List of Second World War Victoria Cross recipients

The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. It takes precedence over all other Orders, decorations and medals; it may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service and to civilians under military command.[1] The award was officially constituted when Queen Victoria issued a warrant under the Royal sign-manual on 29 January 1856 that was gazetted on 5 February 1856.[2] The order was backdated to 1854 to recognise acts of valour during the Crimean War.[3] The first awards ceremony was held on 26 June 1857, where Queen Victoria invested 62 of the 111 Crimean recipients in a ceremony in Hyde Park.[4]

The Victoria Cross was awarded 182 times to 181 recipients for action in the Second World War. The war, also known as World War II (WWII), was a global military conflict that involved a majority of the world's nations, including all of the great powers, organised into two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. The war involved the mobilisation of more than 100 million military personnel, making it the most widespread war in history. In a state of "total war", the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Throughout the six-year duration of the war, weapons and technology improved rapidly, including the use of jet aircraft, radar and nuclear weapons. More than 70 million people, the majority of whom were civilians, were killed, making it the deadliest conflict in human history.[5]

The start of the war is generally held to be 1 September 1939, with the German invasion of Poland and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by most of the Crown Colonies of the British Empire and Commonwealth, and by France. The first Victoria Cross of the war was awarded to Gerard Roope for action whilst in command of HMS Glowworm. The war at sea began immediately after war was declared with the Battle of the Atlantic, in which German U-boats attempted to disrupt and destroy allied convoys. Throughout the war the Royal Navy was tasked with guarding vital shipping lanes and enabling amphibious operations across the globe; the St Nazaire Raid saw five Victoria Crosses awarded.[6] The Battle of the Mediterranean was fought throughout the war and included the Battle of Taranto and Battle of Matapan, as well as protecting convoys including the Malta convoys. In total, 23 servicemen from the Royal Navy were awarded the Victoria Cross including one Royal Marine. Aerial warfare came into its own in World War II with several distinct roles emerging. The role of fighter planes developed during the Battle of Britain, where the Royal Air Force fought for air superiority against the Luftwaffe. The Battle of Britain was the first major campaign to be fought entirely by air forces. It was the largest and most sustained bombing campaign until that date. Initially, RAF airfields were attacked, however as the battle progressed, operations were extended to the strategic level with The Blitz. Britain also conducted controversial strategic bombing campaigns in Europe and Asia; they involved hundreds of aircraft dropping tens of thousands of tons of munitions over a single city. Tactical strikes were also carried out by the RAF including Operation Chastise, where No. 617 Squadron RAF attacked German dams in the Ruhr valley using "bouncing bombs"; Guy Gibson was awarded the Victoria Cross for this action.

The war on the land did not begin until May 1940, as Britain and France were involved in a Phoney War between Germany and the Franco-British alliance. The phoney war ended with the Battle of France where Germany invaded Benelux and subsequently France, which forced British troops to escape from Dunkirk. In 1941, war spread to the Middle East and North Africa as well as the East African Campaign. The United States officially joined the war in December 1941 after the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor. In 1942, British forces under Lieutenant General Bernard Montgomery defeated the Axis forces of General Erwin Rommel in the Second Battle of El Alamein, which marked a major turning point in the Western Desert Campaign and the North African Campaign. It ended Axis hopes of occupying Egypt, taking control of the Suez Canal, and gaining access to the Middle Eastern oil fields. Nine VCs were awarded for action in the Western Desert Campaign. By 1943, the war was being fought in several theatres, including the Pacific, North Africa and Southeast Asia. The Burma Campaign of the Pacific War took place from 1942 to 1945, and saw 29 Victoria Crosses awarded. By 1944 and the Allied invasion of Normandy, the Allies were making ground in several theatres including advances in the Burma Campaign. In Europe, the unsuccessful raid on Arnhem saw five soldiers awarded the Victoria Cross, four posthumously.[7] In May 1945, the Allies accepted the unconditional surrender of German forces, celebrated with VE Day. Actions after VE Day until the war in the Pacific was ended with the surrender of Japan on board USS Missouri on 2 September 1945.[8] saw seven Commonwealth servicemen awarded the VC.

Charles Upham received the Victoria Cross and Bar; two awards for two acts. Upham was only the third recipient of the Victoria Cross and Bar, and the first for combatant actions; the previous two recipients were medical officers of the Royal Army Medical Corps.[9]

Of the 181 recipients 85 were awarded posthumously.

Recipients

  •   This along with a * indicates a posthumous award
NameUnitDate of actionPlace of action
Arthur AaronNo. 218No. 218 Squadron RAF1943-08-1212 August 1943*Turin, Italy[A]
Michael Allmand0066th Gurkha Rifles1944-06-1111 June 1944
23 June 1944*
Pin Hmi Road Bridge, Burma
Charles Anderson002.192/19th Battalion, AIF1942-01-1818–22 January 1942Muar, Malaya
Eric AndersonEast Yorkshire Regiment1943-04-066 April 1943*Battle of Wadi Akarit, Tunisia
John AndersonArgyll and Sutherland Highlanders (Princess Louise's)1943-04-2323 April 1943Longstop Hill, Tunisia
Richard AnnandDurham Light Infantry1940-05-1515–16 May 1940River Dyle, Belgium
Cyril BartonNo. 578No. 578 Squadron RAF1944-03-3030 March 1944*Nuremberg, Germany[A]
John BaskeyfieldSouth Staffordshire Regiment1944-09-2020 September 1944*Arnhem, the Netherlands
Sidney BatesRoyal Norfolk Regiment1944-08-066 August 1944*[C]Sourdeval, France
Ian BazalgetteNo. 635No. 635 Squadron RAF1944-08-044 August 1944*Trossy St. Maximin, France[A]
Stephen BeattieHMS Campbeltown1942-03-2727 March 1942St Nazaire, France
John BeeleyKing's Royal Rifle Corps1941-11-2121 November 1941*Sidi Rezegh, Libya
Premindra BhagatCorps of Indian Engineers1941-01-3131 January 1941 to
1 February 1941
Gallabat, Abyssinia
Frank Blaker0099th Gurkha Rifles1944-07-099 July 1944*Taunggyi, Burma
John BruntSherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment)1944-12-099 December 1944*Faenza, Italy
Richard BurtonDuke of Wellington's (West Riding) Regiment1944-10-088 October 1944Monte Ceco, Italy
Robert CainSouth Staffordshire Regiment1944-09-1717–25 September 1944Arnhem, the Netherlands
George CairnsSouth Staffordshire Regiment1944-03-1313 March 1944*[C]Henu Block, Burma
Donald CameronHMS X61943-09-2222 September 1943Kåfjord, Norway
John CampbellRoyal Horse Artillery1941-11-2121–23 November 1941Sidi Rezegh, Libya
Kenneth CampbellNo. 022No. 22 Squadron RAF1941-04-066 April 1941*Brest, France[A]
Lorne CampbellArgyll and Sutherland Highlanders (Princess Louise's)1943-04-066 April 1943Wadi Akarit, Tunisia
Edward ChapmanMonmouthshire Regiment1945-04-022 April 1945Dortmund-Ems Canal, Germany
Edward CharltonIrish Guards1945-04-2121 April 1945*Wistedt, Germany
Leonard CheshireNo. 035No. 35 Squadron RAF
No. 76 Squadron RAF
No. 617 Squadron RAF
1940-00-00June 1940–July 1944[D]Over Europe[A]
Albert Chowne002.022/2nd Battalion, AIF1945-03-2525 March 1945*Dagua, New Guinea
Aubrey CosensQueen's Own Rifles of Canada1945-02-2625–26 February 1945*Mooshof, Germany
John CruickshankNo. 210No. 210 Squadron RAF1944-07-1717–18 July 1944Atlantic Ocean[A]
Arthur CummingFrontier Force Regiment1942-01-033 January 1942Kuantan, Malaya
David CurrieSouth Alberta Regiment1944-08-1818–20 August 1944Battle of Falaise, France
Roden CutlerRoyal Australian Artillery1941-06-1919 June 1941 to
6 July 1941
Merdjayoun-Damour, Lebanon
Tom Derrick002.482/48th Battalion, AIF1943-11-2424 November 1943Sattelberg, New Guinea
Fazal Din01010th Baluch Regiment1945-03-022 March 1945*Meiktila, Burma
Dennis DonniniRoyal Scots Fusiliers1945-01-1818 January 1945*Stein, (Selfkant) Germany
Thomas DurrantCorps of Royal Engineers1942-03-2727 March 1942*[C]St Nazaire, France
George EardleyKing's Shropshire Light Infantry1944-10-1616 October 1944Overloon, the Netherlands
John Edmondson002.172/17th Battalion, AIF1941-04-1313–14 April 1941*[C]Tobruk, Libya
Hughie EdwardsNo. 105No. 105 Squadron RAF1941-07-044 July 1941Bremen, Germany[A]
Keith Elliott02222nd Battalion, NZEF1942-07-1515 July 1942Ruweisat, Egypt
Harold Ervine-AndrewsEast Lancashire Regiment1940-05-3131 May 1940 to
1 June 1940
Dunkirk, France
Eugene Esmonde825825 Naval Air Squadron1942-02-1212 February 1942*Straits of Dover, England[A]
Edward FegenHMS Jervis Bay1940-11-055 November 1940*Atlantic Ocean
Henry Foote0077th Royal Tank Regiment1942-05-2727 May 1942 to
15 June 1942
Libya
John FooteRoyal Canadian Army Chaplain Corps1942-08-1919 August 1942Dieppe, France
Ian FraserHMS XE31945-07-3131 July 1945Johore Straits, Singapore
John French002.092/9th Battalion, AIF1942-09-044 September 1942*Milne Bay, New Guinea
Christopher FurnessWelsh Guards1940-05-1717–24 May 1940*Arras, France
Philip Gardner0044th Royal Tank Regiment1941-11-2323 November 1941Tobruk, Libya
Donald GarlandNo. 012No. 12 Squadron RAF1940-05-1212 May 1940*Albert Canal, Belgium[A]
Yeshwant GhadgeMaratha Light Infantry1944-07-1010 July 1944*Upper Tiber Valley, Italy
Gaje Ghale0055th Gurkha Rifles1943-05-2424 May 1943Chin Hills, Burma
Guy GibsonNo. 617No. 617 Squadron RAF1943-05-1616 May 1943[E]Möhne Dam, Germany[A]
James Gordon002.312/31st Battalion, AIF1941-07-1010 July 1941Djezzine, Syria
Thomas GouldHMS Thrasher1942-02-1616 February 1942Crete, Mediterranean Sea
Percival Gratwick002.482/48th Battalion, AIF1942-10-2525–26 October 1942*Miteiriya Ridge, Egypt
Robert GrayHMS Formidable1945-08-099 August 1945*Honshū, Japan[A]
Thomas GrayNo. 012No. 12 Squadron RAF1940-05-1212 May 1940*Albert Canal, Belgium[A]
John GrayburnParachute Regiment1944-09-1717–20 September 1944*Arnhem, the Netherlands
George GristockRoyal Norfolk Regiment1940-05-2121 May 1940*[C]River Escaut, Belgium
George Gunn0033rd Regiment Royal Horse Artillery1941-11-2121 November 1941*Sidi Rezegh, Libya
Arthur Gurney002.482/48th Battalion, AIF1942-07-2222 July 1942*El Alamein, Egypt
Bhanbhagta Gurung0022nd Gurkha Rifles1945-03-055 March 1945Tamandu, Burma
Lachhiman Gurung0088th Gurkha Rifles1945-05-1212–13 May 1945Taungdaw, Burma
Thaman Gurung0085th Gurkha Rifles1944-11-1010 November 1944*Monte San Bartolo, Italy
Abdul Hafiz0099th Jat Infantry1944-04-066 April 1944*Imphal, India
Ali Haidar01313th Frontier Force Rifles1945-04-099 April 1945Fusignano, Italy
John HannahNo. 083No. 83 Squadron RAF1940-09-1515 September 1940Antwerp, Belgium[A]
Eric HardenRoyal Army Medical Corps1945-01-2323 January 1945*Brachterbeek, the Netherlands
John HarmanQueen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment1944-04-088–9 April 1944*Kohima, India
John HarperYork and Lancaster Regiment1944-09-2929 September 1944*Antwerp, Belgium
Jack Hinton0022nd Division, NZEF1941-04-2929 April 1941Kalamai, Greece
Charles HoeyLincolnshire Regiment1944-02-1616 February 1944*Ngakyedauk Pass, Burma
Stanley HollisGreen Howards1944-06-066 June 1944Normandy, France
David HornellNo. 162No. 162 Squadron RCAF1944-06-2424 June 1944*Faroes, Atlantic Ocean[A]
Alec HorwoodQueen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey)1944-01-1818–20 January 1944*Kyauchaw, Burma
Clive Hulme0022nd Division, NZEF1941-05-2020–28 May 1941Crete, Greece
Thomas Hunter04343 Commando1945-04-022 April 1945*Lake Comacchio, Italy
James JackmanRoyal Northumberland Fusiliers1941-11-2525 November 1941*Tobruk, Libya
Norman JacksonNo. 106No. 106 Squadron RAF1944-04-2626 April 1944Schweinfurt, Germany[A]
Namdeo JadavMaratha Light Infantry1945-04-099 April 1945Senio River, Italy
David JamiesonRoyal Norfolk Regiment1944-08-077–8 August 1944Grimbosq, France
Francis JeffersonLancashire Fusiliers1944-05-1616 May 1944Monte Cassino, Italy
Karamjeet Judge01515th Punjab Regiment1945-03-1818 March 1945*Meiktila, Burma
Richard Kelliher002.252/25th Battalion, AIF1943-09-1313 September 1943New Guinea
Edward Kenna002.042/4th Battalion, AIF1945-05-1515 May 1945Wewak, New Guinea
John KenneallyIrish Guards1943-04-2828 April 1943Dj. Arada, Tunisia
Geoffrey KeyesNo. 011No. 11 (Scottish) Commando1941-11-1717–18 November 1941*Beda Littoria, Libya
William Kibby002.482/48th Battalion, AIF1942-10-2323–31 October 1942*El Alamein, Egypt
Bruce Kingsbury002.142/14th Battalion, AIF1942-08-2929 August 1942Isurava, New Guinea
George KnowlandNo. 001No. 1 Commando1945-01-3131 January 1945*Kangaw, Burma
Ganju Lama0077th Gurkha Rifles1944-06-1212 June 1944Ningthoukhong, India
Anders LassenSpecial Air Service1945-04-088–9 April 1945*Lake Comacchio, Italy
Herbert Le PatourelHampshire Regiment1942-12-033 December 1942Tebourba, Tunisia
Nigel LeakeyKing's African Rifles1941-05-1919 May 1941*Colito, Abyssinia
Roderick LearoydNo. 049No. 49 Squadron RAF1940-08-1212 August 1940Dortmund-Ems Canal, Germany[A]
Ian LiddellColdstream Guards1945-04-033 April 1945Lingen, Germany
John LintonHMS Pandora
HMS Turbulent
1939-00-00September 1939 to
23 March 1943*[D]
Mediterranean Sea
David LordNo. 271 Squadron RAF1944-09-1919 September 1944*Arnhem, the Netherlands[A]
Charles LyellScots Guards1943-04-2222–27 April 1943*Dj Bou Arada, Tunisia
John Mackey002.032/3rd Pioneer Battalion, AIF1945-05-1212 May 1945*Tarakan Island, Borneo
James MagennisHMS XE31945-07-3131 July 1945Johore Straits, Singapore
John MahonyWestminster Regiment1944-05-2424 May 1944River Melfa, Italy
Hugh MalcolmNo. 018No. 18 Squadron RAF1942-12-044 December 1942*Chougui, Tunisia[A]
Leslie ManserNo. 050No. 50 Squadron RAF1942-05-3030 May 1942*Cologne, Germany[A]
Jack MantleHMS Foylebank1940-07-044 July 1940*Portland, England
Charles MerrittSouth Saskatchewan Regiment1942-08-1919 August 1942Dieppe, France
Ron MiddletonNo. 149No. 149 Squadron RAF1942-11-2828 November 1942*Turin, Italy[A]
Anthony MiersHMS Torbay1942-03-044–5 March 1942Corfu, Greece
George MitchellLondon Scottish1944-01-2323–24 January 1944*Damiano Ridge, Italy
Andrew MynarskiNo. 419No. 419 Squadron RCAF1944-06-1212 June 1944*Cambrai, France[A]
John NettletonNo. 044No. 44 Squadron RAF1942-04-1717 April 1942Augsberg, Germany[A]
Augustus NewmanEssex Regiment1942-03-2828 March 1942St Nazaire, France
William NewtonNo. 022No. 22 Squadron RAAF1943-03-1616–18 March 1943*[D][F]New Guinea[A]
Moana-Nui-a-Kiwa Ngarimu02828th Māori Battalion, NZEF1943-03-2626–27 March 1943*Tebaga Gap, Tunisia
Harry NichollsGrenadier Guards1940-05-2121 May 1940River Escaut, Belgium
Eric NicolsonNo. 249No. 249 Squadron RAF1940-08-1616 August 1940Southampton, England[A]
Gerard NortonKaffrarian Rifles1944-08-3131 August 1944Montegridolfo, Italy
John OsbornWinnipeg Grenadiers1941-12-1919 December 1941*Mount Butler, Hong Kong
Robert PalmerNo. 109No. 109 Squadron RAF1944-12-2323 December 1944*[D]Cologne, Germany[A]
Frank Partridge0088th Battalion, AIF1945-07-2424 July 1945Bougainville, New Guinea
Frederick PetersHMS Walney1942-11-088 November 1942Oran, Algeria
Basil PlaceHMS X71943-09-2222 September 1943Kåfjord, Norway
Patrick PorteousRoyal Regiment of Artillery1942-08-1919 August 1942Dieppe, France
Tul Pun0066th Gurkha Rifles1944-06-2323 June 1944Mogaung, Burma
Lionel Queripel01010th Parachute Battalion1944-09-1919 September 1944*Arnhem, the Netherlands
Agansing Rai0055th Gurkha Rifles1944-06-2626 June 1944Bishenpur, India
Bhandari Ram01010th Baluch Regiment1944-11-2222 November 1944Arakan, Burma
Chhelu Ram0066th Rajputana Rifles1943-04-1919–20 April 1943*Djebel Garci, Tunisia
Kamal Ram0088th Punjab Regiment1944-05-1212 May 1944River Gari, Italy
Richhpal Ram0066th Rajputana Rifles1941-02-077–8 February 1941Keren, Eritrea
John RandleRoyal Norfolk Regiment1944-05-044–6 May 1944*Kohima, India
Reginald Rattey002.2525th Battalion, AIF1945-03-2222 March 1945Bougainville, Solomon Islands
Claud RaymondCorps of Royal Engineers1945-03-2121 March 1945*[C]Talaku, Burma
William ReidNo. 061No. 61 Squadron RAF1943-11-033 November 1943Düsseldorf, Germany[A]
Peter RobertsHMS Thrasher1942-02-1616 February 1942Crete, Mediterranean Sea
Maurice RogersWiltshire Regiment1944-06-033 June 1944Anzio, Italy
Gerard RoopeHMS Glowworm1940-04-088 April 1940Norwegian Sea, off Trondheim
Robert RyderHMS Campbeltown1942-03-2828 March 1942St Nazaire, France
Willward Sandys-ClarkeLoyal Regiment (North Lancashire)1943-04-2323 April 1943*Guiriat El Atach, Tunisia
William SavageHM Motor Gun BoatHM Motor Gun Boat1942-03-2828 March 1942*St Nazaire, France
Arthur ScarfNo. 062No. 62 Squadron RAF1941-12-099 December 1941*Singora, Malaya[A]
Derek SeagrimGreen Howards1943-03-2020–21 March 1943Mareth Line, Tunisia
Alfred SephtonHMS Coventry1941-05-1818 May 1941*[C]Crete, Mediterranean Sea
Sher Shah01616th Punjab Regiment1945-01-1919–20 January 1945*Kyeyebyin, Burma
Robert SherbrookeHMS Onslow1942-12-3131 December 1942North Cape, Norway
William SidneyGrenadier Guards1944-02-088–9 February 1944Anzio, Italy
Gian Singh01515th Punjab Regiment1945-03-022 March 1945Myingyan, Burma
Nand SinghSikh Regiment1944-03-1111–12 March 1944MaungdawButhidaung Road, Burma
Parkash Singh0088th Punjab Regiment1943-01-066 January 1943Donbaik, Burma
Prakash Singh Chib01313th Frontier Force Rifles1945-02-1616–17 February 1945*Kanlan Ywathit, Burma
Ram Singh0011st Punjab Regiment1944-10-2525 October 1944*Tiddim, Burma
Umrao Singh08181st West African Division1944-12-1515–16 December 1944Kaladan Valley, Burma
Ernest Smith001Seaforth Highlanders of Canada1944-10-2121–22 October 1944River Savio, Italy
Quentin SmytheRoyal Natal Carabineers1942-06-055 June 1942Alem Hamza, Egypt
Richard StannardHMT Arab1940-04-2828 April 1940 to
2 May 1940
Namsos, Norway
Leslie Starcevich002.432/43rd Battalion, AIF1945-06-2828 June 1945Beaufort, Borneo
James StokesKing's Shropshire Light Infantry1945-03-011 March 1945*Kervenheim, Germany
Sefanaia SukanaivaluFiji Infantry Regiment1944-06-2323 June 1944*Bougainville, Solomon Islands
Edwin SwalesNo. 582No. 582 Squadron RAF1945-02-2323 February 1945*Pforzheim, Germany[A]
Lalbahadur Thapa0022nd Gurkha Rifles1943-04-055–6 April 1943Rass-es-Zouai, Tunisia
Netrabahadur Thapa0055th Gurkha Rifles1944-06-2525–26 June 1944Bishenpur, India
Sher Thapa0099th Gurkha Rifles1944-09-1818–19 September 1944*San Marino, Italy
George ThompsonNo. 009No. 9 Squadron RAF1945-01-011 January 1945*[C]Dortmund-Ems Canal, Germany[A]
Frederick TilstonEssex Scottish Regiment1945-03-011 March 1945Uedem, Germany
Frederick Topham0011st Canadian Parachute Battalion1945-03-2424 March 1945Rhine, Germany
Leonard TrentNo. 487No. 487 Squadron RNZAF1943-05-033 May 1943Amsterdam, the Netherlands[A]
Lloyd TriggNo. 200No. 200 Squadron RAF1943-08-1111 August 1943*Atlantic Ocean[A]
Paul TriquetRoyal 22e Régiment1943-12-1414 December 1943Casa Berardi, Italy
Hanson TurnerWest Yorkshire Regiment (The Prince of Wales's Own)1944-06-066–7 June 1944*Ningthoukhong, India
Victor TurnerRifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own)1942-10-2727 October 1942El Alamein, Egypt
Charles Upham0022nd Division, NZEF1941-05-2222–30 May 1941
14–15 July 1942[B]
Crete, Greece
El Ruweisat Ridge, Egypt
Richard WakefordHampshire Regiment1944-05-1313 May 1944Cassino, Italy
Adam WakenshawDurham Light Infantry1942-06-2727 June 1942*Mersa Matruh, Egypt
Malcolm WanklynHMS Upholder1941-05-2424 May 1941Sicily, Mediterranean Sea
Bernard Warburton-LeeHMS Hardy1940-04-1010 April 1940*Ofotfjord, Norway
James WardNo. 075No. 75 Squadron RAF1941-07-077 July 1941Munster, Germany[A]
Tasker WatkinsWelch Regiment1944-08-1616 August 1944Barfour, France
Basil WestonGreen Howards1945-03-033 March 1945*Meiktila, Burma
Thomas WilkinsonHMS Li Wo1942-02-1414 February 1942*Java Sea, Malaya
Eric WilsonEast Surrey Regiment1940-08-1111–15 August 1940Observation Hill, Somaliland
Peter WrightColdstream Guards1943-09-2525 September 1943Salerno, Italy

Notes

  • A ^ Victoria Cross was awarded for actions during air combat.
  • B ^ This was a Bar to the Victoria Cross
  • C ^ Recipient died of their wounds
  • D ^ Recipient awarded the Victoria Cross for an extended period of sustained courage and outstanding leadership, rather than a single act of valour.
  • E ^ Gibson was awarded the Victoria Cross primarily for the raid, but also for leadership and valour demonstrated as master bomber on many previous sorties.
  • F ^ Newton was captured by Japanese Forces and beheaded 11 days later.[10]
  • G  Sergeant H.V. Turner, Subedar Netrabahadur Thapa, Naik Agansing Rai and Rifleman Ganju Lama won their VCs in combat in the state of Manipur in India but the citations wrongly referred to the locations as being in Burma. These errors have been rectified in the list above.

References

General
  • Arthur, Max (2005). Symbol of Courage; Men behind the Medal. Pan Books. ISBN 978-0-330-49133-4.
  • Ashcroft, Michael (2006). Victoria Cross Heroes. Headline Book Publishing. ISBN 0-7553-1632-0.
  • Crook, M. J. (1975). The Evolution of the Victoria Cross. Midas Books. ISBN 0-85936-041-5.
  • "Victoria Cross Registers". The National Archives. Retrieved 11 April 2008.
Specific
  1. Ashcroft, Michael; preface; XI–XIII
  2. The Gazette publishing the original Royal Warrant
    "No. 21846". The London Gazette. 5 February 1856. pp. 410–411.
  3. Ashcroft, Michael; pp. 7–10
  4. Ashcroft, Michael; Preface to Victoria Cross Heroes
  5. Ashcroft, Michael; p. 255
  6. Arthur, Max; pp. 419–422
  7. Arthur, Max; pp. 497–501
  8. Aschcroft, Michael; pp. 255–256
  9. Ashcroft, Michael; p. 259
  10. Arthur, Max; p. 38

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