List of Latin phrases (E)

This page lists English translations of notable Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. Some of the phrases are themselves translations of Greek phrases, as Greek rhetoric and literature reached its peak centuries before the rise of ancient Rome.

This list covers the letter E. See List of Latin phrases for the main list.
LatinTranslationNotes
e causa ignotaof unknown causeOften used in medicine when the underlying disease causing a symptom is not known. See also idiopathic.
E pluribus unumout of many, oneLiterally, out of more (than one), one. The former national motto of the United States, which "In God We Trust" latter replaced; therefore, it is still inscribed on many US coins and on the United States Capitol. Also the motto of S.L. Benfica. Less commonly written as ex pluribus unum.
ecce ancilla dominibehold the handmaiden of the LordFrom Luke 1:38 in the Vulgate Bible. Name of an oil painting by Dante Gabriel Rossetti and motto of Bishopslea Preparatory School.
ecce homobehold the manFrom the Gospel of John in the Vulgate 19:5 (Douay-Rheims), where Pontius Pilate speaks these words as he presents Christ, crowned with thorns, to the crowd. It is also the title of Nietzsche's autobiography and of the theme music by Howard Goodall for the ITV comedy Mr. Bean, in which the full sung lyric is Ecce homo qui est faba ("Behold the man who is a bean").
ecce panis angelorumbehold the bread of angelsFrom the Catholic hymn Lauda Sion; occasionally inscribed near the altar of Catholic churches; it refers to the Eucharist, the Bread of Heaven; the Body of Christ. See also: Panis angelicus.
editio princepsfirst editionThe first published edition of a work.
ejusdem generisof the same kinds, class, or natureFrom the canons of statutory interpretation in law. When more general descriptors follow a list of many specific descriptors, the otherwise wide meaning of the general descriptors is interpreted as restricted to the same class, if any, of the preceding specific descriptors.
ego te absolvoI absolve youPart of the formula of Catholic sacramental absolution, i. e., spoken by a priest as part of the Sacrament of Penance .
ego te provocoI challenge youUsed as a challenge; "I dare you". Can also be written as te provoco.
eheu fugaces labuntur anniAlas, the fleeting years slip byFrom Horace's Odes, 2, 14.
eluceat omnibus luxlet the light shine out from allThe motto of Sidwell Friends School.
emeritusveteranRetired from office. Often used to denote an office held at the time of one's retirement, as an honorary title, e. g. professor emeritus and provost emeritus. Inclusion in one's title does not necessarily denote that the honorand is inactive in the pertinent office.
ens causa suiexisting because of oneselfOr "being one's own cause". Traditionally, a being that owes its existence to no other being, hence God or a Supreme Being (see also Primum Mobile).
ense petit placidam sub libertate quietemby the sword she seeks a serene repose under libertyMotto of the US state of Massachusetts, adopted in 1775.
entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatementities must not be multiplied beyond necessityOccam's Razor or Law of Parsimony; arguments which do not introduce extraneous variables are to be preferred in logical argumentation.
entitas ipsa involvit aptitudinem ad extorquendum certum assensumreality involves a power to compel certain assentA phrase used in modern Western philosophy on the nature of truth.
eo ipsoby that very (act)Technical term in philosophy and law. Similar to ipso facto. Example: "The fact that I am does not eo ipso mean that I think." From the Latin ablative form of id ipsum ("that thing itself").
eo nomineby that name
equo ne creditedo not trust the horseFrom Virgil, Aeneid, II. 48–49; a reference to the Trojan Horse.
erga omnesin relation to everyoneUsed in law, especially international law, to denote a kind of universal obligation.
ergothereforeDenotes a logical conclusion (see also cogito ergo sum).
errare humanum estto err is humanSometimes attributed to Seneca the Younger, but not attested: Errare humanum est, perseverare autem diabolicum, et tertia non datur (To err is human; to persist [in committing such errors] is of the devil, and the third possibility is not given.) Several authors contemplated the idea before Seneca: Livy, Venia dignus error is humanus (Storie, VIII, 35) and Cicero: is Cuiusvis errare: insipientis nullius nisi, in errore perseverare (Anyone can err, but only the fool persists in his fault) (Philippicae, XII, 2, 5). Cicero, being well-versed in ancient Greek, may well have been alluding to Euripides' play Hippolytus some four centuries earlier.[1] 300 years later Saint Augustine of Hippo recycled the idea in his Sermones, 164, 14: Humanum fuit errare, diabolicum est per animositatem in errore manere.[2] The phrase gained currency in the English language after Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism of 1711: "To err is human, to forgive divine" (line 325).
erratumerrorI. e., mistake. Lists of errors in a previous edition of a work are often marked with the plural errata ("errors").
errantis voluntas nulla estthe will of a mistaken party is voidRoman legal principle formulated by Pomponius in the Digest of the Corpus Juris Civilis, stating that legal actions undertaken by man under the influence of error are invalid.
eruditio et religioscholarship and dutyMotto of Duke University
esse est percipito be is to be perceivedMotto of George Berkeley for his subjective idealist philosophical position that nothing exists independently of its perception by a mind except minds themselves.
esse quam viderito be, rather than to seemTruly being a thing, rather than merely seeming to be a thing. The motto of many institutions. From Cicero, De amicitia (On Friendship), Chapter 26. Prior to Cicero, Sallust used the phrase in Bellum Catilinae, 54, 6, writing that Cato esse quam videri bonus malebat ("preferred to be good, rather than to seem so"). Earlier still, Aeschylus used a similar phrase in Seven Against Thebes, line 592: ou gar dokein aristos, all' enai thelei ("he wishes not to seem the best, but to be the best").
est modus in rebusthere is measure in thingsthere is a middle or mean in things, there is a middle way or position; from Horace, Satires 1.1.106; see also: Golden mean (philosophy). According to Potempski and Galmarini (Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9471-9489, 2009) the sentence should be translated as: "There is an optimal condition in all things", which in the original text is followed by sunt certi denique fines quos ultra citraque nequit consistere rectum ("There are therefore precise boundaries beyond which one cannot find the right thing").
esto perpetuamay it be perpetualSaid of Venice, Italy, by the Venetian historian Fra Paolo Sarpi shortly before his death. Motto of the US state of Idaho, adopted in 1867; of S. Thomas' College, Mount Lavinia, Sri Lanka; of Sigma Phi Society.
esto quod esbe what you areMotto of Wells Cathedral School.
et adhuc sub iudice lis estit is still before the courtFrom Horace, Ars Poetica (The Art of Poetry) 1.78.
et alibi (et al.)and elsewhereA less common variant on et cetera ("and the rest") used at the end of a list of locations to denote unenumerated/omitted ones.
et alii (et al.)and othersUsed similarly to et cetera ("and the rest") to denote names that, usually for the sake of space, are unenumerated/omitted. Alii is masculine, and therefore it can be used to refer to men, or groups of men and women; the feminine et aliae is proper when the "others" are all female, but as with many loanwords, interlingual use, such as in reference lists, is often invariable. Et alia is neuter plural and thus in Latin text is properly used only for inanimate, genderless objects, but some use it as a gender-neutral alternative.[3] APA style uses et al. (normal font)[4] if the work cited was written by more than six authors; MLA style uses et al. for more than three authors; AMA style lists all authors if ≤6, and 3 + et al if >6. AMA style forgoes the period (because it forgoes the period on abbreviations generally) and it forgoes the italic (as it does with other loanwords naturalized into scientific English); many journals that follow AMA style do likewise.
et cetera (etc. (US English); etc (UK English)) or (&c. (US); &c (UK))and the restIn modern usage, used to mean "and so on" or "and more".
et cum spiritu tuoand with your spiritA response in the Sursum corda element of the Catholic Mass.
Et facere et pati fortia Romanum estActing and suffering bravely is the attribute of a RomanThe words of Gaius Mucius Scaevola when Lars Porsena captured him.
et facta est luxAnd light came to be or was madeFrom Genesis, 1:3: "and there was light". Motto of Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. See also Fiat lux.
et hoc genus omneand all that sort of thingAbbreviated as e.h.g.o. or ehgo
et in Arcadia egoand in Arcadia [am] IIn other words, "I too am in Arcadia". See also memento mori.
et lux in tenebris lucetand light shines in the darknessSee also Lux in Tenebris. Motto of the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
et nunc reges intelligite erudimini qui judicatis terram"And now, O ye kings, understand: receive instruction, you that judge the earth."From the Book of Psalms, II.x. (Vulgate), 2.10 (Douay-Rheims).
et sequentes (et seq.)and the following (masculine/feminine plural)Also et sequentia ("and the following things": neut.), abbreviations: et seqq., et seq., or sqq. Commonly used in legal citations to refer to statutes that comprise several sequential sections of a code of statutes (e. g. National Labor Relations Act, 29 U.S.C. § 159 et seq.; New Jersey Prevention of Domestic Violence Act, N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:25-17 et seq.).
et suppositio nil ponit in esseand a supposition puts nothing in beingMore usually translated as "Sayin' it don't make it so".
Et tu, Brute?And you, Brutus?Or "Even you, Brutus?" or "You too, Brutus?" Indicates betrayal by an intimate associate. From William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, based on the traditional dying words of Julius Caesar. However, these were almost certainly not Caesar's true last words: Plutarch quotes Caesar as saying in Greek, the language of the Roman elite at the time, καὶ σὺ τέκνον (Kaì sù téknon?), translated as "You too, (my) child?", quoting from Menander.
et uxor (et ux.)and wifeA legal term.
et virand husbandA legal term.
Etiam si omnes, ego nonEven if all others, I will neverSaint Peter to Jesus Christ, from the Vulgate, Gospel of Matthew 26:33; New King James Version: Matthew 26:33).
etsi deus non daretureven if God were not a givenThis sentence synthesizes a famous concept of Hugo Grotius (1625).
ex abundanti cautelaout of an abundance of cautionIn law, describes someone taking precautions against a very remote contingency. "One might wear a belt in addition to braces ex abundanti cautela".[5] In banking, a loan in which the collateral is more than the loan itself. Also the basis for the term "an abundance of caution" employed by United States President Barack Obama to explain why the Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court John Roberts had to re-administer the presidential oath of office, and again in reference to terrorist threats.
ex abundantia enim cordis os loquiturfor out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh.From the Gospel of Matthew, XII.xxxiv (Vulgate), 12.34 (Douay-Rheims) and the Gospel of Luke, VI.xlv (Vulgate), 6.45 (Douay-Rheims). Sometimes rendered without enim ("for").
ex aequofrom the equalDenoting "on equal footing", i. e., in a tie. Used for those two (seldom more) participants of a competition who demonstrated identical performance.
ex Africa semper aliquid novi"(There is) always something new (coming) out of Africa"Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 8, 42 (unde etiam vulgare Graeciae dictum semper aliquid novi Africam adferre[6]), a translation of the Greek «Ἀεὶ Λιβύη φέρει τι καινόν».
ex amicitia paxpeace from friendshipOften used on internal diplomatic event invitations. A motto sometimes inscribed on flags and mission plaques of diplomatic corps.
ex animofrom the soulSincerely.
ex antefrom beforeDenoting "beforehand", "before the event", or "based on prior assumptions"; denoting a prediction.
Ex Astris ScientiaFrom the Stars, KnowledgeThe motto of the fictional Starfleet Academy of Star Trek. Adapted from ex luna scientia, which in turn derived from ex scientia tridens.
ex cathedrafrom the chairA phrase applied to the declarations or promulgations of the Catholic Supreme Pontiff (Pope) when, preserved from the possibility of error by the Holy Spirit (see Papal infallibility), he solemnly declares or promulgates ("from the chair" that was the ancient symbol of the teacher and governor, in this case of the Church) a dogmatic doctrine on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at least being intimately connected to divine revelation. Used, by extension, of anyone who is perceived as speaking as though with supreme authority.
ex cultu roburfrom culture [comes] strengthThe motto of Cranleigh School, Surrey.
ex Deofrom God
ex dolo malofrom fraud"From harmful deceit"; dolus malus is the Latin legal term denoting "fraud". The full legal phrase is ex dolo malo non oritur actio ("an action does not arise from fraud"). When an action has its origin in fraud or deceit, it cannot be supported; thus, a court of law will not assist a man who bases his course of action on an immoral or illegal act.
ex duris gloriaFrom suffering [comes] gloryMotto of Rapha Cycling club (see also Rapha (sportswear)).
ex faciefrom the faceIdiomatically rendered "on the face of it". A legal term typically used to state that a document's explicit terms are defective absent further investigation.
ex fide fiduciafrom faith [comes] confidenceMotto of St George's College, Harare and Hartmann House Preparatory School.
ex fide fortisfrom faith [comes] strengthMotto of Loyola School in New York City, New York, United States.
ex glande quercusfrom the acorn the oakMotto of the Municipal Borough of Southgate, London, England, United Kingdom.
ex gratiafrom kindnessMore literally "from grace". Refers to someone voluntarily performing an act purely from kindness, as opposed to for personal gain or from being compelled to do it. In law, an ex gratia payment is one made without recognizing any liability or obligation.
ex hypothesifrom the hypothesisDenoting "by hypothesis".
ex ignorantia ad sapientiam; ex luce ad tenebras (e.i.)from ignorance into wisdom; from light into darknessMotto of the fictional Miskatonic University in Arkham, Massachusetts, from the Cthulhu Mythos
ex infra (e.i.)"from below"Recent academic notation denoting "from below in this writing". See also ex supra.
ex juvantibusfrom that which helpsThe medical pitfall in which response to a therapeutic regimen substitutes proper diagnosis.
ex legefrom the law
ex librisfrom the booksPrecedes a person's name, denoting "from the library of" the nominate; also a synonym for "bookplate".
ex luna scientiafrom the moon, knowledgeThe motto of the Apollo 13 lunar mission, derived from ex scientia tridens, the motto of Jim Lovell's alma mater, the United States Naval Academy.
ex malo bonumgood out of evilFrom Saint Augustine of Hippo, "Sermon LXI", in which he contradicts the dictum of Seneca the Younger in Epistulae morales ad Lucilium, 87:22: bonum ex malo non fit ("good does not come from evil"). Also the alias of the song "Miserabile Visu" by Anberlin in the album New Surrender.
ex mea sententiain my opinion
ex mero motuout of mere impulse, or of one's own accord
ex nihilo nihil fitnothing comes from nothingFrom Lucretius, and said earlier by Empedocles. Its original meaning is "work is required to succeed", but its modern meaning is a more general "everything has its origins in something" (see also causality). It is commonly applied to the conservation laws in philosophy and modern science. Ex nihilo is often used in conjunction with "creation", as in creatio ex nihilo, denoting "creation out of nothing". It is often used in philosophy and theology in connection with the proposition that God created the universe from nothing. It is also mentioned in the final ad-lib of the Monty Python song Always Look on the Bright Side of Life.
ex novoanewDenotes something that has been newly made or made from scratch (see also de novo).
Ex Oblivionefrom oblivionThe title of a short story by H. P. Lovecraft.
ex officiofrom the officeBy virtue or right of office. Often used when someone holds one office by virtue of holding another: for example, the President of France is an ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra. A common misconception is that all ex officio members of a committee or congress may not vote; but in some cases they do. In law ex officio can also refer to an administrative or judicial office taking action of its own accord, in the case of the latter the more common term is ex proprio motu or ex meru motu, for example to invalidate a patent or prosecute infringers of copyright.[7]
ex opere operantisfrom the work of the one workingA theological phrase contrasted with ex opere operato, referring to the notion that the validity or promised benefit of a sacrament depends on the person administering it.
ex opere operatofrom the work workedA theological phrase meaning that the act of receiving a sacrament actually confers the promised benefit, such as a baptism actually and literally cleansing one's sins. The Catholic Church affirms that the source of grace is God, not just the actions or disposition of the minister or the recipient of the sacrament.
ex oriente luxlight from the eastOriginally refers to the sun rising in the east, but alludes to culture coming from the Eastern world. Motto of several institutions.
ex oriente paxpeace comes from the east (i.e. from the Soviet Union)Shown on the logo as used by East Germany's CDU, a blue flag with two yellow stripes, a dove, and the CDU symbol in the center with the words ex oriente pax.
ex partefrom a partA legal term that means "by one party" or "for one party". Thus, on behalf of one side or party only.
ex pede Herculemfrom his foot, so HerculesFrom the measure of Hercules' foot you shall know his size; from a part, the whole.
ex postfrom after"Afterward", "after the event". Based on knowledge of the past. Measure of past performance.
ex post factofrom a thing done afterwardSaid of a law with retroactive effect.
ex professofrom one declaring [an art or science]Or 'with due competence'. Said of the person who perfectly knows his art or science. Also used to mean "expressly".[8]
ex rel. or ex relatio[arising] out of the relation/narration [of the relator]The term is a legal phrase; the legal citation guide called the Bluebook describes ex rel. as a "procedural phrase" and requires using it to abbreviate "on the relation of," "for the use of," "on behalf of," and similar expressions. An example of use is in court case titles such as Universal Health Services, Inc. v. United States ex rel. Escobar
ex scientia tridensfrom knowledge, sea power.The United States Naval Academy motto. Refers to knowledge bringing men power over the sea comparable to that of the trident-bearing Greek god Poseidon.
ex scientia verafrom knowledge, truthThe motto of the College of Graduate Studies at Middle Tennessee State University.
ex silentiofrom silenceIn general, the claim that the absence of something demonstrates the proof of a proposition. An argumentum ex silentio ("argument from silence") is an argument based on the assumption that someone's silence on a matter suggests ("proves" when a logical fallacy) that person's ignorance of the matter or their inability to counterargue validly.
ex situout of positionopposite of "in situ"
ex solo ad solemfrom the Earth to the SunThe motto of the University of Central Lancashire, Preston
ex supra (e.s.)"from above"Recent academic notation for "from above in this writing". See also ex infra.
ex temporefrom [this moment of] time"This instant", "right away" or "immediately". Also written extempore.
Ex turpi causa non oritur actioFrom a dishonorable cause an action does not ariseA legal doctrine which states that a claimant will be unable to pursue a cause of action, if it arises in connection with his own illegal act. Particularly relevant in the law of contract, tort and trusts.
ex umbra in solemfrom the shadow into the lightMotto of Federico Santa María Technical University.
ex undisfrom the waves [of the sea]motto in the coat of arms of Eemsmond
Ex Unitate Viresunion is strength, or unity is strengthFormer motto of South Africa.
ex vi terminifrom the force of the termThus, "by definition".
ex vita discedo, tanquam ex hospitio, non tanquam ex domoI depart from life as from an inn, not as from homeCicero, Cato Maior de Senectute (On Old Age) 23
ex vivoout of or from lifeUsed in reference to the study or assay of living tissue in an artificial environment outside the living organism.
ex votofrom the vowThus, in accordance with a promise. An ex voto is also an offering made in fulfillment of a vow.
ex vulgus scientiafrom crowd, knowledgeused to describe social computing, in The Wisdom of Crowds and discourse referring to it.
excelsiorhigher"Ever upward!" The state motto of New York. Also a catchphrase used by Marvel Comics head Stan Lee.
exceptio firmat (or probat) regulam in casibus non exceptisThe exception confirms the rule in cases which are not exceptedA juridical principle which means that the statement of a rule's exception (e.g., "no parking on Sundays") implicitly confirms the rule (i.e., that parking is allowed Monday through Saturday). Often mistranslated as "the exception that proves the rule".
excusatio non petita accusatio manifestaan excuse that has not been sought [is] an obvious accusationMore loosely, "he who excuses himself, accuses himself"—an unprovoked excuse is a sign of guilt. In French, qui s'excuse, s'accuse.
exeats/he may go outA formal leave of absence.
exegi monumentum aere perenniusI have reared a monument more enduring than bronzeHorace, Carmina III:XXX:I
exempli gratia (e.g.)for the sake of example, for exampleExempli gratiā, 'for example', is usually abbreviated "e.g." (less commonly, ex. gr.). The abbreviation "e.g." often is interpreted anglicised as 'example given'. It is not usually followed by a comma in British English, but it is in American usage. E.g. is often confused with i.e. (id est, meaning 'that is' or 'in other words').[9] Some writing styles give such abbreviations without punctuation, as ie and eg.[lower-alpha 1]
exercitus sine duce corpus est sine spirituan army without a leader is a body without a spiritOn a plaque at the former military staff building of the Swedish Armed Forces.
exeuntthey leaveThird-person plural present active indicative of the Latin verb exire; also seen in exeunt omnes, "all leave"; singular: exit.
experientia docetexperience teachesThis term has been used in dermatopathology to express that there is no substitute for experience in dealing with all the numerous variations that may occur with skin conditions.[26] The term has also been used in gastroenterology.[27] It is also the motto of San Francisco State University.
experimentum crucisexperiment of the crossOr "crucial experiment". A decisive test of a scientific theory.
experto credetrust the expertLiterally "believe one who has had experience". An author's aside to the reader.
expressio unius est exclusio alteriusthe expression of the one is the exclusion of the other"Mentioning one thing may exclude another thing". A principle of legal statutory interpretation: the explicit presence of a thing implies intention to exclude others; e.g., a reference in the Poor Relief Act 1601 to "lands, houses, tithes and coal mines" was held to exclude mines other than coal mines. Sometimes expressed as expressum facit cessare tacitum (broadly, "the expression of one thing excludes the implication of something else").
extra domum[placed] outside of the houseRefers to a possible result of Catholic ecclesiastical legal proceedings when the culprit is removed from being part of a group like a monastery.
extra Ecclesiam nulla salusoutside the Church [there is] no salvationThis expression comes from the Epistle to Jubaianus, paragraph 21, written by Saint Cyprian of Carthage, a bishop of the third century. It is often used to summarise the doctrine that the Catholic Church is absolutely necessary for salvation.
extra omnesoutside, all [of you]It is issued by the Master of the Papal Liturgical Celebrations before a session of the Papal conclave which will elect a new Pope. When spoken, all those who are not Cardinals, or those otherwise mandated to be present at the Conclave, must leave the Sistine Chapel.
extra territorium jus dicenti impune non pareturhe who administers justice outside of his territory is disobeyed with impunityRefers to extraterritorial jurisdiction. Often cited in law of the sea cases on the high seas.
extrema ratio"extreme solution", "last possibility", "last possible course of action"

Footnotes

  1. Assertions, such as those by Bryan A. Garner in Garner's Modern English Usage,[10] that "eg" and "ie" style versus "e.g.," and "i.e.," style are two poles of British versus American usage are not borne out by major style guides and usage dictionaries, which demonstrate wide variation. To the extent anything approaching a consistent general conflict can be identified, it is between American and British news companies' different approaches to the balance between clarity and expediency, without complete agreement on either side of the Atlantic, and with little evidence of effects outside journalism circles, e.g. in book publishing or academic journals.

    There is no consistent British style. For example, The Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors has "e.g." and "i.e." with points (periods);[11] Fowler's Modern English Usage takes the same approach,[12] and its newest edition is especially emphatic about the points being retained.[13] The Oxford Guide to Style (also republished in Oxford Style Manual and separately as New Hart's Rules) also has "e.g." and "i.e.";[14] the examples it provides are of the short and simple variety that often see the comma dropped in American usage as well. None of those works prescribe specifically for or against a comma following these abbreviations, leaving it to writers' own judgment.

    Some specific publishers, primarily in news journalism, drop one or both forms of punctuation as a matter of house style. They seem more frequently to be British than American (perhaps owing to the AP Stylebook being treated as a de facto standard across most American newspapers, without a UK counterpart). For example, The Guardian uses "eg" and "ie" with no punctuation,[15] while The Economist uses "eg," and "ie," with commas and without points,[16] as does The Times of London.[17] A 2014 revision to New Hart's Rules states that it is now "Oxford style" to not use a comma after e.g. and i.e. (which retain the points), "to avoid double punctuation".[18] This is a rationale it does not apply to anything else, and Oxford University Press has not consistently imposed this style on its publications that post-date 2014, including Garner's Modern English Usage.

    By way of US comparison, The New York Times uses "e.g." and "i.e.", without a rule about a following comma – like Oxford usage in actual practice.[19] The Chicago Manual of Style prefers "e.g.," and "i.e.,". However, it says of this entire class of expressions, including long phrases like "in other words" and "for example", that they are "traditionally" or "usually" followed by a comma, not that they must be, nor does it draw any dialectal distinctions on the matter[20] (despite usually making American versus British assertions throughout). The AP Stylebook preserves both types of punctuation for these abbreviations.[21]

    "British" and "American" are not accurate as stand-ins for Commonwealth and North American English more broadly; actual practice varies even among national publishers. The Australian government's Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers preserves the points in the abbreviations, but eschews the comma after them (it similarly drops the title's serial comma before "and", which most UK and many US publishers would retain).[22] Editing Canadian English by the Editors' Association of Canada uses the periods and the comma;[23] so does A Canadian Writer's Reference.[24] The government publication The Canadian Style uses the periods but not the comma.[25]

    Style guides are generally in agreement that both abbreviations are preceded by a comma or used inside a parenthetical construction, and are best confined to the latter and to footnotes and tables, rather than used in running prose.

References

  1. Euripides (428 BCE [2003 CE]), Medea and Other Plays, Penguin Group, London, p. 153, l.615 (trans. Davie, J.)
  2. Sancti Aurelii Augustini Opera, vol. IV, p. 412.
  3. "University of Minnesota Style Manual: Correct Usage". .umn.edu. 2010-11-22. Archived from the original on 2010-08-19. Retrieved 2011-01-19.
  4. Lee, Chelsea (3 November 2011). "The Proper Use of Et Al. in APA Style". blog.apastyle.org. American Psychological Association.
  5. Gray, John (2006), "Lawyer's Latin (a vade-mecum)", Hale, London, ISBN 9780709082774.
  6. "Pliny the Elder: the Natural History, Liber VIII". Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-19.
  7. "Ex proprio motu". A Dictionary of Law. Oxford University Press.
  8. Entry for "expressly" in: Meltzer, Peter E. The Thinker's Thesaurus: Sophisticated Alternatives to Common Words. W. W. Norton & Company, 2015 (3rd edition). ISBN 0393338975, ISBN 9780393338973.
  9. "Word Fact: What's the Difference Between i.e. and e.g.?". blog.Dictioanry.com. IAC Publishing. August 19, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  10. Garner, Bryan A. (2016). "e.g." and "i.e.". Garner's Modern English Usage (4th ed.). pp. 322–323, 480. This is an internationalized expansion of what was previously published as Garner's Modern American Usage.
  11. Ritter, Robert M., ed. (2003). "e.g." and "i.e.". Oxford Style Manual. Oxford University Press. pp. 704, 768.. Material previously published separately as The Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors.
  12. Burchfield, R. W.; Fowler, H. W., eds. (2004). "e.g." and "i.e.". Fowler's Modern English Usage (3rd ed.). Oxford U. Pr. pp. 240, 376.
  13. Butterfield, Jeremy; Fowler, H. W., eds. (2015). "e.g." and "i.e.". Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4th ed.). Oxford U. Pr. pp. 248, 393. Both should always be printed lower case roman with two points and no spaces."
  14. Ritter, Robert M., ed. (2003). "3.8: e.g., i.e., etc.". Oxford Style Manual. Oxford U. Pr. pp. 69–70.
  15. "abbreviations and acronyms". Guardian and Observer style guide. Guardian Media Group/Scott Trust. 2017. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  16. "Abbreviations". The Economist Style Guide. Economist Group. 2017. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  17. ", eg," and ", ie". The Times Online Style Guide. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  18. Waddingham, Anne, ed. (2014). "4.3.8: Other uses [of the comma]". New Hart's Rules: The Oxford Style Guide (2nd ed.). Oxford U. Pr. p. 79.
  19. Siegal, Allan M.; Connolly, William G.; Corbett, Philip B.; et al., eds. (2015). "e.g." and "i.e.". The New York Times Manual of Style (2015 ed.). The New York Times Company/Three Rivers Press. E-book edition v3.1, ISBN 978-1-101-90322-3.
  20. "6.43: Commas with 'that is,' 'namely,' 'for example,' and similar expressions". The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.). University of Chicago Press. 2010.
  21. "e.g." and "i.e.". Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law (2009 ed.). Associated Press/Basic Books. pp. 95, 136.
  22. "6.73". Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers (5th ed.). Australian Government Publishing Service. 1996. p. 84.
  23. "4.22: Latin Abbreviations". Editing Canadian English: The Essential Canadian Guide (Revised and Updated (2nd) ed.). McClelland & Stewart/Editors' Association of Canada. 2000. pp. 52–53.. States no rule about the comma, but illustrates use with it in §4.23 on the same page.
  24. Hacker, Diana; et al. (2008). "M4-d: Be sparing in your use of Latin abbreviations". A Canadian Writer's Reference (4th ed.). Bedford/St. Martin's. pp. 308–309. This is a Canadian revision of an originally American publication.
  25. "12.03: Words commonly misused or confused". The Canadian Style (Revised and Expanded (2nd) ed.). Dundurn Press/Public Works and Government Services Canada Translation Bureau. 1997. pp. 233–234.
  26. Rapini, Ronald P. (2005). Practical dermatopathology. Elsevier Mosby. ISBN 0-323-01198-5.
  27. Webb-Johnson AE (May 1950). "Experientia docet". Rev Gastroenterol. 17 (5): 337–43. PMID 15424403.

Additional sources:

  • Adeleye, Gabriel G. (1999). Thomas J. Sienkewicz; James T. McDonough, Jr. (eds.). World Dictionary of Foreign Expressions. Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0865164223.
  • Stone, Jon R. (1996). Latin for the Illiterati. London & New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415917751.
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