List of Muslim states and dynasties

(This article lists some of the states, empires, or dynasties that were ruled by a Muslim elite, or which were in some way central to or a part of a Muslim empire.)

All the disparate Islamic Empires can all be traced back to Muhammad, as the founder not only of the Islamic faith but also the first leader of the Muslim people.

Scholars debate what exactly constitutes an empire. One definition defines an empire as a state that extends dominion over areas and populations culturally and ethnically distinct from the culture/ethnicity at the center of power.

History of Muslim states

The early Muslim conquests began in the lifetime of Muhammad. His successors conquered large swaths of the Middle East and North Africa, in addition to parts of southern Europe and the Indian subcontinent, in the decades after his death. The caliphate founded by his earliest successors, called the Rashidun caliphate, was succeeded by the Umayyad caliphate and later the Abbasid caliphate.

While the caliphates gradually fractured and fell, other Muslim dynasties rose; some of these dynasties grew into "Islamic empires", with some of the most notable being the Safavid, Ottoman, and Mughal Empires.


Regional empires

Grouped by capital or core region


Middle East

Anatolia (Turkey)

Sub-Saharan Africa

North Africa


Southern Europe

Eastern Europe


Central Asia

South Asia

Indian Subcontinent and Afghanistan

Southeast Asia

Malay Archipelago (East Indies) (Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei)

Philippine Islands

See also


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