List of MPs elected in the 1812 United Kingdom general election

List of MPs elected in the United Kingdom general election, 1812

3rd UK Parliament (1806)
4th Parliament (1807)
5th Parliament (1812)
6th Parliament (1818)
7th Parliament (1820)

This is a list of the MPs or Members of Parliament elected to the House of Commons for the constituencies of the Parliament of the United Kingdom in the 1812 United Kingdom general election , the 5th Parliament of the United Kingdom, and their replacements returned at subsequent by-elections, arranged by constituency.[1]

Table of contents:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z By-elections Changes


Aberdeen Burghs (seat 1/1) James Farquhar
Aberdeenshire (seat 1/1) James Ferguson Tory
Abingdon (seat 1/1) Sir George Bowyer Whig
Aldborough (seat 1/2) Henry Fynes Tory
Aldborough (seat 2/2) Henry Dawkins – resigned
Replaced by Henry Gally Knight 1814 – resigned
Replaced Granville Venables Vernon 1815
Aldeburgh (seat 1/2) The Lord Dufferin & Claneboye Tory
Aldeburgh (seat 2/2) Andrew Strahan Tory
Amersham (seat 1/2) William Tyrwhitt-Drake Tory
Amersham (seat 2/2) Thomas Tyrwhitt-Drake Tory
Andover (seat 1/2) Thomas Assheton Smith I Tory
Andover (seat 2/2) Newton Fellowes Whig
Anglesey (seat 1/1) Berkeley Paget Whig
Anstruther Easter Burghs (seat 1/1) Sir John Anstruther – died
Replaced by Alexander Maconochie 1818
County Antrim(seat 1/2) Hon. John Bruce Richard O'Neill Tory
County Antrim (seat 2/2) Earl of Yarmouth Tory
Appleby (seat 1/2) James Lowther Tory
Appleby (seat 2/2) John Courtenay – resigned
Replaced by George Tierney 1812
Argyllshire (seat 1/1) Lord John Campbell
Armagh (seat 1/1) Patrick Duigenan – died
Replaced by Daniel Webb Webber 1816
County Armagh (seat 1/2) William Brownlow – died
Replaced by Henry Caulfeild 1815
County Armagh (seat 2/2) William Richardson Tory
Arundel (seat 1/2) Henry Thomas Howard Molyneux – sat for Gloucester
Replaced by Samuel Romilly 1812
Arundel (seat 2/2) Francis Wilder
Ashburton (seat 1/2) John Sullivan
Ashburton (seat 2/2) Richard Preston
Athlone (seat 1/1) John Wilson Croker Tory
Aylesbury (seat 1/2) George Nugent, 1st Bt.
Aylesbury (seat 2/2) Thomas Hussey – resigned
Replaced by Charles Compton Cavendish 1814
Ayr Burghs (seat 1/1) Duncan Campbell
Ayrshire (seat 1/1) Sir Hew Dalrymple-Hamilton


Banbury (seat 1/1) Frederick Sylvester North Douglas
Bandon Richard Boyle Bernard – resigned
Replaced by William Sturges Bourne 1815
Banffshire (seat 1/1) Robert Abercromby
Barnstaple (seat 1/2) Sir Manasseh Masseh Lopes Tory
Barnstaple (seat 2/2) Sir Eyre Coote
Bath (seat 1/2) Lord John Thynne
Bath (seat 2/2) Charles Palmer
Beaumaris (seat 1/1) Thomas Lewis
Bedford (seat 1/2) Lord George Russell Whig
Bedford (seat 2/2) Samuel Whitbread – died
Replaced by Hon. William Waldegrave 1815
Bedfordshire (seat 1/2) Marquess of Tavistock Whig
Bedfordshire (seat 2/2) Francis Pym Whig
Belfast James Edward May– died
Replaced by Stephen Edward May 1814 – took office
Replaced by John Michel 1816
Bere Alston (seat 1/2) Hon. Josceline Percy
Bere Alston (seat 2/2) Lord Lovaine
Berkshire (seat 1/2) Hon. Richard Neville Whig
Berkshire (seat 2/2) Charles Dundas Whig
Berwickshire (seat 1/1) George Baillie
Berwick-upon-Tweed (seat 1/2) Alexander Allan
Berwick-upon-Tweed (seat 2/2) Henry Heneage St Paul
Beverley (seat 1/2) John Wharton Whig
Beverley (seat 2/2) Charles Forbes Tory
Bewdley (seat 1/1) Miles Peter Andrews – died
Replaced by Charles Edward Wilsonn 1814
Bishops Castle (seat 1/2) William Clive
Bishops Castle (seat 2/2) John Robinson
Bletchingley (seat 1/2) Charles Cockrell Sir Charles Talbot – died
Replaced by Robert William Newman 1812
Bletchingley (seat 2/2) William Kenrick – resigned
Replaced by John Bolland 1814
Bodmin (seat 1/2) Charles Bragge Bathurst
Bodmin (seat 2/2) Davies Giddy
Boroughbridge (seat 1/2) William Henry Clinton Tory
Boroughbridge (seat 2/2) Henry Clinton Tory
Bossiney (seat 1/2) Hon. James Stuart-Wortley Tory
Bossiney (seat 2/2) The Earl of Desart – resigned
Replaced by William Yates Peel 1817
Boston (seat 1/2) William Alexander Madocks
Boston (seat 2/2) Peter Robert Drummond Burrell
Brackley (seat 1/2) Henry Wrottesley Tory
Brackley (seat 2/2) Robert Haldane Bradshaw Tory
Bramber (seat 1/2) John Irving
Bramber (seat 2/2) William Wilberforce Independent
Brecon (seat 1/1) Charles Morgan Robinson Morgan Whig
Breconshire (seat 1/1) Thomas Wood Tory
Bridgnorth (seat 1/2) Hon. Charles Jenkinson
Bridgnorth (seat 2/2) Thomas Whitmore
Bridgwater (seat 1/2) William Astell
Bridgwater (seat 2/2) George Pocock
Bridport (seat 1/2) William Draper Best – took office
Replaced by Henry Charles Sturt 1817
Bridport (seat 2/2) Sir Horace St Paul, Bt
Bristol (seat 1/2) Richard Hart Davis Tory
Bristol (seat 2/2) Edward Protheroe Whig
Buckingham (seat 1/2) Viscount Ebrington– resigned
Replaced by James Hamilton Stanhope
Buckingham (seat 2/2) William Henry Fremantle
Buckinghamshire (seat 1/2) Earl Temple – succeeded to peerage
Replaced by Thomas Grenville 1813
Buckinghamshire (seat 2/2) William Selby Lowndes
Bury St Edmunds (seat 1/2) Lord Charles FitzRoy
Bury St Edmunds (seat 2/2) Frederick Thomas Hervey Foster
Buteshire (seat 0/0) John Marjoribanks


Caernarvon Boroughs (seat 1/1) Hon. Sir Charles Paget
Caernarvonshire (seat 1/1) Robert Williams
Caithness (seat 0/0) Alternated with Buteshire. No representation in 1812'
Callington (seat 1/2) Sir John Leman Rogers – resigned
Replaced by Charles Rodolph Trefusis 1813

Callington (seat 2/2) William Stephen Poyntz Whig
Calne (seat 1/2) Joseph Jekyll – resigned
Replaced by James Macdonald 1816
Calne (seat 2/2) Hon. James Abercromby Whig
Cambridge (seat 1/2) Edward Finch Tory
Cambridge (seat 2/2) Robert Manners Tory
Cambridgeshire (seat 1/2) Lord Charles Manners
Cambridgeshire (seat 2/2) Lord Francis Godolphin Osborne Tory
Cambridge University (seat 1/2) John Henry Smyth Whig
Cambridge University (seat 2/2) The Viscount Palmerston Tory
Camelford (seat 1/2) William Leader Whig
Camelford (seat 2/2) Samuel Scott
Canterbury (seat 1/2) John Baker Whig
Canterbury (seat 2/2) Stephen Rumbold Lushington Tory
Cardiff Boroughs (seat 1/1) Lord William Stuart – died
Replaced by Lord Evelyn James Stuart 1814
Cardigan Boroughs (seat 1/1) Hon. John Vaughan
Cardiganshire (seat 1/1) Thomas Johnes – died
Replaced by William Edward Powell 1816

Carlisle (seat 1/2) Sir James Graham, 1st Bt Tory
Carlisle (seat 2/2) Henry Fawcett – died
Replaced by John Christian Curwen 1816

Carlow (seat 1/1) Frederick John Falkiner
County Carlow (seat 1/2) David Latouche – died
Replaced by Robert Anthony Latouche 1816
County Carlow (seat 2/2) Henry Bruen Tory
Carmarthen (seat 1/1) Vice-Admiral George Campbell – resigned
Replaced by John Frederick Campbell 1813
Carmarthenshire (seat 1/1) Lord Robert Seymour Tory
Carrickfergus (seat 1/1) Arthur Chichester Tory
Cashel (seat 1/1) Sir Charles Saxton, Bt Tory
Castle Rising (seat 1/2) Augustus Cavendish Bradshaw – resigned
Replaced by Earl of Rocksavage 1817
Castle Rising (seat 2/2) Fulk Greville Howard Tory
County Cavan (seat 1/2) John Maxwell-Barry Tory
County Cavan (seat 2/2) Nathaniel Sneyd Tory
Cheshire (seat 1/2) Davies Davenport
Cheshire (seat 2/2) Wilbraham Egerton Tory
Chester (seat 1/2) John Grey Egerton
Chester (seat 2/2) Thomas Grosvenor
Chichester (seat 1/2) Charles Gordon-Lennox Tory
Chichester (seat 2/2) William Huskisson
Chippenham (seat 1/2) Charles Brooke
Chippenham (seat 2/2) Robert Peel – resigned
Replaced by John Maitland 1817
Christchurch (seat 1/2) William Edward Tomline
Christchurch (seat 2/2) George Rose – died
Replaced by George Henry Rose 1818
Cirencester (seat 1/2) Michael Hicks-Beach
Cirencester (seat 2/2) Henry Bathurst Tory
Clackmannanshire (seat 1/1) George Abercromby – resigned
Replaced by Sir John Abercromby 1815– died
Replaced by Alexander Abercromby 1817
County Clare (seat 1/2) Augustine Fitzgerald Tory
County Clare (seat 2/2) Sir Edward O'Brien, 4th Baronet Whig
Clitheroe (seat 1/2) Viscount Castlereagh – sat for County Down
Replaced by Edward Bootle Wilbraham 1812
Clitheroe (seat 2/2) Hon. Robert Curzon Tory
Clonmel (seat 1/1) Rt Hon. William Bagwell Tory
Cockermouth (seat 1/2) Viscount Lowther – took office
Replaced by John Henry Lowther 1816
Cockermouth (seat 2/2) John Lowther – sat for Cumberland
Replaced by Augustus John Foster 1812 – resigned
Replaced by Thomas Wallace 1813
Colchester (seat 1/2) Robert Thornton – resigned
Replaced by Sir William Burroughs 1817
Colchester (seat 2/2) Hart Davis – resigned
Replaced by James Beckford Wildman 1818
Coleraine (seat 1/1) Lord George Thomas Beresford – resigned
Replaced by John Poo Beresford 1814
Corfe Castle (seat 1/2) Peter William Baker
Replaced by George Bankes
Corfe Castle (seat 2/2) Henry Bankes Tory
Cork (seat 1/2) Sir Nicholas Colthurst, Bt Tory
Cork (seat 2/2) Mountifort Longfield Tory
County Cork (seat 1/2) Viscount Bernard
County Cork (seat 2/2) Viscount Ennismore
Cornwall (seat 1/2) John Hearle Tremayne Tory
Cornwall (seat 2/2) Sir William Lemon, Bt Whig
Coventry (seat 1/2) Joseph Butterworth
Coventry (seat 2/2) Peter Moore
Cricklade (seat 1/2) Joseph Pitt
Cricklade (seat 2/2) Thomas Calley Whig
Cromartyshire (seat 0/0) Alternated with Nairnshire. No representation in 1812
Cumberland (seat 1/2) Viscount Morpeth Tory
Cumberland (seat 2/2) John Lowther Tory


Dartmouth (seat 1/2) Edmund Pollexfen Bastard – resigned
Replaced by John Bastard 1816
Dartmouth (seat 2/2) Arthur Howe Holdsworth
Denbigh Boroughs (seat 1/1) Viscount Kirkwall Tory
Denbighshire (seat 1/1) Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, 5th Baronet
Derby (seat 1/2) Henry Cavendish
Derby (seat 2/2) Edward Coke
Derbyshire (seat 1/2) Lord George Cavendish Whig
Derbyshire (seat 2/2) Edward Miller Mundy Tory
Devizes (seat 1/2) Joshua Smith
Devizes (seat 2/2) Thomas Grimston Estcourt
Devon (seat 1/2) John Pollexfen Bastard – died
Replaced by Edmund Pollexfen Bastard 1816
Devon (seat 2/2) Sir Thomas Dyke-Acland, Bt
County Donegal (seat 1/2) Sir James Stewart, Bt Tory
County Donegal (seat 2/2) George Vaughan Hart
Dorchester (seat 1/2) Charles Henry Bouverie – sat for Downton
Replaced by William A'court 1812 – resigned
Replaced by Samuel Shepherd 1814
Dorchester (seat 2/2) Robert Williams
Dorset (seat 1/2) Edward Berkeley Portman
Dorset (seat 2/2) William Morton Pitt
Dover (seat 1/2) John Jackson
Dover (seat 2/2) Charles Jenkinson
County Down (seat 1/2) Hon. John Meade – took office
Replaced by Lord Arthur Moyses William Hill 1817
County Down (seat 2/2) Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh Tory
Downpatrick Charles Stewart Hawthorne – took office
Replaced by Viscount Glerawly 1815
Downton (seat 1/2) Charles Henry Bouverie – resigned
Replaced by Sir Thomas Brooke Pechell 1813
Downton (seat 2/2) Sir Thomas Plumer –– took office
Replaced by Edward Golding 1813
Drogheda Henry Meade Ogle Tory
Droitwich (seat 1/2) Sir Thomas Winnington, Bt – resigned
Replaced by The Earl of Sefton 1816
Droitwich (seat 2/2) Andrew Foley Whig
Dublin (seat 1/2) Robert Shaw Tory
Dublin (seat 2/2) Rt Hon. Henry Grattan Whig
County Dublin (seat 1/2) Hans Hamilton Tory
County Dublin (seat 2/2) Richard Talbot Whig
Dublin University William Plunket Whig
Dumfries Burghs (seat 1/1) Lord William Douglas
Dumfriesshire (seat 1/1) Sir William Johnstone Hope
Dunbartonshire (seat 1/1) Archibald Campbell Colquhoun
Dundalk John Metge – resigned
Replaced by Lyndon Evelyn 1813
Dungannon George Peter Holford
Dungarvan Hon. George Walpole Whig
Dunwich (seat 1/2) Michael Barne
Dunwich (seat 2/2) The Lord Huntingfield I– died
Replaced by The Lord Huntingfield II 1816
Durham (City of) (seat 1/2) Richard Wharton Tory
Durham (City of) (seat 2/2) Ralph John Lambton – resigned
Replaced by George Allan 1813
Durham (County) (seat 1/2) Sir Henry Vane-Tempest, Bt – died
Replaced by John George Lambton 1813
Durham (County) (seat 2/2) Viscount Barnard – took office
Replaced by William John Frederick Vane Powlett 1815
Dysart Burghs (seat 1/1) Sir Ronald Crauford Ferguson Whig


East Grinstead (seat 1/2) George Gunning
East Grinstead (seat 2/2) James Stephen – resigned
Replaced by Sir George Johnstone Hope 1815 – died
Replaced by Lord Strathavon 1818
East Looe (seat 1/2) Sir Edward Buller Tory
East Looe (seat 2/2) David Vanderheyden – resigned
Replaced by Thomas Potter MacQueen 1816
East Retford (seat 1/2) George Osbaldeston
East Retford (seat 2/2) Charles Marsh
Edinburgh (seat 1/1) William Dundas
Edinburghshire (seat 1/1) Sir George Clerk
Elgin Burghs (seat 1/1) Patrick Milne
Elginshire (seat 1/1) Francis William Grant Tory
Ennis James Fitzgerald – resigned
Replaced by William Fitzgerald 1813
Enniskillen Richard Magenis Tory
Essex (seat 1/2) John Archer Houblon
Essex (seat 2/2) Charles Callis Western
Evesham (seat 1/2) William Manning
Evesham (seat 2/2) Humphrey Howorth Whig
Exeter (seat 1/2) William Courtenay
Exeter (seat 2/2) James Buller
Eye (seat 1/2) Sir William Garrow – took office
Replaced by Robert Gifford 1817
Eye (seat 2/2) Mark Singleton


County Fermanagh (seat 1/2) Mervyn Archdall Tory
County Fermanagh (seat 2/2) Hon. Galbraith Lowry Cole Tory
Fife (seat 1/1) William Wemyss
Flint Boroughs (seat 1/1) William Shipley
Flintshire (seat 1/1) Sir Thomas Mostyn
Forfarshire (seat 1/1) William Maule
Fowey (seat 1/2) William Rashleigh Tory
Fowey (seat 2/2) Robert Wigram (junior) Tory


Galway Frederick Ponsonby – unseated on petition
Replaced by Valentine Blake 1813
County Galway (seat 1/2) James Daly Tory
County Galway (seat 2/2) Denis Bowes Daly Tory
Gatton (seat 1/2) Sir Mark Wood, Bt
Gatton (seat 2/2) Sir William Congreve – resigned
Replaced by Mark Wood 1816
Glamorganshire (seat 1/1) Thomas Wyndham – died
Replaced by Benjamin Hall 1814 – died
Replaced by Sir Christopher Cole1817
Glasgow Burghs (seat 1/1) Kirkman Finlay Tory
Gloucester (seat 1/2) Henry Thomas Howard Whig
Gloucester (seat 2/2) Robert Morris – died
Replaced by Edward Webb 1816
Gloucestershire (seat 1/2) Lord Edward Somerset Tory
Gloucestershire (seat 2/2) Sir Berkeley Guise, Bt Whig
Grampound (seat 1/2) John Teed Whig
Grampound (seat 2/2) Andrew James Cochrane Johnstone – expelled
Replaced by Ebenezer John Collett 1814
Grantham (seat 1/2) Robert Percy Smith
Grantham (seat 2/2) Sir William Earle Welby, Bt
Great Bedwyn (seat 1/2) John Jacob Buxton Tory
Great Bedwyn (seat 2/2) James Henry Leigh – resigned
Replaced by John Jacob Buxton 1818
Great Grimsby (seat 1/2) John Peter Grant
Great Grimsby (seat 2/2) Sir Robert Heron, Bt
Great Marlow (seat 1/2) Pascoe Grenfell Whig
Great Marlow (seat 2/2) Owen Williams Whig
Great Yarmouth (seat 1/2) William Loftus
Great Yarmouth (seat 2/2) Edmund Knowles Lacon
Guildford (seat 1/2) Thomas Cranley Onslow Tory
Guildford (seat 2/2) Arthur Onslow Tory


Haddington Burghs (seat 1/1) Thomas Maitland – took office
Replaced by Anthony Maitland 1813
Haddingtonshire (seat 1/1) Charles Hope – resigned
Replaced by Sir James Suttie 1816
Hampshire (seat 1/2) Thomas Freeman Heathcote
Hampshire (seat 2/2) William John Chute
Harwich (seat 1/2) Nicholas Vansittart Tory
Harwich (seat 2/2) John Hiley Addington
Haslemere (seat 1/2) Robert Ward Tory
Haslemere (seat 2/2) Charles Long Tory
Hastings (seat 1/2) James Dawkins
Hastings (seat 2/2) Sir Abraham Hume
Haverfordwest (seat 1/1) The 2nd Baron Kensington
Hedon (seat 1/2) George Johnstone – died
Replaced by John Broadhurst 1813
Hedon (seat 2/2) Anthony Browne
Helston (seat 1/2) William Horne Whig
Helston (seat 2/2) Hugh Hammersley
Hereford (seat 1/2) Thomas Powell Symonds
Hereford (seat 2/2) Richard Philip Scudamore
Herefordshire (seat 1/2) Thomas Foley Whig
Herefordshire (seat 2/2) Sir John Cotterell, Bt Tory
Hertford (seat 1/2) Edward Spencer Cowper – resigned
Replaced by Viscount Cranborne 1817
Hertford (seat 2/2) Nicolson Calvert Whig
Hertfordshire (seat 1/2) Hon. Thomas Brand Whig
Hertfordshire (seat 2/2) Sir John Sebright, Bt Whig
Heytesbury (seat 1/2) Samuel Hood
Heytesbury (seat 2/2) Charles Duncombe
Higham Ferrers (seat 1/1) William Plumer Whig
Hindon (seat 1/2) William Beckford Whig
Hindon (seat 2/2) Benjamin Hobhouse Whig
Honiton (seat 1/2) Richard Howard-Vyse
Honiton (seat 2/2) George Robinson
Horsham (seat 1/2) Arthur Piggott
Horsham (seat 2/2) Robert Hurst Whig
Huntingdon (seat 1/2) Samuel Farmer
Huntingdon (seat 2/2) John Calvert
Huntingdonshire (seat 1/2) Viscount Hinchingbrooke – succeeded to peerage
Replaced by Lord Proby 1814
Huntingdonshire (seat 2/2) William Henry Fellowes
Hythe (seat 1/2) Matthew White
Hythe (seat 2/2) Sir John Perring


Ilchester (seat 1/2) Hon. John Ward Tory
Ilchester (seat 2/2) George Philips Whig
Inverness Burghs (seat 1/1) Charles Grant
Inverness-shire (seat 1/1) Charles Grant (senior) Pittite/Tory
Ipswich (seat 1/2) John Round
Ipswich (seat 2/2) Robert Alexander Crickett


Kent (seat 1/2) Sir Edward Knatchbull, Bt Tory
Kent (seat 2/2) Sir William Geary, Bt Tory
County Kerry (seat 1/2) James Crosbie
County Kerry (seat 2/2) Rt Hon. Maurice Fitzgerald Whig
County Kildare (seat 1/2) Lord Henry Fitzgerald – resigned
Replaced by Lord William Charles O'Brien Fitzgerald 1814
County Kildare (seat 2/2) Robert La Touche Whig
Kilkenny (seat 1/1) Overington Blunden – resigned
Replaced by Charles Harward Blunden 1814
County Kilkenny (seat 1/2) Hon. Frederick Cavendish Ponsonby Whig
County Kilkenny (seat 2/2) Hon. James Wandesford Butler Whig
Kincardineshire (seat 1/1) George Harley Drummond
King's County (seat 1/2) Hardress Lloyd Tory
King's County (seat 2/2) Thomas Bernard (senior) Tory
King's Lynn (seat 1/2) Lord Walpole
King's Lynn (seat 2/2) Sir Martin ffolkes, Bt
Kingston upon Hull (seat 1/2) George William Denys Whig
Kingston upon Hull (seat 2/2) John Staniforth Tory
Kinross-shire (seat 0/0) Alternated with Clackmannanshire. Unrepresented in this Parliament
Kinsale (seat 1/1) Henry Martin Whig
Kirkcudbright Stewartry (seat 1/1) James Dunlop
Knaresborough (seat 1/2) Viscount Ossulston Whig
Knaresborough (seat 2/2) Lord John Townshend Whig


Lanarkshire (seat 1/1) Lord Archibald Hamilton Whig
Lancashire (seat 1/2) Lord Stanley
Lancashire (seat 2/2) John Blackburne
Lancaster (seat 1/2) John Fenton-Cawthorne Tory
Lancaster (seat 2/2) Gabriel Doveton Whig
Launceston (seat 1/2) Pownoll Bastard Pellew Tory
Launceston (seat 2/2) James Brogden Tory
Leicester (seat 1/2) Thomas Babington
Leicester (seat 2/2) Samuel Smith
Leicestershire (seat 1/2) Lord Robert William Manners
Leicestershire (seat 2/2) George Anthony Legh Keck
County Leitrim (seat 1/2) Henry John Clements Tory
County Leitrim (seat 2/2) John La Touche
Leominster (seat 1/2) John Lubbock
Leominster (seat 2/2) John Harcourt
Lewes (seat 1/2) George Shiffner
Lewes (seat 2/2) Thomas Read Kemp – resigned
Replaced by Sir John Shelley 1816
Lichfield (seat 1/2) George Granville Venables Vernon Whig
Lichfield (seat 2/2) Sir George Anson Whig
Limerick Charles Vereker– ennobled
Replaced by John Prendergast Vereker 1817
County Limerick (seat 1/2) Hon. Windham Henry Quin
County Limerick (seat 2/2) William Odell
Lincoln (seat 1/2) John Nicholas Fazakerley
Lincoln (seat 2/2) Sir Henry Sullivan – died
Replaced by Coningsby Waldo Sibthorp 1814
Lincolnshire (seat 1/2) Charles Anderson-Pelham
Lincolnshire (seat 2/2) Charles Chaplin – died
Replaced by William Cust 1816
Linlithgow Burghs (seat 1/1) Sir John Buchanan Riddell, Bt
Linlithgowshire (seat 1/1) Sir Alexander Hope
Lisburn Lord Henry Seymour Moore Tory
Liskeard (seat 1/2) William Eliot Tory
Liskeard (seat 2/2) Charles Philip Yorke Tory
Liverpool (seat 1/2) Isaac Gascoyne Tory
Liverpool (seat 2/2) George Canning Tory
London (City of) (seat 1/4) William Curtis Tory
London (City of) (seat 2/4) Sir James Shaw, Bt Tory
London (City of) (seat 3/4) John Atkins Tory
London (City of) (seat 4/4) Harvey Christian Combe – resigned
Replaced by Matthew Wood 1817
Londonderry Sir George Hill, Bt Tory
County Londonderry (seat 1/2) Hon. Charles William Stewart – ennobled
Replaced by Alexander Stewart 1814
County Londonderry (seat 2/2) William Ponsonby – died
Replaced by George Robert Dawson 1815
County Longford (seat 1/2) Sir Thomas Fetherston, Bt Tory
County Longford (seat 2/2) Viscount Forbes Tory
Lostwithiel (seat 1/2) Reginald Pole Carew – resigned
Replaced by Viscount Valletort 1816
Lostwithiel (seat 2/2) John Ashley Warre
County Louth (seat 1/2) John Foster Tory
County Louth (seat 2/2) Viscount Jocelyn Tory
Ludgershall (seat 1/2) Magens Dorrien Magens – resigned
Replaced by Sandford Graham 1812 – resigned
Replaced by Charles Nicholas Pallmer 1815 – resigned
Replaced by The Earl of Carhampton 1817
Ludgershall (seat 2/2) Joseph Hague Everett – resigned
Replaced by Joseph Birch
Ludlow (seat 1/2) Viscount Clive Tory
Ludlow (seat 2/2) Henry Clive
Lyme Regis (seat 1/2) Henry Fane Tory
Lyme Regis (seat 2/2) Lord Burghersh – resigned
Replaced by John Thomas Fane 1816
Lymington (seat 1/2) Sir Harry Burrard-Neale, Bt
Lymington (seat 2/2) John Kingston – resigned
Replaced by John Taylor 1814


Maidstone (seat 1/2) George Simson
Maidstone (seat 2/2) Samuel Egerton Brydges
Maldon (seat 1/2) Joseph Holden Strutt Tory
Maldon (seat 2/2) Benjamin Gaskell Whig
Mallow Sir James Cotter, Bt
Malmesbury (seat 1/2) William Hicks Beach – resigned
Replaced by Sir William Abdy 1817
Malmesbury (seat 2/2) Sir Charles Saxton – sat for Cashel
Replaced by Peter Patten 1813
Malton (seat 1/2) John Ramsden Whig
Malton (seat 2/2) Viscount Duncannon Whig
Marlborough (seat 1/2) Lord Bruce – succeeded to peerage
Replaced by William Hill 1814
Marlborough (seat 2/2) Edward Stopford
County Mayo (seat 1/2) Rt Hon. Denis Browne Tory
County Mayo (seat 2/2) Hon. Henry Augustus Dillon – ennobled
Replaced by Dominick Browne 1814
County Meath (seat 1/2) Thomas Taylour,Earl of Bective
County Meath (seat 2/2) Sir Marcus Somerville, Bt Whig
Merionethshire (seat 1/1) Sir Robert Williames Vaughan Tory
Middlesex (seat 1/2) George Byng Whig
Middlesex (seat 2/2) William Mellish Tory
Midhurst (seat 1/2) Thomas Thompson
Midhurst (seat 2/2) George Smith – sat for Wendover
Replaced by Viscount Mahon 1812 – succeeded to peerage
Replaced by Sir Oswald Mosley 1817
Milborne Port (seat 1/2) Edward Paget Tory
Milborne Port (seat 2/2) Robert Matthew Casberd Tory
Minehead (seat 1/2) John Fownes Luttrell, junior Tory
Minehead (seat 2/2) John Fownes Luttrell – died
Replaced by Henry Fownes Luttrell 1816
Mitchell (seat 1/2) George Robert Hobart – resigned
Replaced by Edward Law 1813

Mitchell (seat 2/2) John Bruce – resigned
Replaced by Charles Trelawny Brereton 1814 – resigned
Replaced by Lord Binning 1814

County Monaghan (seat 1/2) Richard Thomas Dawson – ennobled
Replaced by Thomas Charles Stewart Corry 1813
County Monaghan (seat 2/2) Charles Powell Leslie II
Monmouth Boroughs (seat 1/1) Lord Charles Henry Somerset – took office
Replaced by Marquess of Worcester 1813
Monmouthshire (seat 1/2) Lt Col. Sir Charles Morgan
Monmouthshire (seat 2/2) Lord Arthur John Henry Somerset – died
Replaced by Lord Granville Somerset 1816
Montgomery (seat 1/1) Whitshed Keene
Montgomeryshire (seat 1/1) Charles Williams-Wynn Tory
Morpeth (seat 1/2) William Ord Whig
Morpeth (seat 2/2) Hon. William Howard


Nairnshire (seat 1/1) Hugh Rose – resigned
Replaced by Sir James Mackintosh 1813
New Romney (seat 1/2) Sir John Thomas Duckworth – died
Replaced by Cholmeley Dering 1817
New Romney (seat 2/2) William Mitford Tory
New Ross Charles Leigh
New Shoreham (seat 1/2) Sir Charles Merrik Burrell, Bt Tory
New Shoreham (seat 2/2) Timothy Shelley
Newark (seat 1/2) Henry Willoughby Tory
Newark (seat 2/2) Sir Stapleton Cotton – ennobled
Replaced by George Hay Dawkins Pennant 1814
Newcastle-under-Lyme (seat 1/2) Earl Gower – resigned
Replaced by Sir John Chetwode 1815
Newcastle-under-Lyme (seat 2/2) Sir John Boughey, Bt
Newcastle-upon-Tyne (seat 1/2) Sir Matthew Ridley, Bt Whig
Newcastle-upon-Tyne (seat 2/2) Cuthbert Ellison Whig
Newport (Cornwall) (seat 1/2) William Northey Tory
Newport (Cornwall) (seat 2/2) Jonathan Raine Tory
Newport (Isle of Wight) (seat 1/2) Richard Fleming Worsley Holmes – died
Replaced by John Delgarno 1814 – resigned
Replaced by George Watson Taylor 1816
Newport (Isle of Wight) (seat 2/2) Leonard Thomas Worsley Holmes
Newry Hon. Francis Needham Tory
Newton (Lancashire) (seat 1/2) Peter Heron – resigned
Replaced by Thomas Legh 1814
Newton (Lancashire) (seat 2/2) John Ireland Blackburne
Newtown (Isle of Wight) (seat 1/2) Barrington Pope Blachford – died
Replaced by Hudson Gurney 1816
Newtown (Isle of Wight) (seat 2/2) George Anderson-Pelham Whig
Norfolk (seat 1/2) Thomas Coke Whig
Norfolk (seat 2/2) Sir Jacob Henry Astley – died
Replaced by Edmund Wodehouse 1817
Northallerton (seat 1/2) Viscount Lascelles – died
Replaced by John Bacon Sawrey Morritt 1814
Northallerton (seat 2/2) Henry Peirse (younger) Whig
Northampton (seat 1/2) Lord Compton
Northampton (seat 2/2) William Hanbury
Northamptonshire (seat 1/2) Viscount Althorp Whig
Northamptonshire (seat 2/2) William Ralph Cartwright Tory
Northumberland (seat 1/2) Sir Charles Monck
Northumberland (seat 2/2) Thomas Richard Beaumont
Norwich (seat 1/2) William Smith Radical
Norwich (seat 2/2) Charles Harvey
Nottingham (seat 1/2) The Lord Rancliffe
Nottingham (seat 2/2) John Smith Tory
Nottinghamshire (seat 1/2) Lord William Henry Cavendish Bentinck – resigned
Replaced by Frank Frank 1814
Nottinghamshire (seat 2/2) Viscount Newark – succeeded to peerage
Replaced by Lord William Bentinck 1816


Okehampton (seat 1/2) The Lord Graves Tory
Okehampton (seat 2/2) Albany Savile Tory
Old Sarum (seat 1/2) James Alexander Tory
Old Sarum (seat 2/2) Josias du Pre Porcher Tory
Orford (seat 1/2) Charles Arbuthnot Tory
Orford (seat 2/2) Edmond Alexander MacNaghten Tory
Orkney and Shetland (seat 1/1) Richard Honyman
Oxford (seat 1/2) John Atkyns-Wright
Oxford (seat 2/2) John Ingram Lockhart
Oxfordshire (seat 1/2) Lord Francis Almeric Spencer – ennobled
Replaced by William Henry Ashhurst 1815
Oxfordshire (seat 2/2) John Fane Tory
Oxford University (seat 1/2) Sir William Scott Tory
Oxford University (seat 2/2) Charles Abbot – ennobled
Replaced by Robert Peel 1817


Peeblesshire (seat 1/1) James Montgomery
Pembroke Boroughs (seat 1/1) John Owen – sat for Pembrokeshire
Replaced by Sir Thomas Picton 1813 – killed in action
Replaced by John Jones 1815
Pembrokeshire (seat 1/1) John Owen
Penryn (seat 1/2) Henry Swann Tory
Penryn (seat 2/2) Philip Gell Tory
Perth Burghs (seat 1/1) Sir David Wedderburn, Bt Tory
Perthshire (seat 1/1) James Drummond Tory
Peterborough (seat 1/2) George Ponsonby – resigned
Replaced by William Lamb 1816
Peterborough (seat 2/2) William Elliot Whig
Petersfield (seat 1/2) Hylton Jolliffe
Petersfield (seat 2/2) George Canning – sat for Liverpool
Replaced by George Canning II 1812
Plymouth (seat 1/2) Benjamin Bloomfield – took office
Replaced by Sir William Congreve 1818
Plymouth (seat 2/2) Admiral Sir Charles Pole
Plympton Erle (seat 1/2) Ranald George Macdonald
Plympton Erle (seat 2/2) George Duckett – resigned
Replaced by William Douglas 1812 – resigned
Replaced by Alexander Boswell 1816
Pontefract (seat 1/2) Robert Pemberton Milnes
Pontefract (seat 2/2) Henry Lascelles – sat for Yorkshire
Replaced by Viscount Pollington 1812
Poole (seat 1/2) Michael Angelo Taylor Whig
Poole (seat 2/2) Benjamin Lester Lester Whig
Portarlington Arthur Shakespeare – resigned
Replaced by Richard Sharp 1816
Portsmouth (seat 1/2) John Markham Whig
Portsmouth (seat 2/2) Sir Thomas Miller – died
Replaced by John Carter 1816
Preston (seat 1/2) Edmund Hornby Whig
Preston (seat 2/2) Samuel Horrocks Tory


Queenborough (seat 1/2) Robert Moorsom Tory
Queenborough (seat 2/2) John Osborn Tory
Queen's County (seat 1/2) Hon. William Wellesley-Pole Tory
Queen's County (seat 2/2) Henry Brooke Parnell Whig


Radnor Boroughs (seat 1/1) Richard Price Tory
Radnorshire (seat 1/1) Walter Wilkins Whig
Reading (seat 1/2) Charles Shaw-Lefevre
Reading (seat 2/2) John Simeon
Reigate (seat 1/2) John Somers-Cocks Tory
Reigate (seat 2/2) James Cocks
Renfrewshire (seat 1/1) Archibald Speirs
Richmond (Yorkshire) (seat 1/2) Dudley Long North Whig
Richmond (Yorkshire) (seat 2/2) Robert Chaloner Whig
Ripon (seat 1/2) Frederick John Robinson Tory
Ripon (seat 2/2) George Gipps Tory
Rochester (seat 1/2) John Calcraft Whig
Rochester (seat 2/2) Sir James Boulden Thompson – took office
Replaced by James Barnett 1816

County Roscommon (seat 1/2) Arthur French Whig
County Roscommon (seat 2/2) Hon. Stephen Mahon Whig
Ross-shire (seat 1/1) William Frederick Mackenzie – died
Replaced by Charles Mackenzie Fraser 1814
Roxburghshire (seat 1/1) Viscount Melgund – succeeded to peerage
Replaced by Alexander Don 1814
Rutland (seat 1/2) Charles Noel Noel – resigned
Replaced by Sir Gerard Noel Noel 1814

Rutland (seat 2/2) Sir Gilbert Heathcote, Bt Whig
Rye (seat 1/2) Thomas Phillipps Lamb – resigned
Replaced by John Maberly
Rye (seat 2/2) Sir Henry Sullivan – sat for Lincoln
Replaced by Charles Wetherell 1812 – sat for Shaftesbury
Replaced by Richard Arkwright 1813


St Albans (seat 1/2) Joseph Thompson Halsey – died
Replaced by William Tierney Robarts 1818
St Albans (seat 2/2) Christopher Smith Tory
St Germans (seat 1/2) William Henry Pringle Tory
St Germans (seat 2/2) Henry Goulburn Tory
St Ives (seat 1/2) William Pole-Tylney-Long-Wellesley Tory
St Ives (seat 2/2) Sir Walter Stirling, 1st Baronet
St Mawes (seat 1/2) Scrope Bernard Tory
St Mawes (seat 2/2) William Shipley – resigned
Replaced by Francis Horner 1813 – died
Replaced by Joseph Phillimore 1817
Salisbury (seat 1/2) Viscount Folkestone
Salisbury (seat 2/2) William Hussey – died
Replaced by George Purefoy-Jervoise 1813
Saltash (seat 1/2) Matthew Russell Whig
Saltash (seat 2/2) Michael George Prendergast
Sandwich (seat 1/2) Joseph Marryatt
Sandwich (seat 2/2) Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke
Scarborough (seat 1/2) Charles Manners Sutton Tory
Scarborough (seat 2/2) Hon. Edmund Phipps Tory
Seaford (seat 1/2) Charles Rose Ellis Tory
Seaford (seat 2/2) John Leach – resigned
Replaced by Sir Charles Cockerell 1816
Selkirkshire (seat 1/1) William Eliott-Lockhart
Shaftesbury (seat 1/2) Richard Bateman-Robson – unseated on petition
Replaced by Charles Wetherell 1813
Shaftesbury (seat 2/2) Hudson Gurney – unseated on petition
Replaced by Edward Kerrison 1813
Shrewsbury (seat 1/2) Henry Grey Bennet Whig
Shrewsbury (seat 2/2) Sir Rowland Hill – ennobled
Replaced by Richard Lyster 1814
Shropshire (seat 1/2) John Kynaston
Shropshire (seat 2/2) John Cotes
Sligo George Canning – sat for Petersfield
Replaced by Joshua Spencer 1813 – took office
Replaced by Sir Brent Spencer 1815
County Sligo (seat 1/2) Edward Synge Cooper Tory
County Sligo (seat 2/2) Charles O'Hara Tory
Somerset (seat 1/2) William Gore-Langton Whig
Somerset (seat 2/2) William Dickinson Tory
Southampton (seat 1/2) George Henry Rose – took office
Replaced by William Chamberlayne 1818
Southampton (seat 2/2) Arthur Atherley
Southwark (seat 1/2) Henry Thornton – died
Replaced by Charles Barclay 1815
Southwark (seat 2/2) Charles Calvert Whig
Stafford (seat 1/2) Ralph Benson
Stafford (seat 2/2) Thomas Wilson
Staffordshire (seat 1/2) Edward Littleton Tory
Staffordshire (seat 2/2) Lord Granville Leveson Gower – ennobled
Replaced by Earl Gower 1815
Stamford (seat 1/2) The Lord Henniker Tory
Stamford (seat 2/2) Evan Foulkes Tory
Steyning (seat 1/2) James Lloyd Whig
Steyning (seat 2/2) Sir John Aubrey Whig
Stirling Burghs (seat 1/1) Alexander Campbell
Stirlingshire (seat 1/1) Sir Charles Edmonstone
Stockbridge (seat 1/2) Joseph Foster Barham Whig
Stockbridge (seat 2/2) George Porter Whig
Sudbury (seat 1/2) Sir John Coxe Hippisley
Sudbury (seat 2/2) Charles Wyatt
Suffolk (seat 1/2) Sir William Rowley, Bt
Suffolk (seat 2/2) Thomas Gooch
Surrey (seat 1/2) Sir Thomas Sutton – died
Replaced by Samuel Thornton 1813
Surrey (seat 2/2) George Holme Sumner Tory
Sussex (seat 1/2) Sir Godfrey Webster, Bt Tory
Sussex (seat 2/2) Walter Burrell
Sutherland (seat 1/1) James Macdonald – resigned
Replaced by George Macpherson Grant 1816


Tain Burghs (seat 1/1) Sir Hugh Innes, Bt
Tamworth (seat 1/2) Lord Charles Townshend
Tamworth (seat 2/2) Sir Robert Peel Tory
Taunton (seat 1/2) Alexander Baring
Taunton (seat 2/2) Henry Powell Collins
Tavistock (seat 1/2) Lord William Russell Whig
Tavistock (seat 2/2) Richard Fitzpatrick – died
Replaced by Lord John Russell 1813– resigned
Replaced by Lord Robert Spencer 1817
Tewkesbury (seat 1/2) John Edmund Dowdeswell Tory
Tewkesbury (seat 2/2) John Martin Whig
Thetford (seat 1/2) Lord John FitzRoy
Thetford (seat 2/2) Thomas Creevey
Thirsk (seat 1/2) William Frankland – resigned
Replaced by Robert Frankland 1815
Thirsk (seat 2/2) Robert Greenhill-Russell Whig
County Tipperary (seat 1/2) Hon. Montagu James Mathew Whig
County Tipperary (seat 2/2) Hon. Francis Aldborough Prittie Whig
Tiverton (seat 1/2) William Fitzhugh Tory
Tiverton (seat 2/2) Hon. Richard Ryder Tory
Totnes (seat 1/2) Ayshford Wise
Totnes (seat 2/2) Thomas Peregrine Courtenay
Tralee Henry Arthur Herbert – resigned
Replaced by James Evan Baillie 1813
Tregony (seat 1/2) Alexander Cray Grant Tory
Tregony (seat 2/2) William Holmes Tory
Truro (seat 1/2) Sir George Warrender, Bt Tory
Truro (seat 2/2) John Lemon – died
Replaced by George Dashwood 1814
County Tyrone (seat 1/2) John Stewart Tory
County Tyrone (seat 2/2) Hon. Thomas Knox Tory


Wallingford (seat 1/2) William Hughes Whig
Wallingford (seat 2/2) Ebenezer Fuller Maitland Tory
Wareham (seat 1/2) Robert Gordon
Wareham (seat 2/2) Theodore Henry Broadhead
Warwick (seat 1/2) Charles Mills
Warwick (seat 2/2) Lord Brooke – succeeded to peerage
Replaced by Sir Charles John Greville 1816
Warwickshire (seat 1/2) Dugdale Stratford Dugdale
Warwickshire (seat 2/2) Charles Mordaunt
Waterford Sir John Newport, Bt Tory
County Waterford (seat 1/2) Sir William Beresford – ennobled
Replaced by Lord George Thomas Beresford 1814
County Waterford (seat 2/2) Richard Power I – died
Replaced by Richard Power II 1814
Wells (seat 1/2) Charles William Taylor Whig
Wells (seat 2/2) Clement Tudway – died
Replaced by John Paine Tudway 1815

Wendover (seat 1/2) Abel Smith Tory
Wendover (seat 2/2) George Smith Whig
Wenlock (seat 1/2) John Simpson
Wenlock (seat 2/2) Cecil Forester
Weobley (seat 1/2) Viscount St. Asaph – died
Replaced by James Lenox William Naper 1813
Weobley (seat 2/2) William Lennox Bathurst – took office
Replaced by Lord Frederick Cavendish Bentinck 1816
West Looe (seat 1/2) Charles Buller – resigned
Replaced by Henry William Fitzgerald De Ros 1816
West Looe (seat 2/2) Anthony Buller – took office
Replaced by Charles Hulse 1816
Westbury (seat 1/2) Benjamin Hall – resigned
Replaced by Ralph Franco 1814

Westbury (seat 2/2) Benjamin Shaw
County Westmeath (seat 1/2) Hon. Hercules Robert Pakenham Tory
County Westmeath Gustavus Hume Rochfort Tory
Westminster (seat 1/2) Francis Burdett Whig
Westminster (seat 2/2) Lord Cochrane – expelled and re-elected 1814 Whig
Westmorland (seat 1/2) Henry Cecil Lowther Tory
Westmorland (seat 2/2) The Lord Muncaster – died
Replaced by Viscount Lowther 1813
Wexford Richard Nevill – resigned
Replaced by John Fish 1813 – resigned
Replaced by Richard Nevill 1814
County Wexford (seat 1/2) Robert Carew Whig
County Wexford (seat 2/2) Sir Frederick Flood, Bt Whig
Weymouth and Melcombe Regis (seat 1/4) Sir John Murray Tory
Weymouth and Melcombe Regis (seat 2/4) John Broadhurst – unseated on petition
Replaced by Viscount Cranborne 1813
Replaced by Adolphus John Dalrymple 1817
Weymouth and Melcombe Regis (seat 3/4) Thomas Wallace – unseated on petition
Replaced by Christopher Idle
Weymouth and Melcombe Regis (seat 4/4) Henry Trail – unseated on petition
Replaced by Masterton Ure 1813
Whitchurch (seat 1/2) William Brodrick
Whitchurch (seat 2/2) William Augustus Townshend – died
Replaced by Horatio George Powys Townshend 1816
County Wicklow (seat 1/2) William Hoare Hume – died
Replaced by Granville Leveson Proby 1816
County Wicklow (seat 2/2) William Tighe – died
Replaced by George Ponsonby 1816 – died
Replaced by William Parnell Hayes 1817
Wigan (seat 1/2) John Hodson Tory
Wigan (seat 2/2) Sir Robert Leigh Tory
Wigtown Burghs (seat 1/1) James Henry Keith Stewart Tory
Wigtownshire (seat 1/1) Sir William Stewart – resigned
Replaced by James Hunter Blair 1816
Wilton (seat 1/2) Ralph Sheldon
Wilton (seat 2/2) Charles Herbert – died
Replaced by Viscount FitzHarris 1816
Wiltshire (seat 1/2) Paul Methuen Whig
Wiltshire (seat 2/2) Richard Godolphin Long
Winchelsea (seat 1/2) William John Frederick Vane Powlett – resigned
Replaced by Henry Peter Brougham 1815
Winchelsea (seat 2/2) Calverley Bewicke – died
Replaced by Viscount Barnard 1816
Winchester (seat 1/2) Sir Henry St John-Mildmay, Bt
Winchester (seat 2/2) Richard Meyler – died
Replaced by James Henry Leigh 1818
Windsor (seat 1/2) Edward Disbrowe Tory
Windsor (seat 2/2) John Ramsbottom Whig
Woodstock (seat 1/2) Sir Henry Dashwood, Bt Tory
Woodstock (seat 2/2) William Thornton – resigned
Replaced by George Eden 1813– succeeded to peerage
Replaced by William Thornton 1814
Wootton Bassett (seat 1/2) James Kibblewhite – resigned
Replaced by Richard Ellison 1813
Wootton Bassett (seat 2/2) John Attersoll – resigned
Replaced by Robert Rickards 1813 – resigned
Replaced by William Taylor Money 1816
Worcester (seat 1/2) William Gordon Tory
Worcester (seat 2/2) Abraham Robarts – died
Replaced by Viscount Deerhurst 1816
Worcestershire (seat 1/2) William Lyttelton
Worcestershire (seat 2/2) Viscount Elmley – succeeded to peerage
Replaced by Henry Beauchamp Lygon 1816
Wycombe (seat 1/2) Sir Thomas Baring, Bt Tory
Wycombe (seat 2/2) Sir John Dashwood-King, Bt Tory


Yarmouth (Isle of Wight) (seat 1/2) Richard Wellesley – resigned
Replaced by Alexander Maconochie 1817
Yarmouth (Isle of Wight) (seat 2/2) Sir Henry Conyngham Montgomery – resigned
Replaced by John Leslie Foster 1816
York (seat 1/2) Lawrence Dundas Whig
York (seat 2/2) Sir Mark Masterman-Sykes Whig
Yorkshire (seat 1/2) Viscount Milton Whig
Yorkshire (seat 2/2) Hon. Henry Lascelles Tory
Youghal (seat 1/1) Sir John Keane Tory


See also


  1. "Constituencies 1790–1820". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
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