List of Australian federal by-elections

This is a list of by-elections for the House of Representatives from its creation in 1901 until the present day.

Casual vacancies in the House of Representatives arise when a member dies, is disqualified or resigns, or for some other reason the seat becomes vacant. When a member resigns, he or she would normally tender the resignation to the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Casual vacancies are filled by by-elections. The Speaker has a discretion as to when to call a by-election and may not call one at all, for example, if a general election is imminent. At least 33 days must elapse between the issue by the Speaker of a writ and the date of a by-election, and the Speaker cannot issue the writ until receipt of a formal letter of resignation. A by-election must take place on a Saturday.

List of by-elections

In the following table, gains for the Australian Labor Party are highlighted in red, for the Liberal Party of Australia and its predecessors (including the Protectionist Party) in blue, for the National Party of Australia and its predecessors as well as the unrelated Australian Greens in green, and for others in grey.

Brackets around a date indicate that the candidate was unopposed when nominations closed. These candidates were declared "elected unopposed" with effect from the date of the closing of nominations, as there was no need to hold a by-election.

45th Parliament (2016–2019)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Wentworth 20 October 2018 Resignation Malcolm Turnbull   Liberal Kerryn Phelps   Independent
Braddon 28 July 2018 Resignation Justine Keay   Labor Justine Keay   Labor
Fremantle 28 July 2018 Resignation Josh Wilson   Labor Josh Wilson   Labor
Longman 28 July 2018 Resignation Susan Lamb   Labor Susan Lamb   Labor
Mayo 28 July 2018 Resignation Rebekha Sharkie   Centre Alliance Rebekha Sharkie   Centre Alliance
Perth 28 July 2018 Resignation Tim Hammond   Labor Patrick Gorman   Labor
Batman 17 March 2018 Resignation David Feeney   Labor Ged Kearney   Labor
Bennelong 16 December 2017 Resignation John Alexander   Liberal John Alexander   Liberal
New England 2 December 2017 Disqualification Barnaby Joyce   National Barnaby Joyce   National

44th Parliament (2013–2016)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
North Sydney 5 December 2015 Resignation Joe Hockey   Liberal Trent Zimmerman   Liberal
Canning 19 September 2015 Death Don Randall   Liberal Andrew Hastie   Liberal
Griffith 8 February 2014 Resignation Kevin Rudd   Labor Terri Butler   Labor

43rd Parliament (2010–2013)

No by-elections held

42nd Parliament (2007–2010)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Higgins 5 December 2009 Resignation Peter Costello   Liberal Kelly O'Dwyer   Liberal
Bradfield 5 December 2009 Resignation Brendan Nelson   Liberal Paul Fletcher   Liberal
Lyne 6 September 2008 Resignation Mark Vaile   National Rob Oakeshott   Independent
Mayo 6 September 2008 Resignation Alexander Downer   Liberal Jamie Briggs   Liberal
Gippsland 28 June 2008 Resignation Peter McGauran   National Darren Chester   National

41st Parliament (2004–2007)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Werriwa 19 March 2005 Resignation Mark Latham   Labor Chris Hayes   Labor

40th Parliament (2001–2004)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Cunningham 19 October 2002 Resignation Stephen Martin   Labor Michael Organ   Greens

39th Parliament (1998–2001)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Aston 14 July 2001 Death Peter Nugent   Liberal Chris Pearce   Liberal
Ryan 17 March 2001 Resignation John Moore   Liberal Leonie Short   Labor
Isaacs 12 August 2000 Death[1] Greg Wilton   Labor Ann Corcoran   Labor
Holt 6 November 1999 Resignation Gareth Evans   Labor Anthony Byrne   Labor

38th Parliament (1996–1998)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Fraser 1 February 1997 Resignation John Langmore   Labor Steve Dargavel   Labor
Lindsay 19 October 1996 Disqualification Jackie Kelly   Liberal Jackie Kelly   Liberal
Blaxland 15 June 1996 Resignation Paul Keating   Labor Michael Hatton   Labor

37th Parliament (1993–1996)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Wentworth 8 April 1995 Resignation John Hewson   Liberal Andrew Thomson   Liberal
Canberra 25 March 1995 Resignation Ros Kelly   Labor Brendan Smyth   Liberal
Kooyong 19 November 1994 Resignation Andrew Peacock   Liberal Petro Georgiou   Liberal
Mackellar 26 March 1994 Resignation Jim Carlton   Liberal Bronwyn Bishop   Liberal
Warringah 26 March 1994 Resignation Michael MacKellar   Liberal Tony Abbott   Liberal
Bonython 19 March 1994 Resignation Neal Blewett   Labor Martyn Evans   Labor
Fremantle 12 March 1994 Resignation John Dawkins   Labor Carmen Lawrence   Labor
Werriwa 28 January 1994 Resignation John Kerin   Labor Mark Latham   Labor

36th Parliament (1990–1993)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Wills 11 April 1992 Resignation Bob Hawke   Labor Phil Cleary   Independent
Menzies 11 May 1991 Resignation Neil Brown   Liberal Kevin Andrews   Liberal

35th Parliament (1987–1990)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Gwydir 15 April 1989 Resignation Ralph Hunt   National John Anderson   National
Oxley 8 October 1988 Resignation Bill Hayden   Labor Les Scott   Labor
Groom 9 April 1988 Resignation Tom McVeigh   National Bill Taylor   Liberal
Port Adelaide 26 March 1988 Resignation Mick Young   Labor Rod Sawford   Labor
Adelaide 6 February 1988 Resignation Chris Hurford   Labor Mike Pratt   Liberal

34th Parliament (1984–1987)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Scullin 8 February 1986 Resignation Harry Jenkins Sr.   Labor Harry Jenkins   Labor

33rd Parliament (1983–1984)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Corangamite 18 February 1984 Resignation Tony Street   Liberal Stewart McArthur   Liberal
Hughes 18 February 1984 Resignation Les Johnson   Labor Robert Tickner   Labor
Richmond 18 February 1984 Resignation Doug Anthony   National Charles Blunt   National
Moreton 5 November 1983 Resignation Sir James Killen   Liberal Don Cameron   Liberal
Bruce 28 May 1983 Resignation Sir Billy Snedden   Liberal Ken Aldred   Liberal
Wannon 7 May 1983 Resignation Malcolm Fraser   Liberal David Hawker   Liberal

32nd Parliament (1980–1983)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Flinders 4 December 1982 Resignation Sir Phillip Lynch   Liberal Peter Reith   Liberal
Lowe 13 March 1982 Resignation Sir William McMahon   Liberal Michael Maher   Labor
Wentworth 11 April 1981 Resignation Bob Ellicott   Liberal Peter Coleman   Liberal
Boothby 21 February 1981 Resignation John McLeay   Liberal Steele Hall   Liberal
Curtin 21 February 1981 Resignation Victor Garland   Liberal Allan Rocher   Liberal
McPherson 21 February 1981 Death Eric Robinson   Liberal Peter White   Liberal

31st Parliament (1977–1980)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Grayndler 23 June 1979 Death Frank Stewart   Labor Leo McLeay   Labor
Werriwa 23 September 1978 Resignation Gough Whitlam   Labor John Kerin   Labor

30th Parliament (1975–1977)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Cunningham 25 October 1977 Death Rex Connor   Labor Stewart West   Labor

29th Parliament (1974–1975)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Bass 28 June 1975 Resignation Lance Barnard   Labor Kevin Newman   Liberal

28th Parliament (1972–1974)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Parramatta 22 September 1973 Resignation Nigel Bowen   Liberal Philip Ruddock   Liberal

27th Parliament (1969–1972)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Murray 20 March 1971 Resignation Sir John McEwen   Country Bruce Lloyd   Country
Chisholm 19 September 1970 Death Sir Wilfrid Kent Hughes   Liberal Tony Staley   Liberal
Australian Capital Territory 30 May 1970 Death Jim Fraser   Labor Kep Enderby   Labor

26th Parliament (1966–1969)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Bendigo 7 June 1969 Resignation Noel Beaton   Labor David Kennedy   Labor
Gwydir 7 June 1969 Resignation Ian Allan   Country Ralph Hunt   Country
Curtin 19 April 1969 Resignation Paul Hasluck   Liberal Victor Garland   Liberal
Higgins 24 February 1968 Death[2] Harold Holt   Liberal John Gorton   Liberal
Capricornia 30 September 1967 Death George Gray   Labor Doug Everingham   Labor
Corio 22 July 1967 Resignation Hubert Opperman   Liberal Gordon Scholes   Labor

25th Parliament (1963–1966)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Kooyong 2 April 1966 Resignation Sir Robert Menzies   Liberal Andrew Peacock   Liberal
Dawson 26 February 1966 Death George Shaw   Country Rex Patterson   Labor
Riverina 27 February 1965 Resignation Hugh Roberton   Country Bill Armstrong   Country
Robertson 5 December 1964 Resignation Roger Dean   Liberal William Bridges-Maxwell   Liberal
Angas 20 June 1964 Resignation Sir Alick Downer   Liberal Geoffrey Giles   Liberal
Parramatta 20 June 1964 Resignation Sir Garfied Barwick   Liberal Nigel Bowen   Liberal
Denison 15 February 1964 Death Athol Townley   Liberal Adrian Gibson   Liberal

24th Parliament (1961–1963)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
East Sydney 28 September 1963 Death Eddie Ward   Labor Len Devine   Labor
Grey 1 June 1963 Death Edgar Russell   Labor Jack Mortimer   Labor
Batman 1 September 1962 Death Alan Bird   Labor Sam Benson   Labor

23rd Parliament (1958–1961)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Higinbotham 10 December 1960 Death Frank Timson   Liberal Don Chipp   Liberal
Calare 5 November 1960 Resignation John Howse   Liberal John England   Country
Balaclava 16 July 1960 Resignation Percy Joske   Liberal Ray Whittorn   Liberal
Bendigo 16 July 1960 Death Percy Clarey   Labor Noel Beaton   Labor
Hunter 9 April 1960 Resignation H. V. Evatt   Labor Bert James   Labor
La Trobe 9 April 1960 Resignation Richard Casey   Liberal John Jess   Liberal

22nd Parliament (1955–1958)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Parramatta 8 March 1958 Resignation Howard Beale   Liberal Sir Garfield Barwick   Liberal
Richmond 15 September 1957 Death Larry Anthony   Country Doug Anthony   Country
Wentworth 8 December 1956 Resignation Sir Eric Harrison   Liberal Les Bury   Liberal
Barker 13 October 1956 Death Archie Cameron   Liberal Jim Forbes   Liberal
Cunningham (11 April 1956) Death Billy Davies   Labor Victor Kearney   Labor

21st Parliament (1954–1955)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Cook 21 May 1955 Death Tom Sheehan   Labor Jim Cope   Labor

20th Parliament (1951–1954)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Gwydir 19 December 1953 Death Thomas Treloar   Country Ian Allan   Country
Corangamite 29 August 1953 Death Allan McDonald   Liberal Dan Mackinnon   Liberal
Lang 29 August 1953 Death Dan Mulcahy   Labor Frank Stewart   Labor
Dalley 9 May 1953 Death Sol Rosevear   Labor Arthur Greenup   Labor
Bradfield 20 December 1952 Death Billy Hughes   Liberal Harry Turner   Liberal
Werriwa 29 November 1952 Death Bert Lazzarini   Labor Gough Whitlam   Labor
Flinders 18 October 1952 Death Rupert Ryan   Liberal Keith Ewert   Labor
Lyne 22 March 1952 Death Jim Eggins   Country Philip Lucock   Country
Balaclava 28 July 1951 Resignation Thomas White   Liberal Percy Joske   Liberal
Macquarie 28 July 1951 Death Ben Chifley   Labor Tony Luchetti   Labor

19th Parliament (1949–1951)

No by-elections held

18th Parliament (1946–1949)

No by-elections held

17th Parliament (1943–1946)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Henty 30 March 1946 Resignation Arthur Coles   Independent Jo Gullett   Liberal
Wimmera 9 February 1946 Resignation Alexander Wilson   Independent Winton Turnbull   Country
Fremantle 18 August 1945 Death John Curtin   Labor Kim Beazley   Labor

16th Parliament (1940–1943)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Boothby 24 May 1941 Death John Price   United Australia Grenfell Price   United Australia
Swan 21 December 1940 Death Henry Gregory   Country Thomas Marwick   Country
Kalgoorlie 16 November 1940 Death Albert Green   Labor Herbert Johnson   Labor

15th Parliament (1937–1940)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Corio 2 March 1940 Resignation Richard Casey   United Australia John Dedman   Labor
Wilmot 27 May 1939 Death Joseph Lyons   United Australia Lancelot Spurr   Labor
Griffith 20 May 1939 Death Frank Baker   Labor William Conelan   Labor
Wakefield 10 December 1938 Death[3] Charles Hawker   United Australia Sydney McHugh   Labor

14th Parliament (1934–1937)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Gwydir 8 May 1937 Resignation Aubrey Abbott   Country William Scully   Labor
Darling Downs 19 December 1936 Death Sir Littleton Groom   United Australia Arthur Fadden   Country
Kennedy 12 December 1936 Death Darby Riordan   Labor Bill Riordan   Labor
Fawkner 17 August 1935 Death George Maxwell   United Australia Harold Holt   United Australia
Newcastle 1 June 1935 Death David Watkins   Labor David Watkins   Labor

13th Parliament (1931–1934)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Flinders 11 November 1933 Resignation Stanley Bruce   United Australia James Fairbairn   United Australia
East Sydney 6 February 1932 Death John Clasby   United Australia Eddie Ward   Labor (NSW)

12th Parliament (1929–1931)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
East Sydney 7 March 1931 Death John West   Labor Eddie Ward   Labor
Parkes 31 January 1931 Resignation Edward McTiernan   Labor Charles Marr   Nationalist
Franklin 14 December 1929 Death William McWilliams   Independent Charles Frost   Labor

11th Parliament (1928–1929)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Balaclava 3 August 1929 Resignation William Watt   Nationalist Thomas White   Nationalist

10th Parliament (1925–1928)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Wide Bay (3 September 1928) Death Edward Corser   Nationalist Bernard Corser   Country
Martin 16 June 1928 Death Herbert Pratten   Nationalist Graham Pratten   Nationalist
Warringah 21 May 1927 Resignation Sir Granville Ryrie   Nationalist Archdale Parkhill   Nationalist
Dalley 26 February 1927 Resignation William Mahony   Labor Ted Theodore   Labor
Eden-Monaro 6 March 1926 Death Sir Austin Chapman   Nationalist John Perkins   Nationalist

9th Parliament (1922–1925)

No by-elections held

8th Parliament (1919–1922)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Yarra 18 February 1922 Death Frank Tudor   Labor James Scullin   Labor
Parramatta 10 December 1921 Resignation Sir Joseph Cook   Nationalist Herbert Pratten   Nationalist
West Sydney 3 September 1921 Death T. J. Ryan   Labor William Lambert   Labor
Maranoa 30 July 1921 Death Jim Page   Labor James Hunter   Country
Kalgoorlie 18 December 1920 Expulsion Hugh Mahon   Labor George Foley   Nationalist
Ballaarat 10 July 1920 Election declared void Edwin Kerby   Nationalist Charles McGrath   Labor

7th Parliament (1917–1919)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Echuca 20 September 1919 Death Albert Palmer   Nationalist William Hill   VFU
Corangamite 14 December 1918 Death Chester Manifold   Nationalist William Gibson   VFU
Swan 26 October 1918 Death Sir John Forrest   Nationalist Edwin Corboy   Labor
Flinders 11 May 1918 Resignation Sir William Irvine   Nationalist Stanley Bruce   Nationalist
Grampians 27 October 1917 Death Carty Salmon   Nationalist Edmund Jowett   Nationalist
Darwin 30 June 1917 Death Charles Howroyd   Nationalist William Spence   Nationalist

6th Parliament (1914–1917)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Wide Bay 11 December 1915 Resignation Andrew Fisher   Labor Edward Corser   Liberal
Dalley (6 May 1915) Death Robert Howe   Labor William Mahony   Labor
Grampians 20 February 1915 Death Edward Jolley   Labor Carty Salmon   Liberal
Bendigo 6 February 1915 Death John Arthur   Labor Alfred Hampson   Labor

5th Parliament (1913–1914)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Adelaide 10 January 1914 Death Ernest Roberts   Labor George Edwin Yates   Labor
Kalgoorlie (22 December 1913) Death Charlie Frazer   Labor Hugh Mahon   Labor

4th Parliament (1910–1913)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Werriwa 1 June 1912 Resignation David Hall   Labor Benjamin Bennett   Labor
Boothby 11 November 1911 Death Lee Batchelor   Labour David Gordon   Liberal
North Sydney 11 March 1911 Death George Edwards   Liberal Granville Ryrie   Liberal
Batman 8 February 1911 Death Henry Beard   Labour Frank Brennan   Labour
Kooyong 24 August 1910 Resignation William Knox   Liberal Sir Robert Best   Liberal

3rd Parliament (1906–1910)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Wakefield 28 August 1909 Death Sir Frederick Holder   Independent Richard Foster   Liberal
Adelaide 13 June 1908 Death Charles Kingston   Protectionist Ernest Roberts   Labour
Echuca 10 July 1907 Election declared void Albert Palmer   Anti-Socialist Albert Palmer   Anti-Socialist

2nd Parliament (1903–1906)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
Riverina 18 May 1904 Election declared void Robert Blackwood   Free Trade John Chanter   Protectionist
Melbourne 30 March 1904 Election declared void Sir Malcolm McEacharn   Protectionist William Maloney   Labour
Wilmot 26 February 1904 Death Sir Edward Braddon   Free Trade Norman Cameron   Free Trade

1st Parliament (1901–1903)

DivisionDateCauseFormer memberPartyWinnerParty
East Sydney 4 September 1903 Resignation[4] George Reid   Free Trade George Reid   Free Trade
Tasmania 26 March 1902 Death Frederick Piesse   Free Trade William Hartnoll   Free Trade
Darling Downs 14 September 1901 Death William Henry Groom   Protectionist Littleton Groom   Protectionist


  1. Wilton suicided
  2. Holt was presumed to have drowned; his body was never recovered
  3. Hawker was killed in an aircraft crash
  4. Reid resigned in order to seek a fresh mandate from his constituents; he won the by-election caused by his own resignation

See also

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