List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of Cambridge

This list of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of Cambridge comprehensively shows the alumni, faculty members as well as researchers of the University of Cambridge who were awarded the Nobel Prize or the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. The Nobel Prizes, established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, are awarded to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine.[1] An associated prize, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (commonly known as the Nobel Prize in Economics), was instituted by Sweden's central bank, Sveriges Riksbank, in 1968 and first awarded in 1969.[2]

As of October 2019, 120 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the University of Cambridge, and 109 of them are officially listed as "Cambridge's Nobel Laureates" by the university for being "alumni; academics who carried out research at the University in postdoctoral or faculty positions; and official appointments (visiting fellowships, lectureships, etc.)".[3] Among the 120 laureates, 70 are Cambridge alumni (graduates and attendees), and 45 have been long-term academic members of the university faculty or Cambridge-affiliated research organisations. Subject-wise, 36 laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physics, more than any other subject. In particular, Frederick Sanger received two Nobel Prizes in Chemistry, in 1958 and in 1980; since this is a list of laureates, not prizes, he is counted only once.[4][5]

Inclusion criteria

General rules

The university affiliations in this list are all official academic affiliations such as degree programs and official academic employment. Non-academic affiliations such as advisory committee and administrative staff are generally excluded. The official academic affiliations fall into three categories: 1) Alumni (graduates and attendees), 2) Long-term Academic Staff, and 3) Short-term Academic Staff. Graduates are defined as those who hold Bachelor's, Master's, Doctorate, or equivalent degrees from the University of Cambridge, while attendees are those who formally enrolled in a degree program at Cambridge but did not complete the program; thus, honorary degrees, posthumous degrees, summer attendees, exchange students, and auditing students are excluded. The category of "Long-term Academic Staff" consists of tenure/tenure-track and equivalent academic positions, while that of "Short-term Academic Staff" consists of lecturers (without tenure), postdoctoral researchers (postdocs), visiting professors/scholars (visitors), and equivalent academic positions. At University of Cambridge, the specific academic title solely determines the type of affiliation, regardless of the actual time the position was held by a laureate.

Further explanations on "visitors" under "Short-term Academic Staff" are presented as follows. 1) All informal or personal visits are excluded from the list; 2) all employment-based visiting positions, which carry teaching/research duties, are included as affiliations in the list; 3) as for award/honor-based visiting positions, to minimise controversy this list takes a conservative view and includes the positions as affiliations only if the laureates were required to assume employment-level duty (teaching/research) or the laureates specifically classified the visiting positions as "affiliation" or similar in reliable sources such as their curriculum vita. In particular, attending meetings and giving public lectures, talks or non-curricular seminars at University of Cambridge is not a form of employment-level duty. Finally, summer visitors are generally excluded from the list unless summer work yielded significant end products such as research publications and components of Nobel-winning work, since summer terms are not part of formal academic years.

The official Fellows at various Colleges of Cambridge University are long-term academic staff with teaching/research duties.[6][7] They are thus included in this list. On the contrary, the "Overseas Fellowship" in Churchill College and other similar visiting/honorary fellowships at the Colleges are award/honor-based visiting positions without employment-level duty, which are generally excluded from the list.[8][9][10]

Affiliated organisations

The Cavendish Laboratory is a part of the University of Cambridge, and thus its affiliated Nobel laureates are included in the list.[11][12]

The Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology (MRC LMB) traces its root to a research unit within the Cavendish Laboratory of University of Cambridge.[13] On 28 May 1962, however, the research unit officially moved out of the Cavendish lab to become a relatively independent department from the university.[13][14][15][16][17] Thus, affiliates of MRC LMB are generally not counted as affiliates of the university starting 28 May 1962.[18]

Some of the Nobel Laureates of MRC LMB (but not of the university)
Name Noble Prize Year Affiliation with MRC LMB
Arieh Warshel Chemistry 2013 EMBO Fellow (1974–1975)[18][19][20]
Roger Kornberg Chemistry 2006 Postdoctoral Researcher (1972–1975)[18]
Andrew Fire Physiology or Medicine 2006 Postdoctoral Researcher (1983–1986)[18]
Robert Horvitz Physiology or Medicine 2002 Postdoctoral Researcher (1974–1978)[21]
Michael Smith Chemistry 1993 Visiting Researcher (1975–1976)[18]
Sidney Altman Chemistry 1989 Visiting Researcher (1969–1971)[18]
Georges Köhler Physiology or Medicine 1984 EMBO Fellow (1974–1976)[22]

Summary

In the following list, the number following a person's name is the year they received the prize; in particular, a number with asterisk (*) means the person received the award while they were working at the University of Cambridge (including emeritus staff). A name underlined implies that this person has already been listed in a previous category (i.e., multiple affiliations).

Alumni Long-term academic staff Short-term academic staff
Physics (36)
  1. David Thouless - 2016
  2. John M. Kosterlitz - 2016
  3. Duncan Haldane - 2016
  4. Norman Ramsey - 1989
  5. S. Chandrasekhar - 1983
  6. Abdus Salam - 1979
  7. Pyotr Kapitsa - 1978
  8. Nevill Mott - 1977
  9. Antony Hewish - 1974
  10. Brian Josephson - 1973
  11. Ernest Walton - 1951
  12. John Cockcroft - 1951
  13. Cecil Powell - 1950
  14. Patrick Blackett - 1948
  15. Edward V. Appleton - 1947
  16. George P. Thomson - 1937
  17. James Chadwick - 1935
  18. Paul Dirac - 1933
  19. Owen Richardson - 1928
  20. Charles T. R. Wilson - 1927
  21. Lawrence Bragg - 1915
  22. William H. Bragg - 1915
  23. J. J. Thomson - 1906
  24. Lord Rayleigh - 1904
  1. Didier Queloz - 2019*
  2. Nevill Mott - 1977*
  3. Philip W. Anderson - 1977
  4. Antony Hewish - 1974*
  5. Martin Ryle - 1974*
  6. Brian Josephson - 1973*
  7. John Cockcroft - 1951
  8. Patrick Blackett - 1948
  9. Edward Appleton - 1947
  10. George Thomson - 1937
  11. James Chadwick - 1935
  12. Paul Dirac - 1933*
  13. Owen Richardson - 1928
  14. Charles T. R. Wilson - 1927*
  15. Lawrence Bragg - 1915
  16. J. J. Thomson - 1906*
  17. Lord Rayleigh - 1904
  1. Michel Mayor - 2019
  2. David Thouless - 2016
  3. William A. Fowler - 1983
  4. Abdus Salam - 1979
  5. Pyotr Kapitsa - 1978
  6. Ivar Giaever- 1973
  7. Murray Gell-Mann - 1969
  8. Hans Bethe- 1967
  9. Max Born - 1954
  10. George P. Thomson - 1937
  11. Arthur Compton- 1927
  12. Niels Bohr - 1922
  13. Charles Barkla - 1917
  14. William H. Bragg - 1915
Chemistry (30)
  1. Greg Winter - 2018
  2. Richard Henderson - 2017
  3. Michael Levitt - 2013
  4. Roger Tsien - 2008
  5. Alan MacDiarmid - 2000
  6. John Pople - 1998
  7. Aaron Klug - 1982
  8. Frederick Sanger - 1958, 1980
  9. Walter Gilbert - 1980
  10. Peter D. Mitchell - 1978
  11. George Porter - 1967
  12. Ronald Norrish - 1967
  13. Dorothy Hodgkin - 1964
  14. Max Perutz - 1962
  15. John Kendrew - 1962
  16. Richard Synge - 1952
  17. Archer Martin - 1952
  18. Ernest Rutherford - 1908
  1. Greg Winter - 2018*
  2. Richard Henderson - 2017
  3. Venki Ramakrishnan - 2009
  4. John E. Walker - 1997
  5. Aaron Klug - 1982*
  6. Frederick Sanger- 1958*, 1980*
  7. George Porter - 1967
  8. Ronald Norrish - 1967*
  9. Max Perutz- 1962
  10. John Kendrew - 1962
  11. Lord Todd - 1957*
  12. Francis Aston - 1922*
  13. Ernest Rutherford - 1908
  1. Greg Winter - 2018
  2. Joachim Frank - 2017
  3. Thomas Steitz - 2009
  4. Roger Tsien - 2008
  5. Richard Schrock - 2005
  6. John Pople - 1998
  7. Jean-Marie Lehn - 1987*
  8. Peter Mitchell - 1978
  9. Stanford Moore - 1972
  10. Luis Leloir - 1970
  11. Lars Onsager - 1968
  12. Fritz Haber - 1918
Physiology or Medicine (31)
  1. Peter J. Ratcliffe - 2019
  2. Elizabeth Blackburn - 2009
  3. Martin Evans - 2007
  4. John Sulston - 2002
  5. Tim Hunt - 2001
  6. César Milstein - 1984
  7. Allan Cormack - 1979
  8. Rodney Porter - 1972
  9. Andrew Huxley - 1963
  10. Alan Hodgkin - 1963
  11. Maurice Wilkins - 1962
  12. Francis Crick - 1962
  13. Howard Florey - 1945
  14. Albert Szent-Györgyi - 1937
  15. Henry H. Dale - 1936
  16. Charles Sherrington - 1932
  17. Edgar Adrian - 1932
  18. Archibald Hill - 1922
  1. John Gurdon - 2012*
  2. Robert G. Edwards - 2010*
  3. Martin Evans - 2007
  4. Sydney Brenner - 2002
  5. César Milstein - 1984
  6. Alan Hodgkin - 1963*
  7. Francis Crick - 1962*
  8. Charles Sherrington - 1932*
  9. Edgar Adrian - 1932*
  10. Frederick Hopkins - 1929*
  11. Archibald Hill - 1922
  1. William Cecil Campbell - 2015
  2. Robert G. Edwards - 2010
  3. Paul Greengard - 2000
  4. Edward B. Lewis - 1995
  5. Gobind Khorana - 1968
  6. George Wald - 1967
  7. André Lwoff - 1965
  8. Andrew Huxley - 1963
  9. James Watson - 1962
  10. Hans A. Krebs - 1953
  11. Howard Florey - 1945
  12. Ernst Chain - 1945
Economics (15)
  1. Oliver S. Hart - 2016
  2. Angus Deaton - 2015
  3. Joseph Stiglitz - 2001
  4. Amartya Sen- 1998
  5. James Mirrlees - 1996
  6. Richard Stone - 1984
  1. Amartya Sen - 1998*
  2. James Mirrlees - 1996*
  3. Richard Stone - 1984*
  4. James Meade - 1977*
  1. William Nordhaus - 2018
  2. Oliver S. Hart - 2016
  3. Angus Deaton - 2015
  4. Peter Diamond - 2010
  5. Eric Maskin - 2007
  6. Joseph Stiglitz - 2001
  7. James Mirrlees - 1996
  8. Douglass North - 1993
  9. Robert Fogel - 1993
  10. Milton Friedman - 1976
  11. John Hicks - 1972
  12. Kenneth Arrow - 1972
Literature (5)
  1. Patrick White - 1973
  2. Bertrand Russell- 1950
  1. Mario Vargas Llosa - 2010
  2. Octavio Paz - 1990
  3. Joseph Brodsky - 1987
  4. Bertrand Russell - 1950
Peace (3)
  1. Philip Noel-Baker- 1959
  2. Austen Chamberlain - 1925
  1. Kim Dae-jung- 2000

Nobel laureates by category

Nobel laureates in Physics

No. Name Year Affiliation with University of Cambridge
36 Didier Queloz 2019 Professor of Astrophysics (2013)[23][24]
35 Michel Mayor 2019 Researcher at Institute of Astronomy (1971)[25]
34 David Thouless 2016 B.A. (1955); Lecturer (19611965)[26][27]
33 John M. Kosterlitz 2016 B.A. (1965), M.A. (1966)[28]
32 Duncan Haldane 2016 B.A. in Natural Sciences (1973) and PhD in Physics (1978)[29][30]
31 Norman Ramsey 1989 B.A. (1937), M.A. (1941), D.Sc. (1953)[31]
30 William A. Fowler 1983 Guggenheim Fellow (19541955 and 19611962); Visitor (1964)[32]
29 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar 1983 PhD (1933); Fellow, Trinity College (19331937)[33]
28 Abdus Salam 1979 B.A. (1949), PhD (1952); Fellow, St. John's College (19511956); Lecturer (19541956)[34]
27 Pyotr Kapitsa 1978 PhD (1926); Assistant Director of Magnetic Research at Cavendish Laboratory (19241932)[35]
26 Nevill Mott 1977 B.S. (1927), M.S. (1930); Professor of Physics[36][37]
25 Philip W. Anderson 1977 Professor of Physics (19671975)[38]
24 Martin Ryle 1974 Fellow, Trinity College; Professor[39]
23 Antony Hewish 1974 B.A., PhD (1952); Professor of Radio Astronomy (19711989); University Lecturer (1961–1969)[40]
22 Brian Josephson 1973 B.A. (1960), M.A., PhD (1964); Fellow, Trinity College; Professor[41]
21 Ivar Giaever 1973 Guggenheim Fellow (19691970)[42][43]
20 Murray Gell-Mann 1969 Overseas Fellow, Churchill College (Spring 1966)[44]
19 Hans Bethe 1967 Rockefeller Fellow (1930–1931); Visiting Professor (19551956)[45]
18 Max Born 1954 Researcher, Cavendish Laboratory (19061907); Stokes Lecturer of Physics (1933–1936)[46]
17 Ernest Walton 1951 PhD (1931)[47]
16 John Cockcroft 1951 B.A. (1924), PhD (1928); Fellow, St. John's College; Professor[48]
15 Cecil Powell 1950 B.A. (1925), PhD (1927)[49]
14 Patrick Blackett 1948 B.A. (1921); Research student (19211923); Fellow, King's College[50]
13 Edward V. Appleton 1947 B.A. (1913), M.A. (1914); Professor[51]
12 George P. Thomson 1937 B.A.; Professor; Fellow and Lecturer, Corpus Christi College[52]
11 James Chadwick 1935 PhD (1921); Fellow (19211935) and Master (19481962), Gonville and Caius College[53]
10 Paul Dirac 1933 PhD (1926); Fellow, St. John's College; Lucasian Professor of Mathematics (19321969)[54]
9 Owen Richardson 1928 B.A. (1900), M.A. (1904); Fellow, Trinity College[55][56]
8 Charles T. R. Wilson 1927 B.A. (1892); Professor[57]
7 Arthur Compton 1927 National Research Council (NRC) Fellow (19191920)[58]
6 Niels Bohr 1922 Postdoctoral Researcher (19111912)[59]
5 Charles Barkla 1917 Researcher in Cavendish Laboratory (18991900)[60]
4 Lawrence Bragg 1915 B.A. (1912), PhD; Professor[61]
3 William H. Bragg 1915 B.A. (1885); Researcher[62]
2 J. J. Thomson 1906 B.A.; Fellow, Trinity College; Professor[63]
1 Lord Rayleigh 1904 B.A. (1865); Fellow, Trinity College; Professor[64]

Nobel laureates in Chemistry

No. Name Year Affiliation with University of Cambridge
30 Greg Winter 2018 B.A (1973), PhD (1976); Fellow, Trinity College; Postdoctoral Researcher[65]
29 Richard Henderson 2017 PhD (1969); Fellow, Darwin College[66]
30 Joachim Frank 2017 Senior Research Assistant (1973–1975)[67]
27 Michael Levitt 2013 PhD (1971)[68]
26 Thomas Steitz[Note 1] 2009 MRC LMB Postdoctoral Researcher (1967–1970)[Note 1][18][69][70]
25 Venki Ramakrishnan 2009 Fellow, Trinity College[71]
24 Roger Tsien 2008 PhD (1977); Postdoctoral Researcher[72]
23 Richard Schrock 2005 Postdoctoral Researcher[73]
22 Alan MacDiarmid 2000 PhD (1955)[74]
21 John Pople 1998 B.A (1946), PhD (1951); Lecturer[75]
20 John E. Walker 1997 Director of the Medical Research Council (MRC) Mitochondria Biology Unit (MBU)[76]
19 Jean-Marie Lehn 1987 Alexander Todd Visiting Professor of Chemistry (1984)[77][78]
18 Aaron Klug 1982 PhD (1953); Professor[79]
Frederick Sanger* 1980 B.A (1939), PhD; Professor[5] (*Another Nobel Chemistry Prize in 1958)
17 Walter Gilbert 1980 PhD (1957)[80]
16 Peter D. Mitchell 1978 B.A, PhD (1951); Demonstrator (1950–1955)[81]
15 Stanford Moore 1972 Visitor (6 months)[82]
14 Luis Leloir 1970 Researcher (1936)[83][84]
13 Lars Onsager 1968 Fulbright Scholar (1951–1952)[85][86]
12 George Porter 1967 PhD (1949); Fellow, Emmanuel College[87][88]
11 Ronald Norrish 1967 B.A, PhD; Professor[89]
10 Dorothy Hodgkin 1964 PhD (1937)[90]
9 Max Perutz 1962 PhD; Founder of MRC LMB[91]
8 John Kendrew 1962 B.A (1939), PhD (1949)[17]
7 Frederick Sanger* 1958 B.A (1939), PhD; Professor[5] (*Another Nobel Chemistry Prize in 1980)
6 Alexander R. Todd 1957 Professor; Fellow, Christ's College[92]
5 Richard Synge 1952 B.A (1936), PhD (1941)[93]
4 Archer Martin 1952 B.A (1932)[94]
3 Francis Aston 1922 Fellow, Trinity College[95]
2 Fritz Haber 1918 Visitor (2 months, 1933), hosted by Sir William Pope[96][97]
1 Ernest Rutherford 1908 B.A (1897); Cavendish Professor of Physics[98]

Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine

No. Name Year Affiliation with University of Cambridge
31 Peter J. Ratcliffe 2019 M.B, M.D[99]
30 William Cecil Campbell 2015 Visiting Researcher (in the laboratory of Lawson Soulsby)[100]
29 John Gurdon 2012 Professor[101]
28 Robert G. Edwards 2010 Professor; Ford Research Fellow (1963)[102]
27 Elizabeth Blackburn 2009 PhD (1975)[103]
26 Martin Evans 2007 B.A (1963); Fellow, St Edmund's College[104]
25 John Sulston 2002 B.A (1963), PhD (1966)[105]
24 Sydney Brenner 2002 Senior Fellow, King's College[106][107]
23 Tim Hunt 2001 B.A (1964), PhD (1968)[108]
22 Paul Greengard 2000 Postdoctoral Researcher (1954-1955)[109]
21 Edward B. Lewis 1995 Rockefeller Fellow (1947–1948)[110]
20 César Milstein 1984 PhD (1960); Fellow, Darwin College[111][112]
19 Allan Cormack 1979 Graduate attendee (1947–1950)[113]
18 Rodney Porter 1972 PhD (1948)[114]
17 Gobind Khorana 1968 Postdoctoral Researcher (1950–1952)[115]
16 George Wald 1967 Guggenheim Fellow (1963–1964)[116][117][118]
15 André Lwoff 1965 Rockefeller Fellow (1936)[119]
14 Andrew Huxley 1963 B.A (1938), M.A (1945); Research Fellow, Trinity College[120][121]
13 Alan Hodgkin 1963 B.S (1936); Professor[122]
12 Maurice Wilkins 1962 B.A (1938)[123]
11 James Watson 1962 Researcher in Cavendish Laboratory (1951–1953)[124]
10 Francis Crick 1962 PhD; Founder of MRC LMB[125]
9 Hans A. Krebs 1953 Rockefeller Fellow (1933); Demonstrator of Biochemistry (1934)[126]
8 Howard Florey 1945 PhD (1927); Lecturer in Special Pathology[127]
7 Ernst Chain 1945 Researcher (1933–1935)[128]
6 Albert Szent-Györgyi 1937 PhD (1927)[129][130]
5 Henry H. Dale 1936 B.S (1903), M.D (1909)[131]
4 Charles Sherrington 1932 B.A (1885), M.B (1885)[132]
3 Edgar Adrian 1932 B.A (1911); Professor[133]
2 Frederick Hopkins 1929 Professor; Fellow and Tutor, Emmanuel College[134]
1 Archibald Hill 1922 B.A (1907); Professor[135]

Nobel Memorial Prize laureates in Economics

No. Name Year Affiliation with University of Cambridge
15 William Nordhaus 2018 Senior Visitor (1970–1971)[136]
14 Oliver S. Hart 2016 B.A (1969); Assistant Lecturer and then Lecturer (1975–1980)[137]
13 Angus Deaton 2015 B.A (1967), PhD (1974); Overseas Fellow, Churchill College[138]
12 Peter Diamond 2010 Overseas Fellow, Churchill College (1965–1966)[139]
11 Eric Maskin 2007 Research Fellow, Jesus College (1976–77); Overseas Fellow, Churchill College (1980–82); Visiting Overseas Fellow, St. John's College (1987–88)[140]
10 Joseph Stiglitz 2001 Graduate attendee; Tapp Research Fellow (1966–1970)[141]
9 Amartya Sen 1998 B.A (1955), PhD (1959); Professor[142]
8 James Mirrlees 1996 PhD (1963); Professor; Lecturer[143]
7 Douglass North 1993 Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions (1981–1982)[144]
6 Robert Fogel 1993 Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions (1975)[145]
5 Richard Stone 1984 B.A (1935), M.A; Professor[146]
4 James Meade 1977 Professor; Senior Research Fellow, Christ's College[147]
3 Milton Friedman 1976 Fulbright Scholar (1953–1954)[148]
2 John Hicks 1972 Lecturer; Fellow, Gonville and Caius College (1935–1938)[149]
1 Kenneth Arrow 1972 Overseas Fellow, Churchill College (1963, 1970, 1973, 1986)[150][151]

Nobel laureates in Literature

No. Name Year Affiliation with University of Cambridge
5 Mario Vargas Llosa 2010 Simón Bolívar Professor (1977–1978)[152]
4 Octavio Paz 1990 Simón Bolívar Professor (1969–1970)[152]
3 Joseph Brodsky 1987 Visiting Fellow and Poet-in-Residence, Clare Hall (1977–1978)[153][154]
2 Patrick White 1973 B.A (1935)[155]
1 Bertrand Russell 1950 B.A (1893); Lecturer, Trinity College[156]

Nobel Peace Prize laureates

No. Name Year Affiliation with University of Cambridge
3 Kim Dae-jung 2000 Visiting Fellow, Clare Hall (January to June, 1993)[157][158]
2 Philip Noel-Baker 1959 B.A (1912), M.A[159]
1 Austen Chamberlain 1925 B.A, M.A[160][161]

See also

Notes

  1. Although Thomas Steitz is known to have been affiliated with MRC LMB and LMB's affiliates are generally not counted as affiliates of the University starting 28 May 1962, he is included in this list for now because both the Nobel Prize official website and the University of Cambridge official count suggest he had connections with the University. However, Thomas Steitz may be excluded from the list in the future once the connections are confirmed to be unofficial.

References

  1. "Alfred Nobel – The Man Behind the Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  2. "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  3. "Nobel Prize". University of Cambridge. 28 January 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  4. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  5. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  6. "Master & Fellows – Trinity College Cambridge". www.trin.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  7. "Master & Fellowship – Churchill College". www.chu.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  8. "Categories and titles of Churchill College Fellowships. – Churchill College". www.chu.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  9. "Nobel Prize Winners – Churchill College". www.chu.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  10. "Visiting Fellows | Clare Hall". www.clarehall.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  11. rgo22@cam.ac.uk. "Welcome – Department of Physics". www.phy.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  12. kla29@cam.ac.uk. "The History of the Cavendish – Department of Physics". www.phy.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  13. "History of the LMB – MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology". MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  14. "Fast Facts – MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology". MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  15. "Dr Frederick Sanger has died, age 95". University of Cambridge. 20 November 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  16. "Postdoctoral Opportunities – MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology". MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  17. "John C. Kendrew – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  18. Biology, 2019 MRC Laboratory of Molecular; Avenue, Francis Crick; Campus, Cambridge Biomedical; CB2 0QH, Cambridge; Uk. 01223 267000. "LMB Nobel Facts". MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  19. "Arieh Warshel | The Chinese University of Hong Kong,Shenzhen". www.cuhk.edu.cn. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  20. Biology, Copyright 2013 MRC Laboratory of Molecular (9 October 2013). "LMB Alumni awarded Nobel Prize for Chemistry, 2013". MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  21. "Horvitz Lab Website". web.mit.edu. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  22. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  23. "Professor Didier Queloz wins 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics for first discovery of an exoplanet". University of Cambridge. 8 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  24. a2c6596a8b52405c8db9a22e0212ca87. "Professor Didier Queloz – Cavendish Astrophysics". www.astro.phy.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  25. "Michel Mayor". www.planetary.org. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  26. "Thouless, D. J." history.aip.org. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  27. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  28. "Curriculum Vitae (John Michael Kosterlitz)" (PDF). Brown University. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  29. "F. Duncan M. Haldane - Biographical". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  30. "Haldane, F. Duncan M." history.aip.org. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  31. "Ramsey, Norman, 1915–2011". history.aip.org. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  32. "Fowler, William A." history.aip.org. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  33. "Subramanyan Chandrasekhar – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  34. "Abdus Salam – Curriculum Vitae". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  35. "Pyotr Kapitsa – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  36. "Sir Nevill F. Mott – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  37. "Mott, N. F., Sir (Nevill Francis), 1905–1996". history.aip.org. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  38. "Anderson, P. W. (Philip W.), 1923–". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  39. "Martin Ryle – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  40. Hoffmann, Ilire Hasani, Robert. "Academy of Europe: Hewish Antony". www.ae-info.org. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  41. "Brian D. Josephson – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  42. "Giaever, Ivar". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  43. "Ivar Giaever – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  44. "CV (Murray Gell-Mann)" (PDF).
  45. "Bethe, Hans A. (Hans Albrecht), 1906–2005". history.aip.org. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  46. "Born, Max, 1882–1970". history.aip.org. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
  47. "Ernest T.S. Walton - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  48. "Cockcroft, John, Sir, 1897–1967". history.aip.org. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  49. "Cecil Powell – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  50. "Blackett, P. M. S., Baron Blackett (Patrick Maynard Stuart), 1897–1974". history.aip.org. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  51. "Appleton, Edward Victor, Sir, 1892–1965". history.aip.org. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  52. "George Paget Thomson – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  53. "Chadwick, James, 1891–1974". history.aip.org. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  54. "Dirac, P. A. M. (Paul Adrien Maurice), 1902–1984". history.aip.org. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  55. "Owen Willans Richardson – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  56. "Owen Richardson (A Cambridge Alumni Database)".
  57. "C.T.R. Wilson – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  58. "Compton, Arthur Holly, 1892–1962". history.aip.org. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  59. "Bohr, Niels, 1885–1962". history.aip.org. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  60. "Barkla, C. G. (Charles Glover), 1877–1944". history.aip.org. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  61. "Bragg, William Lawrence, Sir, 1890–1971". history.aip.org. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  62. "William Bragg". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  63. "J.J. Thomson – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  64. "Lord Rayleigh – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  65. "Professor Sir Gregory P. Winter". King Faisal Prize. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  66. "Curriculum Vitae". www2.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  67. "CV (Joachim Frank)" (PDF).
  68. "CV (Michael Levitt)".
  69. "Thomas A. Steitz – Facts". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  70. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  71. "CV (Venkatraman Ramakrishnan)" (PDF).
  72. "Roger Y. Tsien – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  73. "Richard R. Schrock – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  74. "Alan G. MacDiarmid – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  75. "John Pople – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  76. "John Walker | MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit". www.mrc-mbu.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  77. "Jean-Marie Lehn – Curriculum Vitae". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  78. Cambridge, University of (25 September 2008). Statutes and Ordinances of the University of Cambridge 2008. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521731492.
  79. "Aaron Klug – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  80. "Walter Gilbert – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  81. "Peter Mitchell – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  82. "Stanford Moore – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  83. "Luis Leloir – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  84. "Biography: Luis F. Leloir". beckerexhibits.wustl.edu. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  85. "Lars Onsager – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  86. "Lars Onsage r" (PDF).
  87. "George Porter – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  88. "Obituary: Lord Porter". 2 September 2002. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  89. "Ronald G.W. Norrish – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  90. "Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  91. "Max F. Perutz – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  92. "Lord Todd – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  93. "Richard L.M. Synge – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  94. "Archer J.P. Martin – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  95. "Aston, Francis William, 1877–1945". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  96. "Fritz Haber – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  97. "Fritz Haber (1868–1934)" (PDF).
  98. "Ernest Rutherford – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  99. "Peter Ratcliffe". Crick. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  100. "William C. Campbell – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  101. "Sir John B. Gurdon – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
  102. Johnson, Martin H (2011). "Robert Edwards: the path to IVF". Reproductive Biomedicine Online. 23 (2): 245–262. doi:10.1016/j.rbmo.2011.04.010. PMC 3171154. PMID 21680248.
  103. "Elizabeth Blackburn, PhD". Blackburn Lab. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  104. "Sir Martin J. Evans – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  105. "John E. Sulston – Curriculum Vitae". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  106. College, King's; Cambridge; Cb2 1st; UK (7 April 2019). "Sydney Brenner (1927–2019)". www.kings.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  107. "Sydney Brenner (1927–2019)". MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology. 5 April 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  108. "Tim Hunt – Curriculum Vitae". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
  109. "Paul Greengard - Our Scientists". Our Scientists. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
  110. "Edward B. Lewis – Curriculum Vitae". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  111. Rabbitts, Terence H. (31 May 2002). "César Milstein: October 8, 1927– March 24, 2002". Cell. 109 (5): 549–550. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00760-2. ISSN 0092-8674.
  112. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  113. "1979: Allan MacLeod Cormack (1924–1998) | StJohns". www.joh.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  114. "Rodney R. Porter – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
  115. "H. Gobind Khorana – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  116. "Visual Pigments in Single Rods and Cones of the Human Retina" (PDF).
  117. Bowen, E. (2 December 2012). Recent Progress in Photobiology. Elsevier. ISBN 9780323151658.
  118. "John Simon Guggenheim Foundation | George Wald". Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  119. "André Lwoff – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  120. "Andrew F. Huxley – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  121. Gellene, Denise (4 June 2012). "Andrew Huxley, Nobel-Winning Physiologist, Dies at 94". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  122. "Alan L. Hodgkin – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  123. "Maurice Wilkins – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  124. "James Watson – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  125. "Francis Crick – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  126. "Hans Krebs – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  127. "Sir Howard Florey – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  128. "Ernst B. Chain – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  129. "Albert Szent-Györgyi – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  130. "The Albert Szent-Gyorgyi Papers: Biographical Information". profiles.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  131. "Sir Henry Dale – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  132. "Sir Charles Sherrington – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  133. "Edgar Adrian – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  134. "Sir Frederick Hopkins – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  135. "Archibald V. Hill – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  136. "CV (William Nordhaus)".
  137. "CV (Oliver Hart)" (PDF).
  138. "CV (Angus Stewart Deaton)" (PDF).
  139. "CV (Peter A. Diamond)".
  140. "CV (Eric S. Maskin)" (PDF).
  141. "CV (Joseph Stiglitz)" (PDF).
  142. "CV (Amartya Sen)" (PDF).
  143. "James A. Mirrlees – Curriculum Vitae". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  144. "Douglass C. North | Department of Economics | University of Washington". econ.washington.edu. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  145. "CV (Robert W. Fogel)" (PDF).
  146. "Richard Stone – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  147. "James E. Meade – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  148. "CV (Milton Friedman)" (PDF). www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  149. "John R. Hicks – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  150. "Kenneth J. Arrow – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  151. "Kenneth Arrow: 1921–2017 – Churchill College". www.chu.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  152. "Former Simón Bolívar Professors | Centre of Latin American Studies". www.latin-american.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  153. "Research Focus | Clare Hall". www.clarehall.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  154. Glad, John; Foundation, Wheatland (1990). Literature in Exile. Duke University Press.
  155. "Patrick White – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  156. Irvine, Andrew David (2017). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2017 ed.). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.
  157. Han, Sang-Jin; Dae-Jung, Kim; Weizsaecker, Richard Von (22 December 2015). Divided Nations and Transitional Justice: What Germany, Japan and South Korea Can Teach the World. Routledge. ISBN 9781317261032.
  158. "The Kim Dae-jung Memorial". University of Cambridge. 13 November 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  159. "Philip Noel-Baker – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  160. "Chamberlain, Joseph Austen". Cambridge Alumni System.
  161. "The Nobel Peace Prize 1925". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.