm Naval Gun B-13.
SU-26Self-propelled gun Soviet UnionEquipped with a 76 mm regimental gun M1927.
SU-76 / SU-76MSelf-propelled gun Soviet UnionThe second most produced Soviet vehicle of World War 2, after the T-34. Equipped with a 76 mm ZIS-3Sh gun.
SU-85Self-propelled gun Soviet Union
SU-100Self-propelled gun Soviet Union
SU-122Self-propelled gun Soviet Union
SU-152Self-propelled gun Soviet Union
ISU-122Self-propelled gun Soviet Union
ISU-152Self-propelled gun Soviet Union

Light anti-tank self-propelled guns

Name Type Origin Photo Notes
SU-4Wheeled self-propelled anti-tank gun Soviet UnionOn the chassis of an extended GAZ-A. It was equipped with a 76 K/DRP recoilless gun.
SU-12Wheeled self-propelled anti-tank gun Soviet UnionOn the chassis of a GAZ-AAA. It was equipped with a 76 mm regimental gun M1927.

Tracked anti-aircraft guns

Name Type Calibre Origin Photo Notes
SU-11Self-propelled air-defence gun37×250mmR Soviet UnionIt was equipped with the 37mm automatic air defence gun (61-К).
ZSU-37Self-propelled air-defence gun37×250mmR Soviet UnionIt was equipped with the 37mm automatic air defence gun (61-К).

Armoured cars

Name Type Origin Photo Notes
BA-27Armoured car Soviet UnionFirst Soviet series-produced armoured car. The main armament was the 37mm Puteaux SA 18. Some were captured during the German invasion of the Soviet Union.
D-8Armoured car Soviet UnionThe main armament was two 7.62 DT light machine guns. It was used during the Winter War.
FAIArmoured car Soviet UnionReplacement for the D-8 armoured car. The main armament was the 7.62 DT light machine gun.
BA-IArmoured car Soviet UnionIts main armament was the 37mm 7K gun. The design of the BA-I started a series of heavy armoured cars of Izhorsky plant. These included: BA-3, BA-6, BA-9, and BA-10.
BA-3Armoured car Soviet UnionThe main armament was the 45mm gun 20-K.
BA-6Armoured car Soviet UnionVery similar to the BA-3. Both were used against the Japanese in the Battle of Khalkhyn Gol, in the Finnish Winter War, and against the Germans in the early stages of the Eastern Front.
BA-10Armoured car Soviet UnionThe main armament was the 45mm gun 20-K.
BA-11Armoured car Soviet UnionThe main armament was the 45mm gun 20-K.
BA-20Armoured car Soviet UnionSpecial armoured version of the GAZ-M1 passenger car. The main armament was the 7.62 DT light machine gun.
BA-64Armoured scout car Soviet UnionBased and adapted from a captured German Sd.Kfz. 221. The main armament was the 7.62 DT light machine gun.

Half-tracks

Name Type Origin Photo Notes
BA-30Half-track Soviet UnionA small number of them were produced. The main armament was the 7.62 DT light machine gun.

Trucks

Name Type Origin Photo Notes
GAZ-AATruck Soviet UnionSoviet produced vehicle licensed from the Ford AA model of 1930.
GAZ-AAATruck Soviet Union
GAZ–MMTruck Soviet Union

Passenger/utility vehicles

Name Type Origin Photo Notes
GAZ-64Light utility vehicle Soviet Union2,500 were produced during the war. The focus switched to building armoured BA-64s, with the availability of American made Jeeps.
GAZ-67Light utility vehicle Soviet Union
GAZ-M1Passenger car Soviet Union

Motorcycles

Name Type Origin Photo Notes
PMZ-A-750Heavy motorcycle Soviet UnionThe first heavy motorcycle manufactured in the Soviet Union. Used during the Winter War with unsatisfactory results.
TIZ-AM-600Heavy motorcycle Soviet UnionUsed during the Winter War with unsatisfactory results, it was considered an outdated design.
M-72Heavy motorcycle Soviet UnionMotorcycle meant to replace the PMZ-A-750 and TIZ-AM-600. In the Eastern Front, motorcycles were produced at both the IMZ and GMZ motorcycle plants. All sidecars for both the M-72 and American Lend-Lease bikes were produced at the GMZ.

Tractors & prime movers

Name Type Origin Photo Notes
S-60Tractor Soviet UnionHeavy tractor with a strong engine meant to haul artillery.
S-65Tractor Soviet UnionReplacement of the S-60 for towing heavy weapons. Many of these and S-60s were captured by the German Army during their invasion.
T-20Armoured tractor Soviet UnionThese were most often used to haul artillery, carry troops, and unintentionally as a Tankette/Gun Carrier/APC. It was used during the Winter War and the first half of World War 2. They were often captured by the German Army and fitted with Pak guns.

Engineering and command

Miscellaneous vehicles

Lend-Lease vehicles

Tanks

Name Type Origin Quantity Photo Notes
M3A1 (Stuart III)Light tank United States1,233From 1941-1945, 1,676 were supplied by the United States as a part of the Lend-Lease.[4] 443 were lost at sea.
M5 (Stuart VI)Light tank United States55 were supplied.[4]
M24 ChaffeeLight tank United States22 were supplied in 1944.[4]
M4 Shermanmedium tank United States4,1024,102 were suppiled, of these, 2,007 were the original 75 mm main gun model, 2,095 were with 76 mm tank gun.[5]
Valentine tankInfantry tank United Kingdom3,4622,074 supplied by the UK, 1,388 supplied by Canada. 320 were lost at sea by both countries.

Tank destroyers

Name Type Origin Quantity Photo Notes
T48 Gun Motor Carriage
(SU-57)
Tank destroyer United States650650 were supplied.[4] On the chassis of the M3 Half-track equipped with a 57mm gun M1. It was designated as the SU-57 by the Soviet military.

Aircraft

Radars

Rockets & bombs

Cartridges and shells

See also

References

  1. Cohen, Eliot A.; Glantz, David M.; House, Jonathan (1995). "When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler". Foreign Affairs. 75 (3): 306. doi:10.2307/20047605. ISSN 0015-7120. JSTOR 20047605.
  2. Monetchikov, Sergei (2005). История русского автомата [The History of Russian Assault Rifle] (in Russian). St. Petersburg: Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps. pp. 18–19. ISBN 5-98655-006-4.
  3. Sami Korhonen (1 November 2000). "Soviet artillery used the during Winter War". The Battles of the Winter War. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  4. "Lend-Lease Armoured Vehicles supplied to the Red Army 1941-1945". WW2 Weapons. 18 December 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  5. Lend-Lease Shipments: World War II, Section IIIB, Published by Office, Chief of Finance, War Department, 31 December 1946, p. 8.
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