List of Latin phrases (P)

This page lists English translations of notable Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. Some of the phrases are themselves translations of Greek phrases, as Greek rhetoric and literature reached its peak centuries before the rise of ancient Rome.

This list covers the letter P. See List of Latin phrases for the main list.
LatinTranslationNotes
paceAblative form of peace"With all due respect to", "with due deference to", "by leave of", "no offence to", or "despite (with respect)". Used to politely acknowledge someone with whom the speaker or writer disagrees or finds irrelevant to the main argument.
pace tuawith your peaceThus, "with your permission".
Pacem in terrisPeace on Earth
pacta sunt servandaagreements must be keptAlso "contracts must be honoured". Indicates the binding power of treaties.
palma non sine pulvereno reward without effortAlso "dare to try"; motto of numerous schools.
palmam qui meruit feratHe who has earned the palm, let him bear it.Loosely, "achievement should be rewarded" (or, "let the symbol of victory go to him who has deserved it"); frequently used motto
panem et circensesbread and circusesFrom Juvenal, Satire X, line 81. Originally described all that was needed for emperors to placate the Roman mob. Today used to describe any entertainment used to distract public attention from more important matters.
parvus pendetur fur, magnus abire videturThe petty thief is hanged, the big thief gets away.
para bellumprepare for warFrom "Si vis pacem para bellum": if you want peace, prepare for war—if a country is ready for war, its enemies are less likely to attack. Usually used to support a policy of peace through strength (deterrence). In antiquity, however, the Romans viewed peace as the aftermath of successful conquest through war, so in this sense the proverb identifies war as the means through which peace will be achieved.
parare Domino plebem perfectamto prepare for God a perfect peoplemotto of the St. Jean Baptiste High School
parce sepultoforgive the interredit is ungenerous to hold resentment toward the dead. Quote from the Aeneid, III 13-68.
parens patriaeparent of the nationA public policy requiring courts to protect the best interests of any child involved in a lawsuit. See also Pater Patriae.
pari passuwith equal stepThus, "moving together", "simultaneously", etc.
parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus musThe mountains are in labour, a ridiculous mouse will be born.said of works that promise much at the outset but yield little in the end (Horace, Ars poetica 137) – see also The Mountain in Labour
parum luceatIt does not shine [being darkened by shade].Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 1/6:34 – see also lucus a nonlucendo
parva sub ingentithe small under the hugeImplies that the weak are under the protection of the strong, rather than that they are inferior. Motto of Prince Edward Island.
parvis imbutus tentabis grandia tutusWhen you are steeped in little things, you shall safely attempt great things.Motto of Barnard Castle School, sometimes translated as "Once you have accomplished small things, you may attempt great ones safely".
passimhere and there, everywhereLess literally, "throughout" or "frequently". Said of a word, fact or notion that occurs several times in a cited text. Also used in proofreading, where it refers to a change that is to be repeated everywhere needed.
pater familiasfather of the familyOr "master of the house". The eldest male in a family, who held patria potestas ("paternal power"). In Roman law, a father had enormous power over his children, wife, and slaves, though these rights dwindled over time. Derived from the phrase pater familias, an Old Latin expression preserving the archaic -as ending for the genitive case.
Pater OmnipotensFather AlmightyA more direct translation would be "omnipotent father".
Pater Patriaefather of the nationAlso rendered with the gender-neutral parens patriae ("parent of the nation").
pater peccaviFather, I have sinnedThe traditional beginning of a Roman Catholic confession.
pauca sed bonafew, but goodSimilar to "quality over quantity"; though there may be few of something, at least they are of good quality.
pauca sed maturafew, but ripeSaid to be one of Carl Gauss's favorite quotations. Used in The King and I by Rodgers and Hammerstein.
paulatim ergo certeslowly therefore surelyFormer motto of Latymer Upper School in London (the text latim er is concealed in the words)
pax aeternaeternal peaceA common epitaph
Pax AmericanaAmerican PeaceA euphemism for the United States of America and its sphere of influence. Adapted from Pax Romana.
Pax BritannicaBritish PeaceA euphemism for the British Empire. Adapted from Pax Romana
Pax ChristiPeace of ChristUsed as a wish before the Holy Communion in the Catholic Mass, also the name of the peace movement Pax Christi
pax Deipeace of GodUsed in the Peace and Truce of God movement in 10th-century France
Pax DeorumPeace of the godsLike the vast majority of inhabitants of the ancient world, the Romans practiced pagan rituals, believing it important to achieve a state of Pax Deorum (The Peace of the gods) instead of Ira Deorum (The Wrath of the gods).
Pax, Dominepeace, lordlord or master; used as a form of address when speaking to clergy or educated professionals
pax et bonumpeace and the goodMotto of St. Francis of Assisi and, consequently, of his monastery in Assisi; understood by Catholics to mean 'Peace and Goodness be with you,' as is similar in the Mass; translated in Italian as pace e bene.
pax et justitiapeace and justiceMotto of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
pax et luxpeace and lightMotto of Tufts University and various schools
Pax EuropaeaEuropean Peaceeuphemism for Europe after World War II
Pax HispanicaSpanish PeaceEuphemism for the Spanish Empire; specifically can mean the twenty-three years of supreme Spanish dominance in Europe (approximately 1598–1621). Adapted from Pax Romana.
pax in terrapeace on earthUsed to exemplify the desired state of peace on earth
Pax intrantibus, salus exeuntibusPeace to those who enter, health to those who depart.Used as an inscription over the entrance of buildings (especially homes, monasteries, inns). Often benedicto habitantibus (Blessings on those who abide here) is added.
pax matrum, ergo pax familiarumpeace of mothers, therefore peace of familiesIf the mother is peaceful, then the family is peaceful. The inverse of the Southern United States saying, "If mama ain't happy, ain't nobody happy."
Pax MongolicaMongolian Peaceperiod of peace and prosperity in Asia during the Mongol Empire
pax optima rerumpeace is the greatest goodSilius Italicus, Punica (11,595); motto of the university of Kiel
Pax RomanaRoman Peaceperiod of relative prosperity and lack of conflict in the early Roman Empire
Pax SinicaChinese Peaceperiod of peace in East Asia during times of strong Chinese hegemony
pax tecumpeace be with you (singular)
Pax tibi, Marce, Evangelista meus. Hic requiescet corpus tuum.Peace to you, Mark, my Evangelist. Here will rest your body.
Legend states that when the evangelist went to the lagoon where Venice would later be founded, an angel came and said this.[1] The first part is depicted as the note in the book shown opened by the lion of St Mark's Basilica, Venice; registered trademark of the Assicurazioni Generali, Trieste.[2]
pax vobiscumpeace [be] with youA common farewell. The "you" is plural ("you all"), so the phrase must be used when speaking to more than one person; pax tecum is the form used when speaking to only one person.
peccaviI have sinnedTelegraph message and pun from Charles Napier, British general, upon completely subjugating the Indian province of Sindh in 1842 ('I have Sindh'). This is, arguably, the most terse military despatch ever sent. The story is apocryphal.
pecunia non oletmoney doesn't smellAccording to Suetonius' De vita Caesarum, when Emperor Vespasian was challenged by his son Titus for taxing the public lavatories, the emperor held up a coin before his son and asked whether it smelled or simply said non olet ("it doesn't smell"). From this, the phrase was expanded to pecunia non olet, or rarely aes non olet ("copper doesn't smell").
pecunia, si uti scis, ancilla est; si nescis, dominaif you know how to use money, money is your slave; if you don't, money is your masterWritten on an old Latin tablet in downtown Verona (Italy).
pede poena claudopunishment comes limpingThat is, retribution comes slowly but surely. From Horace, Odes, 3, 2, 32.
pendent opera interruptathe work hangs interruptedFrom the Aeneid of Virgil, Book IV
perBy, through, by means ofSee specific phrases below
per angusta ad augustathrough difficulties to greatnessJoining sentence of the conspirators in the drama Hernani by Victor Hugo (1830). The motto of numerous educational establishments.
per annum (pa.)each yearThus, "yearly"—occurring every year
per arduathrough adversityMotto of the British RAF Regiment
per ardua ad altathrough difficulty to heightsThrough hardship, great heights are reached; frequently used motto
per ardua ad astrathrough adversity to the starsMotto of the Royal, Royal Australian and Royal New Zealand Air Forces, the U. S. State of Kansas and of several schools. The phrase is used by Latin Poet Virgil in the Aeneid; also used in H. Rider Haggard's novel The People of the Mist.
per aspera ad astrathrough hardships to the starsFrom Seneca the Younger; frequently used motto, sometimes as ad astra per aspera ("to the stars through hardships")
per capitaby heads"Per head", i.e., "per person", a ratio by the number of persons. The singular is per caput.
per capsulamthrough the small boxThat is, "by letter"
per contrathrough the contraryOr "on the contrary" (cf. a contrario)
per crucem vincemusthrough the cross we shall conquerMotto of St John Fisher Catholic High School, Dewsbury
Per Crucem Crescensthrough the cross, growthMotto of Lambda Chi Alpha
per curiamthrough the senateLegal term meaning "by the court", as in a per curiam decision
per definitionemthrough the definitionThus, "by definition"
per diem (pd.)by dayThus, "per day". A specific amount of money an organization allows an individual to spend per day, typically for travel expenses.
per fas et nefasthrough right or wrongBy fair means or foul
per fidem intrepidusfearless through faith
per literas regias
per lit. reg.
per regias literas
per reg. lit.
etc.
by royal lettersby letters patent;
of academic degrees: awarded by letters patent from the King/Queen, rather than by a University[3][4]
per mare per terramby sea and by landMotto of the Royal Marines and (with small difference) of Clan Donald and the Compagnies Franches de la Marine
per mensem (pm.)by monthThus, "per month", or "monthly"
per multum cras, cras, crebro dilabitur aetaswhat can be done today should not be delayed
per os (p.o.)through the mouthMedical shorthand for "by mouth"
per pedesby feetUsed of a certain place that can be traversed or reached by foot, or to indicate that one is travelling by foot as opposed to by a vehicle
per procura (p.p.) or (per pro)through the agencyAlso rendered per procurationem. Used to indicate that a person is signing a document on behalf of another person. Correctly placed before the name of the person signing, but often placed before the name of the person on whose behalf the document is signed, sometimes through incorrect translation of the alternative abbreviation per pro. as "for and on behalf of".
per quodby reason of whichIn a UK legal context: "by reason of which" (as opposed to per se which requires no reasoning). In American jurisprudence often refers to a spouse's claim for loss of consortium.
per rectum (pr)through the rectumMedical shorthand; see also per os
per rectum ad astravia rectum to the starsa modern parody of per aspera ad astra, originating and most commonly used in Russia, meaning that the path to success took you through most undesirable and objectionable places or environments; or that a found solution to a complex problem is extremely convoluted.
per risum multum poteris cognoscere stultumby excessive laughter one can recognise the fool
per sethrough itselfAlso "by itself" or "in itself". Without referring to anything else, intrinsically, taken without qualifications etc. A common example is negligence per se. See also malum in se.
per stirpesthrough the rootsUsed in wills to indicate that each "branch" of the testator's family should inherit equally. Contrasted with per capita.
per unitatem visthrough unity, strengthMotto of Texas A&M University Corps of Cadets
per veritatem visthrough truth, strengthMotto of Washington University in St. Louis
per volar sunata[sic]born to soarFrequently used motto; not from Latin but from Dante's Purgatorio, Canto XII, 95, the Italian phrase "per volar sù nata".
Perfer et obdura; dolor hic tibi proderit olimBe patient and tough; some day this pain will be useful to you.From Ovid, Amores, Book III, Elegy XI
periculum in moradanger in delay
perinde ac [si] cadaver [essent][well-disciplined] like a corpsePhrase written by St. Ignatius of Loyola in his Constitutiones Societatis Iesu (1954)
perita manus mens excultaskilled hand, cultivated mindMotto of RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia
perge sequaradvance, I followfrom Virgil's Aeneid IV 114; in Vergil's context: "proceed with your plan, I will do my part."
Pericula ludusDanger is my pleasureMotto of the Foreign Legion Detachment in Mayotte
perpetuum mobilething in perpetual motionA musical term; also used to refer to hypothetical perpetual motion machines
Perseverantia et Fide in DeoPerseverance and Faith in GodMotto of Bombay Scottish School, Mahim, India
persona non grataperson not pleasingAn unwelcome, unwanted or undesirable person. In diplomatic contexts, a person rejected by the host government. The reverse, persona grata ("pleasing person"), is less common, and refers to a diplomat acceptable to the government of the country to which he is sent.
petitio principiirequest of the beginningBegging the question, a logical fallacy in which a proposition to be proved is implicitly or explicitly assumed in one of the premises
pia desideriapious longingsOr "dutiful desires"
pia frauspious fraudOr "dutiful deceit". Expression from Ovid; used to describe deception which serves Church purposes
pia materpious motherOr "tender mother". Translated into Latin from Arabic. The delicate innermost of the three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.
Pietate et doctrina tuta libertasFreedom is made safe through character and learningMotto of Dickinson College
pinxitone paintedThus, "he painted this" or "she painted this". Formerly used on works of art, next to the artist's name.
piscem natare doces[you] teach a fish to swimLatin proverb, attributed by Erasmus in his Adagia to Greek origin (Diogenianus, Ἰχθὺν νήχεσθαι διδάσκεις); corollary Chinese idiom (班門弄斧)
placetit pleasesexpression of assent
plene scriptumfully written
plenus venter non studet libenterA full belly does not like studyingI.e., it is difficult to concentrate on mental tasks after a heavy meal. The following variant is also attested: plenus si venter renuit studere libenter (the belly, when full, refuses to study willingly).
plenus venter facile de ieiuniis disputatA full belly readily discusses fasting.Hieronymus, Epistulæ 58,2
pluralis majestatisplural of majestyThe first-person plural pronoun when used by an important personage to refer to himself or herself; also known as the "royal we"
pluralis modestiaeplural of modesty
plus minusve (p.m.v.)more or lessFrequently found on Roman funerary inscriptions to denote that the age of a decedent is approximate
plus ultrafurther beyondNational motto of Spain and a number of other institutions
pollice compresso favor iudicabaturgoodwill decided by compressed thumbLife was spared with a thumb tucked inside a closed fist, simulating a sheathed weapon. Conversely, a thumb up meant to unsheath your sword.
pollice versowith a turned thumbUsed by Roman crowds to pass judgment on a defeated gladiator. The type of gesture used is uncertain. Also the name of a famous painting depicting gladiators by Jean-Léon Gérôme.
Polonia RestitutaRebirth of Poland
pons asinorumbridge of assesAny obstacle that stupid people find hard to cross. Originally used of Euclid's Fifth Proposition in geometry.
Pontifex MaximusGreatest High PriestOr "Supreme Pontiff". Originally an office in the Roman Republic, later a title held by Roman Emperors, and later a traditional epithet of the pope. The pontifices were the most important priestly college of the religion in ancient Rome; their name is usually thought to derive from pons facere ("to make a bridge"), which in turn is usually linked to their religious authority over the bridges of Rome, especially the Pons Sublicius.
posse comitatusforce of the county[5]Thus, to be able to be made into part of a retinue or force. In common law, a sheriff's right to compel people to assist law enforcement in unusual situations.
possunt quia posse videnturThey can because they think they canInscription on the back of Putney medals, awarded to boat race winning Oxford blues. From Virgil's Aeneid Book V line 231.
post aut propterafter it or by means of itCausality between two phenomena is not established (cf. post hoc, ergo propter hoc)
post cibum (p.c.)after foodMedical shorthand for "after meals" (cf. ante cibum)
post coitumAfter sexAfter sexual intercourse
post coitum omne animal triste est sive gallus et mulierAfter sexual intercourse every animal is sad, except the cock (rooster) and the womanOr: triste est omne animal post coitum, praeter mulierem gallumque. Attributed to Galen of Pergamum.[6]
post eventumafter the eventRefers to an action or occurrence that takes place after the event that is being discussed (similar in meaning to post factum). More specifically, it may refer to a person who is recounting an event long after it took place, implying that details of the story may have changed over time. (Some sources attribute this expression to George Eliot.)
post factumafter the factNot to be confused with ex post facto.
post festumafter the feastToo late, or after the fact
post hoc ergo propter hocafter this, therefore because of thisA logical fallacy where one assumes that one thing happening after another thing means that the first thing caused the second.
post meridiem (p.m.)after middayThe period from noon to midnight (cf. ante meridiem)
post mortem (pm)after deathUsually rendered postmortem. Not to be confused with post meridiem
Post mortem auctoris (p.m.a.)after the author's deathThe phrase is used in legal terminology in the context of intellectual property rights, especially copyright, which commonly lasts until a certain number of years after the author's death.
post nubila phoebusafter the clouds, the sunMotto of the University of Zulia, Venezuela, as well as Hartford, Connecticut
post nubes luxout of darkness, lightMotto of Cranfield University
post prandialafter “late breakfast”Refers to the time after any meal. Usually rendered postprandial.
post scriptum (p.s.)after what has been writtenA postscript. Used to mark additions to a letter, after the signature. Can be extended to post post scriptum (p.p.s.), etc.
post tenebras lux, or post tenebras spero lucemafter darkness, [I hope for] lightfrom Vulgata, Job 17:12; frequently used motto
postera crescam laudewe grow in the esteem of future generationsMotto of the University of Melbourne
potest solum unumThere can be only oneHighlander
praemia virtutis honoreshonours are the rewards of virtue 
praemonitus praemunitusforewarned is forearmedCommon catch phrase of the fictional character "Captain Blood" from the novel Captain Blood (novel)
praesis ut prosis ne ut imperesLead in order to serve, not in order to rule.Motto of Lancaster Royal Grammar School
praeter legemafter the lawLegal terminology, international law
Praga Caput RegniPrague, Head of the KingdomMotto of Prague from Middle Ages
Praga Caput Rei publicaePrague, Head of the RepublicMotto of Prague from 1991
Praga mater urbiumPrague, Mother of CitiesMotto of Prague from 1927
Praga totius Bohemiae dominaPrague, the mistress of the whole of BohemiaFormer motto of Prague
Pretium Laborum Non VileNo mean reward for labourMotto of the Order of the Golden Fleece
pretiumque et causa laborisThe prize and the cause of our labourMotto of Burnley Football Club; from Ovid's Metamorphoses, 4.739 (Latin)/English): "The Tale of Perseus and Andromeda": resoluta catenis incedit virgo, pretiumque et causa laboris. ("freed of her chains the virgin approaches, cause and reward of the enterprise.")
prima facieat first sightUsed to designate evidence in a trial which is suggestive, but not conclusive, of something (e.g., a person's guilt)
prima luceat dawnLiterally "at first light"
primas sum: primatum nil a me alienum putoI am a primate; nothing about primates is outside of my bailiwickA sentence by the American anthropologist Earnest Hooton and the slogan of primatologists and lovers of the primates.
primum mobilefirst moving thingOr "first thing able to be moved"; see primum movens
primum movensprime moverOr "first moving one". A common theological term, such as in the cosmological argument, based on the assumption that God was the first entity to "move" or "cause" anything. Aristotle was one of the first philosophers to discuss the "uncaused cause", a hypothetical originator—and violator—of causality.
primum non nocerefirst, to not harmA medical precept. Often falsely attributed to the Hippocratic Oath, though its true source is probably a paraphrase from Hippocrates' Epidemics, where he wrote, "Declare the past, diagnose the present, foretell the future; practice these acts. As to diseases, make a habit of two things: to help, or at least to do no harm."
primus inter paresfirst among equalsPosition of the Ecumenical Patriarch in the Eastern Orthodox Church, position of the President of the Swiss Confederation among the members of the Federal Council, and a title of the Roman Emperors (cf. princeps).
principia probant non probanturprinciples prove; they are not provedFundamental principles require no proof; they are assumed a priori.
principiis obsta (et respice finem)resist the beginnings (and consider the end)Ovid, Remedia Amoris, 91
principium individuationisIndividuationpsychological term: the self-formation of the personality into a coherent whole
prior tempore potior iureearlier in time, stronger in lawA legal principle that older laws take precedence over newer ones. The inverse principle is known as lex posterior.
pro aris et focisFor altars and hearthsThe motto of the Royal Queensland Regiment, and many other regiments.
pro bono publicofor the public goodOften abbreviated pro bono. Work undertaken voluntarily at no expense, such as public services. Often used of a lawyer's work that is not charged for.
pro Brasilia fiant eximialet exceptional things be made for BrazilMotto of São Paulo state, Brazil.
pro Deo Domo PatriaFor God, home and countryMotto of the University of Mary Washington
pro Deo et PatriaFor God and CountryFrequently used motto
pro domo (sua)for (one’s own) home or houseserving the interests of a given perspective or for the benefit of a given group.
pro Ecclesia, pro TexanaFor Church, For TexasMotto of Baylor University, a private Christian Baptist university in Waco, Texas.
pro fide et patriafor faith and fatherlandMotto of the originally Irish Muldoon family and of several schools, such as the Diocesan College (Bishops) in Cape Town, South Africa, and All Hallows High School in the Bronx, New York.
pro formafor formOr "as a matter of form". Prescribing a set form or procedure, or performed in a set manner.
pro gloria et patriafor glory and fatherlandMotto of Prussia
pro hac vicefor this occasionRequest of a state court to allow an out-of-state lawyer to represent a client.
pro multisfor manyIt is part of the Rite of Consecration of the wine in Western Christianity tradition, as part of the Mass.
pro partein partFrequently used in taxonomy to refer to part of a group.
pro patriafor countryPro Patria Medal: for operational service (minimum 55 days) in defence of the Republic South Africa or in the prevention or suppression of terrorism; issued for the Border War (counter-insurgency operations in South West Africa 1966–89) and for campaigns in Angola (1975–76 and 1987–88). Motto of The Royal Canadian Regiment, Royal South Australia Regiment, Hurlstone Agricultural High School.
pro patria vigilanswatchful for the countryMotto of the United States Army Signal Corps.
pro populo et gloriafor the people and gloryMotto of HMS Westminster
pro perfor selfto defend oneself in court without counsel; abbreviation of propria persona. See also: pro se.
pro ratafor the ratei.e., proportionately.
pro re nata (PRN, prn)for a thing that has been bornMedical shorthand for "as the occasion arises" or "as needed". Also "concerning a matter having come into being". Used to describe a meeting of a special Presbytery or Assembly called to discuss something new, and which was previously unforeseen (literally: "concerning a matter having been born").
pro rege et legefor king and the lawFound on the Leeds coat of arms.
pro rege, lege et gregefor king, the law and the peopleFound on the coat of arms of Perth, Scotland.
pro sefor oneselfto defend oneself in court without counsel. Some jurisdictions prefer, "pro per".
pro scientia atque sapientiafor knowledge and wisdommotto of Stuyvesant High School in New York City
pro scientia et patriafor science and nationmotto of the National University of La Plata
pro studio et laborefor study and work
pro tantofor so muchDenotes something that has only been partially fulfilled. A philosophical term indicating the acceptance of a theory or idea without fully accepting the explanation.
pro tanto quid retribuemuswhat shall we give in return for so muchThe motto of the city of Belfast; taken from the Vulgate translation of Psalm 116.
pro temporefor the time (being)Denotes a temporary current situation; abbreviated pro tem.
probatio pennaetesting of the penMedieval Latin term for breaking in a new pen
probis pateoI am open for honest peopleTraditionally inscribed above a city gate or above the front entrance of a dwelling or place of learning.
prodesse quam conspiciTo Accomplish Rather Than To Be Conspicuousmotto of Miami University
propria manu (p.m.)"by one's own hand"
propter vitam vivendi perdere causasto destroy the reasons for living for the sake of lifeThat is, to squander life's purpose just in order to stay alive, and live a meaningless life. From Juvenal, Satyricon VIII, verses 83–84.
protectio trahit subjectionem, et subjectio protectionem Protection draws allegiance, and allegiance draws protectionLegal maxim, indicating that reciprocity of fealty with protection
provehito in altumlaunch forward into the deepmotto of Memorial University of Newfoundland
proxime accessithe came nextthe runner-up
proximo mense (prox.)in the following monthUsed in formal correspondence to refer to the next month. Used with ult. ("last month") and inst. ("this month").
pulchrum est paucorum hominumBeauty is for the fewfrom Friedrich Nietzsche's 1889 book Twilight of the Idols
pulvis et umbra sumuswe are dust and shadowFrom Horace, Carmina book IV, 7, 16.
punctum saliensleaping pointThus, the essential or most notable point. The salient point.
purificatus non consumptuspurified, not consumed

References

  1. St Mark's Square
  2. Trademark registration
  3. East Kent History — Rev. Edmund Ibbot (Accessed 27 July 2016)
  4. Forbes, Eric G.; Murdin, Lesley; Wilmoth, Frances (eds). The Correspondence of John Flamsteed, The First Astronomer Royal, Volume 1, page 80, foot note 3 (Accessed 27 July 2016)
  5. Solodow, Joseph Latin Alive: The Survival of Latin in English and the Romance Languages, Cambridge University Press, 2010 p. 160: "out of the phrase posse comitatus 'the force of the county' arose our present use of posse for a group of men whom the sheriff calls upon in a crisis."
  6. Kinsey, Alfred Charles (1998) [1953]. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Indiana University Press. p. 638. ISBN 978-0-253-33411-4. (Kinsey Reports)

Additional references

  • Adeleye, Gabriel G. (1999). Thomas J. Sienkewicz; James T. McDonough, Jr. (eds.). World Dictionary of Foreign Expressions. Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0865164223.
  • Stone, Jon R. (1996). Latin for the Illiterati. London & New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415917751.
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