List of French forts in North America

This is a list of forts in New France built by the French government or French Chartered companies in what later became Canada, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and the United States. They range from large European-type citadels like at Quebec City to tiny fur-trade posts.[3]

Canada

The French forts in Canada were located from the Atlantic Ocean to as far west as the confluence of the North and South Saskatchewan Rivers, and as far north as James Bay. Built between the 1640s and the 1750s, a few were captured from rival British fur trading companies like Hudson's Bay Company. The forts were located on waterways to provide transport of fur back east to Montreal or Quebec City. A few have survived or been re-built, but most are ruins or simply disappeared after abandonment.

Name[4][5]Date constructed ca.LocationProvinceImage
Fort Anne1636Annapolis Royal Nova Scotia
Fort Bas de la Rivière1750Fort Alexander Manitoba
Fort Boishébert1749Grand Bay New Brunswick
Fort Beauséjour1751Aulac
Fort Bourbon (West)1741Grand Rapids Manitoba
Fort Bourbon (North)1697York Factory
Fort Charlesbourg Royal1541–1543Cap-Rouge Quebec
Fort Chambly1665Chambly
Citadelle of Quebec1693Quebec City
Citadelle of Montreal1690–1821Montreal
Fort Dauphin1741Winnipegosis Manitoba
Fort de la Corne1753Fort à la Corne Provincial Forest Saskatchewan
Fort de la Montagne1685Montreal Quebec
Fort Douville1720Toronto Ontario
Fort Dumoine1730Pontiac Regional County Municipality Quebec
Fort du Moulin1749Trois-Rivières
Fort du Sault Saint-Louis1725Kahnawake
Fort Frontenac1673Kingston Ontario
Fort Gaspareaux1751Port Elgin New Brunswick
Fort Kaministiquia1717Thunder Bay Ontario
Fort Lachine1669–1695Lachine Quebec
Fort Laprairie1687Laprairie
Fort La Reine1738Portage la Prairie Manitoba
Fort Le Jonquiere1751Saskatchewan River Forks (near Prince Albert) Saskatchewan
Fortress of Louisbourg1719Louisbourg Nova Scotia
Fort Maurepas1733Selkirk Manitoba
Fort Menagoueche1751Saint John New Brunswick
Fort Paskoya1741The Pas (on Cedar Lake) Manitoba
Fort Plaisance1662Placentia Newfoundland and Labrador
Fort Pointe-aux-Trembles1670Pointe-aux-Trembles Quebec
Fort Richelieu1641near Sorel-Tracy
Fort Rouge1738Winnipeg Manitoba
Fort Rouillé / Fort Toronto1750Toronto Ontario
Fort Royal (Newfoundland)1687Placentia Newfoundland and Labrador
Fort Sainte Anne (Hudson Bay)1670 (1686)Fort Albany Ontario
Fort Sainte Anne1629–1641Englishtown Nova Scotia
Fort Saint-François1660Trois-Rivières Quebec
Fort Saint Jacques1686–1693 and 1697–1713Waskaganish, Quebec (Fort Rupert)
Fort Saint-Jean1746Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu
Fort Saint Louis1690–1713Placentia Newfoundland and Labrador
Fort St. Louis1620–1834Quebec Quebec
Fort St. Louis1623–1930Cape Sable Island Nova Scotia
Fort St. Louis1670s (1686)Moose Factory Ontario
Fort St. Pierre1731Fort Frances (near mouth of the Rainy River meets with Rainy Lake)
Fort Sainte Thérèse1665Carignan Quebec
Fort Senneville1671Montreal
Fort Témiscamingue1679Ville Marie
Fort Ville-Marie1642–1688Montreal
Port-la-Joye1720Charlottetown Prince Edward Island

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

NameDate constructed ca.LocationCommunes of FranceImage
Pointe aux Cannon Battery[6]1690Saint Pierre IslandSaint-Pierre

United States

The French forts built in what is now the United States, were part of a series of forts built from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi delta; as far west as the Dakotas, as far east as Maine.

Name[4][5]Date constructed ca.LocationStateImage
Arkansas Post1686Arkansas County Arkansas
Fort des Alibamons1717Wetumpka Alabama
Fort Assumption1739Memphis Tennessee
Fort de la Balise 1722 Plaquemines Parish  Louisiana
Fort Beauharnois1727Goodhue County Minnesota
Fort De La Boulaye

(Fort Bayougoula,

Fort Iberville,

Fort Louisiana)

1700 Phoenix, Plaquemines Parish  Louisiana
Fort de Buade1683St. Ignace Michigan
Fort Carillon1754–57Ticonderoga New York
Fort Caroline1564Jacksonville Florida
Fort de Cavagnal1744Missouri River between Kansas City and Fort Leavenworth Kansas
Fort Charles1562Beaufort South Carolina
Fort de Chartres1720Randolph County Illinois
Fort Condé de la Mobille1723Mobile Alabama
Fort Conti1679Youngstown New York
Fort Crèvecoeur1680Creve Coeur Illinois
Fort Denonville1687Youngstown New York
Fort Ponchartrain du Détroit1701Detroit Michigan
Fort Détour à l'Anglais 1722 Belle Chase  Louisiana
Fort Duquesne1754Pittsburgh Pennsylvania
Fort Dubreuil

(Côte des Allemands)

1740 Destrehan  Louisiana
Fort St. Jean 1708 New Orleans  Louisiana
Fort Kaskaskia1759Kaskaskia Illinois
Fort de La Présentation1671Ogdensburg New York
Fort Le Boeuf1753Waterford Pennsylvania
Fort Lévis1759Ogdensburg New York
Fort Louis de la Louisiane1702Le Moyne Alabama
Fort Machault1754Franklin Pennsylvania
Fort Massac1757Massac County Illinois
Fort Maurepas1699Ocean Springs Mississippi
Fort Miami (Indiana)1715Fort Wayne Indiana
Fort Miami (Michigan)1679St. Joseph Michigan
Fort Michilimackinac1715Mackinaw City
Fort des Natchitoches1714Natchitoches Louisiana
Fort Niagara1678Youngstown New York
Fort Orleans1723Brunswick Missouri
Fort Ouiatenon1717West Lafayette Indiana
Fort Pentagouet1638Castine Maine
Fort St. Philip 1761 Buras-Triumph  Louisiana
Fort Pimiteoui1691Peoria Illinois
Fort Presque Isle1753Erie Pennsylvania
Fort Prudhomme1682Memphis Tennessee
Fort Rosalie1716Natchez Mississippi
Fort Ste. Anne1666Isle La Motte Vermont
Fort St. Charles1732Lake of the Woods County Minnesota
Fort St. Frédéric1729–1757Crown Point New York
Fort St. Joseph1691Niles Michigan
Fort St. Leon 1749 Belle Chase  Louisiana
Fort Saint Louis1685Inez Texas
Fort St. Louis-Le Rocher1682North Utica Illinois
Fort St. Marie 1746 English Turn  Louisiana
Fort Sandoské1745Sandusky Bay Ohio
Fort de Tombecbé1735–37Epes Alabama
Fort Toulouse1717Wetumpka
Fort Vincennes1731–32Vincennes Indiana

See also

Canada related
United States related

References

  1. Québec Citadel. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  2. "Historic District of Old Québec". World Heritage Convention. UNESCO. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  3. Rene Chartrand (2013). French Fortresses in North America 1535–1763: Quebec, Montreal, Louisbourg and New Orleans. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4728-0317-7.
  4. Rene Chartrand (2013). The Forts of New France in Northeast America 1600–1763. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4728-0318-4.
  5. René Chartrand (2010). The Forts of New France: The Great Lakes, the Plains and the Gulf Coast, 1600-1763. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-504-3.
  6. "Landmarks and monuments Saint-Pierre and Miquelon". Archived from the original on 2010-07-25. Retrieved 2010-07-08.
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