List of New Zealand animals extinct in the Holocene

This is an incomplete list of extinct animals of New Zealand. This list covers only extinctions from the Holocene epoch.

Mammals

Bats are the only land mammals known to have inhabited New Zealand before humans arrived. Fossil marine mammals have been found.

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Greater short-tailed batMystacina robusta[1] 1965 New Zealand --

Birds

Extinctions since 19th-century European settlement

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Auckland Islands shore ploverThinornis rossi 1840 New Zealand (Auckland Islands)
Bush wrenXenicus longipes 1972 New Zealand
Chatham bellbirdAnthornis melanocephala 1906 New Zealand (Chatham Islands)
Chatham fernbirdBowdleria rufescens 1895 New Zealand (Chatham Islands)
Chatham Islands penguinEudyptes chathamensis 1872? New Zealand (Chatham Islands) --
Chatham Islands railCabalus modestus 1900 New Zealand (Chatham Islands)
Crested moa Pachyornis australis 1850s New Zealand (South Island) --
Dieffenbach's railGallirallus dieffenbachii 1872 New Zealand (Chatham Islands)
Finsch's duck Chenonetta finschi 1870 New Zealand --
Hawkins's railDiaphorapteryx hawkinsi late 19th century New Zealand (Chatham Islands) --
HuiaHeteralocha acutirostris 28 December 1907 New Zealand
Laughing owlSceloglaux albifacies 5 July 1914 New Zealand
Lyall's wrenXenicus lyalli 1894 New Zealand
Mysterious starlingAplonis mavornata 1774 New Zealand (Cook Islands) --
New Zealand little bitternIxobrychus novaezelandiae 1890s New Zealand
New Zealand merganserMergus australis 9 January 1902 New Zealand (Auckland Islands)
New Zealand quailCoturnix novaezelandidae 1875 New Zealand
North Island piopioTurnagra tanagra 1955 New Zealand (North Island)
North Island snipeCoenocorypha barrierensis 1870 New Zealand (North Island)
North Island takahē Porphyrio mantelli 1894? New Zealand (North Island) --
South Island piopioTurnagra capensis 1963 New Zealand (South Island)
South Island snipeCoenocorypha iredalei 1960s New Zealand (South Island) --

Extinctions since Māori arrival

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
AdzebillAptornis defossor and Aptornis otidiformis 16th century New Zealand
Bush moaAnomalopteryx didiformis 15th century New Zealand
Chatham Islands duckPachyanas chathamica 17th century New Zealand (Chatham Islands) --
Chatham raven Corvus moriorum New Zealand (Chatham Islands) --
Coastal moaEuryapteryx curtus 16th century New Zealand
Eastern moaEmeus crassus 16th century New Zealand (South Island)
Eyles's harrierCircus eylesi 1777 New Zealand --
Giant moaDinornis sp. 16th century New Zealand
Haast's eagleHieraaetus moorei 16th century New Zealand (South Island)
Heavy-footed moaPachyornis elephantopus 16th century New Zealand (South Island)
Hodgen's waterhenGallinula hodgenorum 16th century New Zealand --
Long-billed wrenDendroscansor decurvirostris 14th century New Zealand (South Island) --
New Zealand geeseCnemiornis calcitrans and Cnemiornis gracilis 16th century New Zealand
New Zealand owlet-nightjarAegotheles novazelandiae 13th century New Zealand --
New Zealand ravenCorvus antipodum 16th century New Zealand --
New Zealand musk duckBiziura delautouri 16th century New Zealand --
New Zealand swanCygnus sumnerensis 16th century New Zealand (South Island and Chatham Islands) --
Scarlett's duckMalacorhynchus scarletti 16th century New Zealand --
Scarlett's shearwaterPuffinus spelaeus 13th century New Zealand (South Island) --
Snipe-railCapellirallus karamu 13th century New Zealand (North Island) --
Stout-legged wrenPachyplichas yaldwyni New Zealand (Chatham Islands)
Upland moaMegalapteryx didinus 16th century New Zealand (South Island)
Waitaha penguinMegadyptes waitaha 14th century[2] New Zealand --

Reptiles

Amphibians

Fish

Common nameScientific name Extinction date Range Image
New Zealand graylingPrototroctes oxyrhynchus[5] 1930s New Zealand

Annelida (Oligochaeta) Earthworms

  • Tokea orthostichon[6][7][8] 1861, New Zealand (Auckland).

Insects

Molluscs

See also

References

  1. O'Donnell, C. (2008). "Mystacina robusta". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T14260A4427606. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T14260A4427606.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  2. Fox, Rebecca (20 November 2008). "Ancient species of penguin found in DNA of bones". Otago Daily Times. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2008.
  3. World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Hoplodactylus delcourti". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 1996: e.T10254A3185278. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T10254A3185278.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  4. Australasian Reptile & Amphibian Specialist Group (1996). "Oligosoma gracilicorpus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 1996: e.T15266A4508504. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T15266A4508504.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  5. World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Prototroctes oxyrhynchus (New Zealand Grayling)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
  6. Blakemore (2012). "On Schmarda's lost earthworm and some newly found New Zealand species(Oligochaeta: Megadrilacea: Lumbricidae,Acanthodrilidae, Octochaetidae, & Megascolecidae s. stricto)". Journal of Species Research. JSR. 1(2): 105-132. doi:10.12651/jsr.2012.1.2.105. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  7. Blakemore (2017). "Tokea orthostichon". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2017: 1. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  8. Blakemore (2019). "Redescription of extinct New Zealand earthworm: Tokea orthostichon (Schmarda, 1861)" (PDF). Bull. Kanagawa Prefectural Museum (N.H.). 42: 61-68. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  9. World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Mecodema punctellum". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 1996: e.T12922A3398669. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T12922A3398669.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.

Further reading

  • Bell, B.D. 1994. A review of the status of New Zealand Leiopelma species (Anura: Leiopelmatidae), including a summary of demographic studies in Coromandel and on Maud Island. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, Vol. 21: 341–349.
  • Bunce, M., Worthy, T.H., Ford, T., Hoppitt, W., Willerslev, E., Drummond A., and Cooper, A. 2003. Extreme reversed sexual size dimorphism in the extinct New Zealand moa Dinornis. Nature, 425:172–175.
  • Cooper, A., Lalueza-Fox, C., Anderson, C., Rambaut, A., Austin, J., and Ward, R. 2001. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two extinct moas clarify ratite evolution. Nature 409:704–707.
  • Day, D., 1981, The Doomsday Book of Animals, Ebury Press, London.
  • Gill, B.; Martinson, P., (1991) New Zealand’s Extinct Birds, Random Century New Zealand Ltd.
  • Gill, B. J. 2003. Osteometry and systematics of the extinct New Zealand ravens (Aves: Corvidae: Corvus). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 1: 43–58.
  • Flannery, T., and Schouten, P., 2001, A Gap in Nature: Discovering the World's Extinct Animals, William Heinemann, London. ISBN 0-434-00819-2 (UK edition).
  • Fuller, E., 2001, Extinct Birds, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-253-34034-9 (UK Edition).
  • Holdaway, Richard N., Worthy, Trevor H. and Tennyson, Alan J. D. 2001. A working list of breeding bird species of the New Zealand region at first human contact, New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 28:119–187.
  • Huynen, L., Millar, C.D., Scofield, R.P., and Lambert, D.M. 2003. Nuclear DNA sequences detect species limits in ancient moa. Nature, 425:175–178.
  • Perkins, S. 2003. Three Species No Moa? Fossil DNA analysis yields surprise. Science News, 164:84.
  • Philip R. Millener & T. H. Worthy (1991). "Contribution to New Zealand's late Quaternary avifauna. II: Dendroscansor decurvirostris, a new genus and species of wren (Aves: Acantisittidae)." Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 21, 2: 179–200.
  • Philip R. Millener (1988). "Contributions to New Zealand's late Quaternary avifauna. I: Pachyplichas, a new genus of wren (Aves: Acanthisittidae), with two new species." Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 18:383–406
  • Wilson, K-J, (2004) Flight of the Huia, Canterbury University Press, Christchurch. ISBN 0-908812-52-3
  • World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1996. Karocolens tuberculatus. In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 2 March 2006.
  • World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1996. Mecodema punctellum. In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 2 March 2006.
  • Worthy, T.H. 1998. The Quaternary fossil avifauna of Southland, South Island, New Zealand. Journal of The Royal Society of New Zealand. Volume 28, Number 4, pp 537–589.
  • Worthy, T.H., Holdaway R.N., 2002, The lost world of the Moa: Prehistoric Life of New Zealand, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. ISBN 0-253-34034-9.
  • Worthy, T.H., et al. 2006, Miocene mammal reveals a Mesozoic ghost lineage on insular New Zealand, southwest Pacific. 103 PNAS 19419-19423.
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