List of DOS commands
In DOS, many standard system commands were provided for common tasks such as listing files on a disk or moving files. Some commands were built into the command interpreter, others existed as external commands on disk. Over the several generations of DOS, commands were added for the additional functions of the operating system. In the current Microsoft Windows operating system, a text-mode command prompt window, cmd.exe, can still be used.
The command interpreter for DOS runs when no application programs are running. When an application exits, if the transient portion of the command interpreter in memory was overwritten, DOS will reload it from disk. Some commands are internal — built into COMMAND.COM; others are external commands stored on disk. When the user types a line of text at the operating system command prompt, COMMAND.COM will parse the line and attempt to match a command name to a built-in command or to the name of an executable program file or batch file on disk. If no match is found, an error message is printed, and the command prompt is refreshed.
External commands were too large to keep in the command processor, or were less frequently used. Such utility programs would be stored on disk and loaded just like regular application programs but were distributed with the operating system. Copies of these utility command programs had to be on an accessible disk, either on the current drive or on the command path set in the command interpreter.
In the list below, commands that can accept more than one file name, or a filename including wildcards (* and ?), are said to accept a filespec (file specification) parameter. Commands that can accept only a single file name are said to accept a filename parameter. Additionally, command line switches, or other parameter strings, can be supplied on the command line. Spaces and symbols such as a "/" or a "-" may be used to allow the command processor to parse the command line into filenames, file specifications, and other options.
The command interpreter preserves the case of whatever parameters are passed to commands, but the command names themselves and file names are case-insensitive.
Many commands are the same across many DOS systems, but some differ in command syntax or name.
Sets the path to be searched for data files or displays the current search path. The APPEND command is similar to the PATH command that tells DOS where to search for program files (files with a .COM, . EXE, or .BAT file name extension).
The command redirects requests for disk operations on one drive to a different drive. It can also display drive assignments or reset all drive letters to their original assignments.
Attrib changes or views the attributes of one or more files. It defaults to display the attributes of all files in the current directory. The file attributes available include read-only, archive, system, and hidden attributes. The command has the capability to process whole folders and subfolders of files and also process all files.
BACKUP and RESTORE
These are commands to backup and restore files from an external disk. These appeared in version 2, and continued to PC DOS 5 and MS-DOS 6 (PC DOS 7 had a deversioned check). In DOS 6, these were replaced by commercial programs (CPBACKUP, MSBACKUP), which allowed files to be restored to different locations.
BASIC and BASICA
An implementation of the BASIC programming language for PCs. Implementing BASIC in this way was very common in operating systems on 8- and 16-bit machines made in the 1980s.
IBM computers had BASIC 1.1 in ROM, and IBM's versions of BASIC used code in this ROM-BASIC, which allowed for extra memory in the code area. BASICA last appeared in IBM PC DOS 5.02, and in OS/2 (2.0 and later), the version had ROM-BASIC moved into the program code.
Microsoft released GW-BASIC for machines with no ROM-BASIC. Some OEM releases had basic.com and basica.com as loaders for GW-BASIC.EXE.
BASIC was dropped after MS-DOS 4, and PC DOS 5.02. OS/2 (which uses PC DOS 5), has it, while MS-DOS 5 does not.
This command is used to instruct DOS to check whether the Ctrl and Break keys have been pressed before carrying out a program request.
Starts a batch file from within another batch file and returns when that one ends.
CD and CHDIR
The CHDIR (or the alternative name CD) command either displays or changes the current working directory.
CHKDSK verifies a storage volume (for example, a hard disk, disk partition or floppy disk) for file system integrity. The command has the ability to fix errors on a volume and recover information from defective disk sectors of a volume.
The CHOICE command is used in batch files to prompt the user to select one item from a set of single-character choices. Choice was introduced as an external command with MS-DOS 6.0; Novell DOS 7 and PC DOS 7.0. Earlier versions of DR DOS supported this function with the built-in switch command (for numeric choices) or by beginning a command with a question mark. This command was formerly called ync (yes-no-cancel).
The CLS or CLRSCR command clears the terminal screen.
Start a new instance of the command interpreter.
Show differences between any two files, or any two sets of files.
Defines the terminal device (for example, COM1) to use for input and output.
(Not a command: This is a batch file added to DOS 6.X Supplemental Disks to help create DoubleSpace boot floppies - see https://jeffpar.github.io/kbarchive/kb/100/Q100021/)
A disk compression utility supplied with MS-DOS version 6.0 (released in 1993) and version 6.2.
A very primitive assembler and disassambler.
DEL and ERASE
DEL (or the alternative form ERASE) is used to delete one or more files.
Deletes a directory along with all of the files and subdirectories that it contains. Normally, it will ask for confirmation of the potentially dangerous action. Since the RD (RMDIR) command can not delete a directory if the directory is not empty, the DELTREE command can be used to delete the whole directory.
deltree command is included in certain versions of Microsoft Windows and MS-DOS operating systems. It is specifically available only in versions of MS-DOS 6.0 and higher, and in Microsoft Windows 9x. In Windows NT, the functionality provided exists but is handled by the command rd or rmdir which has slightly different syntax. This command has been deprecated for Windows 7.
The DIR command displays the contents of a directory. The contents comprise the disk's volume label and serial number; one directory or filename per line, including the filename extension, the file size in bytes, and the date and time the file was last modified; and the total number of files listed, their cumulative size, and the free space (in bytes) remaining on the disk. The command is one of the few commands that exist from the first versions of DOS. The command can display files in subdirectories. The resulting directory listing can be sorted by various criteria and filenames can be displayed in a chosen format.
A command for comparing the complete contents of a floppy disk to another one.
A command for copying the complete contents of a diskette to another diskette.
A disk compression utility supplied with MS-DOS version 6.22.
The ECHO command prints its own arguments back out to the DOS equivalent of the standard output stream. (Hence the name, ECHO) Usually, this means directly to the screen, but the output of echo can be redirected, like any other command, to files or devices. Often used in batch files to print text out to the user.
Another important use of the echo command is to toggle echoing of commands on and off in batch files. Traditionally batch files begin with the
@echo off statement. This says to the interpreter that echoing of commands should be off during the whole execution of the batch file, thus resulting in a "tidier" output (the
@ symbol declares that this particular command (echo off) should also be executed without echo.)
EDIT is a full-screen text editor, included with MS-DOS versions 5 and 6, OS/2 and Windows NT to 4.0 The corresponding program in Windows 95 and later, and Windows 2000 and later is Edit v2.0. PC DOS 6 and later use the DOS E Editor and DR-DOS used editor up to version 7.
DOS line-editor. It can be used with a script file, like debug, this makes it of some use even today. The absence of a console editor in MS-DOS/PC DOS 1-4 created an after-market for third-party editors.
In DOS 5, an extra command "?" was added to give the user much-needed help.
The EMM386 command enables or disables EMM386 expanded-memory support on a computer with an 80386 or higher processor.
Exits the current command processor. If the exit is used at the primary command, it has no effect unless in a DOS window under Microsoft Windows, in which case the window is closed and the user returns to the desktop.
The Microsoft File Expansion Utility is used to uncompress one or more compressed cabinet files (.CAB). The command dates back to 1990 and was supplied on floppy disc for MS-DOS versions 5 and later.
Provides information for MS-DOS commands.
A command that provides accelerated access to frequently-used files and directories.
Show differences between any two files, or any two sets of files.
The FDISK command manipulates hard disk partition tables. The name derives from IBM's habit of calling hard drives fixed disks. FDISK has the ability to display information about, create, and delete DOS partitions or logical DOS drive. It can also install a standard master boot record on the hard drive.
The FINDSTR command is a GREP-oriented FIND-like utility. Among its uses is the logical-OR lacking in FIND.
- FINDSTR "YES NO MAYBE" *.txt
- would find all files with one or more of the above-listed words YES, NO, MAYBE.
Iteration: repeats a command for each out of a specified set of files. The FOR loop can be used to parse a file or the output of a command.
Deletes the FAT entries and the root directory of the drive/partition, and reformats it for MS-DOS. In most cases, this should only be used on floppy drives or other removable media. This command can potentially erase everything on a computer's drive.
The Goto command transfers execution to a specified label. Labels are specified at the beginning of a line, with a colon (
Used in Batch files.
A TSR program to enable the sending of graphical screen dump to printer by pressing <Print Screen>.
Gives help about DOS commands.
The command is available in MS-DOS versions 5 thru Windows XP. Full-screen command help is available in MS-DOS versions 6 and later. Beginning with Windows XP, the command processor "DOS" offers builtin-help for commands by using "/?" (e.g. COPY /?)
IF is a conditional statement, that allows branching of the program execution. It evaluates the specified condition, and only if it is true, then it executes the remainder of the command line. Otherwise, it skips the remainder of the line and continues with next command line.
Used in Batch files.
INTERSVR and INTERLNK
In MS-DOS; filelink in DR-DOS.
Network PCs using a null modem cable or LapLink cable. The server-side version of InterLnk, it also immobilizes the machine it's running on as it is an active app (As opposed to a TSR app) which must be running for any transfer to take place. DR-DOS' filelink is executed on both the client and server.
The JOIN command attaches a drive letter to a specified directory on another drive. The opposite can be achieved via the SUBST command.
The KEYB command is used to select a keyboard layout.
Changes the label on a logical drive, such as a hard disk partition or a floppy disk.
Loads a program above the first 64K of memory, and runs the program. The command is available in MS-DOS versions 5 and later. It is included only in MS-DOS/PC DOS. DR-DOS used memmax, which opened or closed lower, upper, and video memory access, to block the lower 64K of memory.
LOADHIGH and LH
A command that loads a program into the upper memory area.
It is called hiload in DR-DOS.
MD or MKDIR
Makes a new directory. The parent of the directory specified will be created if it does not already exist.
Displays memory usage. It is capable of displaying program size and status, memory in use, and internal drivers. It is an internal command.
Starting with version 6, MS-DOS included the external program MemMaker which was used to free system memory (especially Conventional memory) by automatically reconfiguring the AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS files. This was usually done by moving TSR programs and device drivers to the upper memory. The whole process required two system restarts. Before the first restart the user was asked whether to enable EMS Memory, since use of expanded memory required a reserved 64KiB region in upper memory. The first restart inserted the SIZER.EXE program which gauged the memory needed by each TSR or Driver. MemMaker would then calculate the optimal Driver and TSR placement in upper memory and modify the AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS accordingly, and reboot the second time.
MEMMAKER.EXE and SIZER.EXE were developed for Microsoft by Helix Software Company and were eliminated starting in MS DOS 7 (Windows 95); however, they could be obtained from Microsoft's FTP server as part of the OLDDOS.EXE package, alongside other tools.
The MIRROR command saves disk storage information that can be used to recover accidentally erased files.
Configures system devices. Changes graphics modes, adjusts keyboard settings, prepares code pages, and sets up port redirection.
The MORE command paginates text, so that one can view files containing more than one screen of text. More may also be used as a filter. While viewing MORE text, the return key displays the next line, the space bar displays the next page.
Moves files or renames directories.
DR-DOS used a separate command for renaming directories,
The MSBACKUP command is used to backup or restore one or more files from one disk to another.
The New York Times said that MSBACKUP "is much better and faster than the old BACKUP command used in earlier versions of DOS, but it does lack some of the advanced features found in backup software packages that are sold separately. There is another offering, named MWBACKUP, that is GUI-oriented. It was introduced for Windows for Workgroups (3.11).
The MSD command provides detailed technical information about the computer's hardware and software. MSD was new in MS-DOS 6; the PC DOS version of this command is QCONFIG. The command appeared first in Word2, and then in Windows 3.10.
The MSHERC.COM (also QBHERC.COM) was a TSR (Terminate and Stay Resident) graphics driver supplied with Microsoft QuickC, QuickBASIC, and the C Compiler, to allow use of the Hercules adapter high-resolution graphics capability (720 x 348, 2 colors). See https://www.pcjs.org/pubs/pc/reference/microsoft/kb/Q44273/.
Displays or sets a search path for executable files.
Suspends processing of a batch program and displays the message 'Press any key to continue. . .', if not given other text to display.
It is not included in many DOS versions; typically ones with network stacks will have it as a diagnostic tool.
C:\> ping facebook.com Pinging facebook.com [126.96.36.199] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 188.8.131.52: bytes=32 time=34ms TTL=89 Reply from 184.108.40.206: bytes=32 time=37ms TTL=89 Reply from 220.127.116.11: bytes=32 time=36ms TTL=89 Reply from 18.104.22.168: bytes=32 time=36ms TTL=89 Ping statistics for 22.214.171.124: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 34ms, Maximum = 37ms, Average = 35ms
The PRINT command adds or removes files in the print queue. This command was introduced in MS-DOS version 2. Before that there was no built-in support for background printing files. The user would usually use the copy command to copy files to LPT1.
The PROMPT command allows the user to change the prompt in the command screen. The default prompt is $p (i.e. prompt $p), which displays the drive and current path as the prompt, but can be changed to anything. 'Prompt $d', displays the current system date as the prompt. Type 'prompt /?' in the cmd screen for help on this function.
RD or RMDIR
Remove a directory (delete a directory); by default the directories must be empty of files for the command to succeed.
A primitive filesystem error recovery utility included in MS-DOS / IBM PC DOS.
Remark (comment) command, normally used within a batch file, and for DR-DOS, PC/MS-DOS 6 and above, in CONFIG.SYS. This command is processed by the command processor. Thus, its output can be redirected to create a zero-byte file. REM is useful in logged sessions or screen-captures. One might add comments by way of labels, usually starting with double-colon (::). These are not processed by the command processor.
The REN command renames a file. Unlike the
move command, this command cannot be used to rename subdirectories, or rename files across drives. Mass renames can be accomplished by the use of the wildcards characters asterisk (*) and question mark (?).
See: BACKUP and RESTORE
Disk diagnostic utility. Scandisk was a replacement for the
chkdsk utility, starting with MS-DOS version 6.2 and later. Its primary advantages over
chkdsk is that it is more reliable and has the ability to run a surface scan which finds and marks bad clusters on the disk. It also provided mouse point-and-click TUI, allowing for interactive session to complement command-line batch run.
chkdsk had surface scan and bad cluster detection functionality included, and was used again on Windows NT based operating systems.
The SELECT command formats a disk and installs country-specific information and keyboard codes.
This command is no longer included in DOS Version 6 and later.
Sets environment variables.
cmd.exe in Windows NT 2000, 4DOS, 4OS2, 4NT, and a number of third-party solutions allow direct entry of environment variables from the command prompt. From at least Windows 2000, the
set command allows for the evaluation of strings into variables, thus providing inter alia a means of performing integer arithmetic.
SetVer is a TSR program designed to return a different value to the version of DOS that is running. This allows programs that look for a specific version of DOS to run under a different DOS.
Installs support for file sharing and locking capabilities.
The SHIFT command increases number of replaceable parameters to more than the standard ten for use in batch files.
This is done by changing the position of replaceable parameters. It replaces each of the replacement parameters with the subsequent one (e.g.
A utility to map a subdirectory to a drive letter. The opposite can be achieved via the JOIN command.
A utility to make a volume bootable. Sys rewrites the Volume Boot Code (the first sector of the partition that SYS is acting on) so that the code, when executed, will look for IO.SYS. SYS also copies the core DOS system files, IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, and COMMAND.COM, to the volume. SYS does not rewrite the Master Boot Record, contrary to widely held belief.
Enables a user to change the title of their MS-DOS window.
It is an external command, graphically displays the path of each directory and sub-directories on the specified drive.
The TRUENAME command will expand the name of a file, directory, or drive, and display the result. It will expand an abbreviated form which the command processor can recognise into its full form. It can see through SUBST and JOIN to find the actual directory.
MS-DOS can find files and directories given their names, without full path information, if the search object is on a path specified by the environment variable PATH. For example, if PATH includes C:\PROGRAMS, and file MYPROG.EXE is on this directory, then if
MYPROG is typed at the command prompt, the command processor will execute
C:\PROGRAMS\MYPROG.EXE. In this case,
This command displays the UNC pathnames of mapped network or local CD drives. This command is an undocumented DOS command. The help switch "/?" defines it as a "Reserved command name". It is available in MS-DOS 5.00.0. This command is similar to the which command, which, given an executable found in $PATH, would give a full path and name. The C library function
realpath performs this function. The Microsoft Windows command processors do not support this command.
Displays a file. The more command is frequently used in conjunction with this command, e.g. type long-text-file | more. TYPE can be used to concatenate files (type file1 file2 > file3); however this won't work for large files—use copy command instead.
Restores file previously deleted with del. By default all recoverable files in the working directory are restored; options are used to change this behavior. If the MS-DOS mirror TSR program is used, then deletion tracking files are created and can be used by undelete.
The UNFORMAT command is used to undo the effects of formatting a disk.
An internal DOS command, that reports the DOS version presently running, and since MS-DOS 5, whether DOS is loaded high.
An internal command that displays the disk volume label and serial number.
A TSR program that continuously monitors the computer for viruses.
- Wolverton, Van (2003). Running MS-DOS Version 6.22 (20th Anniversary Edition), 6th Revised edition. Microsoft Press. ISBN 0-7356-1812-7.
- "MS-DOS choice command help". Retrieved 2014-09-10.
- "Caldera DR-DOS 7.03 User Guide". Retrieved 2014-09-10.
- Does not automatically appear in Help
- graftabl | Microsoft Docs
- EasyDOS Command Index
- DR DOS 6.0 User Guide. Digital Research. 1991.
- Cooper, Jim (May 2001). Using MS-DOS 6.22. Que Publishing. p. 455. ISBN 0789725738.
- "MS-DOS mode command help". Retrieved 2014-09-10.
- MS-DOS and Windows command line msav command
- Peter H. Lewis (1994-01-04). "It's 1994. So Where Are Your Data?".
- Source: Zeos International: "What is MWBACKUP.EXE?".
- "MS-DOS msd command help". Retrieved 2014-09-10.
- "MS-DOS and Windows command line ping command".
- MS-DOS and Windows command line power command
- "Microsoft TechNet Rename (ren) article".
- Karp, David Aaron; Tim O'Reilly; Troy Mott (2005). Windows XP in a nutshell. Nutshell handbook (2 ed.). O'Reilly Media, Inc. p. 422. ISBN 978-0-596-00900-7. Retrieved 2010-11-26.
- "Microsoft on "sort"". Retrieved 2014-09-10.
- Client must be activated from Admin
- "DOS Command: VERIFY". Retrieved 2014-09-10.
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Guide to Windows Commands|
- Command-Line Reference : Microsoft TechNet Database "Command-Line Reference"
- The MS-DOS 6 Technical Reference on TechNet contains the official Microsoft MS-DOS 6 command reference documention.
- DR-DOS 7.03 online manual
- MDGx MS-DOS Undocumented + Hidden Secrets
There are several guides to DOS commands available that are licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License:
- The FreeDOS Spec at SourceForge is a plaintext specification, written in 1999, for how DOS commands should work in FreeDOS
- MS-DOS commands
- Reference for windows commands with examples
- A Collection of Undocumented and Obscure Features in Various MS-DOS Versions