List of Augustae

Augusta (Classical Latin: [au̯ˈɡʊsta]; plural Augustae; Greek: αὐγούστα)[1] was a Roman imperial honorific title given to empresses and honoured women of the imperial families. It was the feminine form of Augustus. In the third century, Augustae could also receive the titles of Mater Castrorum ("Mother of the Camp") and Mater Patriae ("Mother of the Fatherland").

The title implied the greatest prestige. Augustae could issue their own coinage, wear imperial regalia, and rule their own courts.[1]

In the third century, Julia Domna was the first empress to receive the title combination "Pia Felix Augusta" after the death of her husband Septimius Severus, which may have implied greater powers being vested in her than what was usual for a Roman empress mother.[2]

Principate period

Julio-Claudian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Livia
Livia Drvsilla
Ivlia Avgvsta
30 January 58 BC AD 14 Wife of Emperor Augustus. 28 September AD 29
Antonia Minor
Antonia Minor
31 January 36 BC
Athens
AD 41
(posthumous)
Mother of Emperor Claudius. AD 37
Rome
Agrippina the Younger
Ivlia Avgvsta Agrippina
7 November AD 15
Oppidum Ubiorum
AD 50 Wife of Emperor Claudius 23 March AD 59
Misenum
Poppaea Sabina
Poppaea Avgvsta Sabina
AD 30
Pompeii
AD 63 Wife of Emperor Nero. AD 65
Rome
Claudia Augusta
Clavdia Avgvsta
21 January AD 63
Antium
AD 63 Daughter of Emperor Nero. April AD 63

Flavian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Domitilla the Younger
Flavia Domitilla Avgvsta
45 Before 80 Daughter of Emperor Vespasian. 66

Nerva–Antonine dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Pompeia Plotina
Pompeia Plotina Clavdia Phoebe Piso
54–68 105 Wife of Emperor Trajan. 123
Ulpia Marciana
Vlpia Marciana Avgvsta
48 105 Sister of Emperor Trajan. 112–114
Salonia Matidia
Salonia Matidia Avgvsta
4 July 68 112 Niece of Emperor Trajan. 23 December 119
Vibia Sabina
Vibia Sabina Avgvsta
83 128 Wife of Emperor Hadrian. 136–137
Faustina the Elder
Annia Galeria Favstina Avgvsta Maior
21 September 100 138 Wife of Emperor Antoninus Pius. 140
Faustina the Younger
Annia Galeria Favstina Avgvsta Minor
125–130 1 December 147[3] Daughter of Emperor Antoninus Pius; wife of Emperor Marcus Aurelius; mother of Emperor Commodus. 175
Lucilla
Annia Avrelia Galeria Lvcilla Avgvsta
148–150 164 Daughter of Emperor Marcus Aurelius and wife of Emperor Lucius Verus. 182
Bruttia Crispina
Brvttia Crispina Avgvsta
164
Rome
177 Wife of Emperor Commodus. 191
Capri

Year of the Five Emperors

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Manlia Scantilla
Manlia Scantilla
193 Wife of Emperor Didius Julianus. 193
Didia Clara
Didia Clara
153
Rome
193 Daughter of Emperor Didius Julianus. Unknown

Severan dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Julia Domna
  • Ivlia Domna Avgvsta[4]
  • Ivlia Avgvsta[4]
  • Ivlia Pia Felix Avgvsta[4]
c.160 Wife of Emperor Septimius Severus. 217
Fulvia Plautilla
Pvblia Fvlvia Plavtilla Avgvsta
185—189 210s Wife of Emperor Caracalla. 212
Julia Cornelia Paula
Jvlia Cornelia Pavla
219 First wife of Emperor Elagabalus.
Aquilia Severa
Ivlia Aqvilia Severa Avgvsta
220 Second and fourth wife of Emperor Elagabalus.
Julia Avita Mamaea
Ivlia Avita Mamaea Avgvsta
180 222 Mother of Emperor Alexander Severus and co-regent, in his name, during his adolescence. 235
Sallustia Orbiana
Seia Herennia Sallvstia Barbia Orbiana Avgvsta
225 Wife of Emperor Alexander Severus.

Crisis of the Third Century

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Tranquillina
Fvria Sabinia Tranqvillina Avgvsta
c. 225 241 Wife of Emperor Gordian III. After 244
Marcia Otacilia Severa
Marcia Otacilia Severa Avgvsta
240s Wife of the Emperor Philip the Arab.
Herennia Etruscilla
Annia Cvpressenia Herennia Etrvscilla Avgvsta
September 249 240s Wife of Emperor Trajan Decius; mother of Emperor Herennius Etruscus and Emperor Hostilian. June 251
Mariniana
Egnatia Mariniana Avgvsta
250s Wife of Emperor Valerian.
Cornelia Supra
Caia Cornelia Svpera Avgvsta
253 Wife of Aemilianus.
Cornelia Salonina
Ivlia Cornelia Salonina Avgvsta
Unknown 253 Wife of Emperor Gallienus. 268
Sulpicia Dryantilla
Svlpicia Dryantilla
c. 260 Wife of usurper Emperor Regalianus, who named her avgvsta as part of legitimizing his claim. 260
Zenobia
Ivlia Avrelia Zenobia
240 267 Queen of the Palmyrene Empire, a short lived splinter empire that revolted during the Crisis. She proclaimed herself avgvsta and annexed the Eastern Mediterranean from Rome. c. 275
Ulpia Severina
Vlpia Severina Avgvsta
274 Wife of Emperor Aurelian; possibly reigned in her own right after the death of her husband in 275.
Magnia Urbica
Magnia Vrbica Avgvsta
283 Wife of Emperor Carinus.

Dominate period

Tetrarchy

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Galeria Valeria
Galeria Valeria Avgvsta
308 Daughter of Emperor Diocletian and wife of Emperor Galerius. 315

Constantinian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Fausta
Flavia Maxima Fausta Avgvsta
289 324 Wife of Constantine I and daughter of Emperor Maximianus. Mother of: Constantina, Constantius II, Constans I, Helena, and Fausta. 326
Helena
Flavia Ivlia Helena Avgvsta
246—250 c.324-325 Mother of Constantine I and ex-wife or mistress of Emperor Constantius Chlorus (separated before his accession as Caesar). 18 August 330
Constantina
Avgvsta
307—317 After 312, before 337. Daughter of Emperor Constantine I. Wife of Hannibalianus, Rex Regum et Ponticarum Gentium, "King of Kings and of the Pontic People". Wife of Caesar Constantius Gallus. 354
Albia Dominica
Albia Dominica Avgvsta
c. 337 364—378 Wife of Emperor Valens. After 378

Theodosian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Aelia Flaccilla
Aelia Flavia Flaccilla Avgvsta
Before 385 Wife of Emperor Theodosius I. 386
Aelia Eudoxia
Aelia Evdoxia Avgvsta
9 January 400 Wife of Emperor Arcadius. 6 October 404
Pulcheria
Aelia Pvlcheria Avgvsta
19 January 398–399 414 Daughter of Arcadius, sister of Theodosius II, sole ruler for a month following the death of Theodosius, then co-ruler with her husband Marcian. July 453
Galla Placidia
Aelia Galla Placidia Avgvsta
392 c. 416 Daughter of Theodosius I, wife of Constantius III, regent for her son Valentinian III. 27 November 450
Aelia Eudocia
Aelia Evdocia Avgvsta
401 2 January 423 Wife of Theodosius II 20 October 460
Justa Grata Honoria
Ivsta Grata Honoria Avgvsta
After 426 Sister of Valentinian III.
Licinia Eudoxia
Licinia Evdoxia Avgvsta
422 439 Daughter of Theodosius II, Wife of Valentinian III. 462

Leonid dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Marcia Euphemia
Aelia Marcia Euphemia Avgvsta
c. 453 Daughter of Marcian by an unknown woman. Wife of Anthemius. 472
Verina
Aelia Verina Avgvsta
457 Wife of Leo I, sister of Basiliscus, mother of Ariadne and Leontia. 484
Ariadne
Aelia Ariadne Avgvsta
before 457 474 Daughter of Leo I. Wife of Zeno. Mother of Leo II. Wife of Anastasius I. 515
Zenonis
Aelia Zenonis Avgvsta
475 Wife of Basiliscus. 476–477

Byzantine period

Justinian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Euphemia
Εὐφημία,
Euphemia Augusta
518 Wife of Justin I. Originally named Lupicina, renamed Euphemia on her husband's accession. c.523/4, before 527.
Theodora
Θεοδώρα,
Theodora Augusta
c. 500 9 August 527 Wife of Justinian I. 28 June 548
Sophia
Σοφία,
Aelia Sophia Augusta
568 Wife of Justin II, intermittent regent. c. 601
Ino Anastasia
Ἰνὼ,
Aelia Anastasia Augusta
578 Wife of Emperor Tiberius II. 593
Constantina
Κωνσταντῖνα
c. 560 582 Wife of Emperor Maurice. c. 605
Leontia
Λεοντία
602 Wife of Emperor Phocas.

Heraclian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Augustina,
Αὐγουστίνα
639 Daughter of Heraclius.
Martina
Μαρτίνα
639 Second wife of Heraclius.
Fausta
Φαύστα
c. 630 642 Wife of Constans II. After 668

Isaurian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Maria
Μαρία
25 August 718 Wife of Emperor Leo III the Isaurian.
Anna
Ἄννα
741–742 Wife of Artabasdos.
Eudokia
Ευδοκια
1 April 769 Third wife of Emperor Constantine V.
Irene of Athens
Eἰρήνη η Ἀθηναία
c. 752 17 December 769 Wife of Emperor Leo IV the Khazar, empress dowager and regent from 780 to 797. 9 August 803

Nikephorian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Prokopia
Προκοπία
c. 770 12 October 811 Daughter of Emperor Nikephoros I and wife of Michael I Rhangabe. After 813

Amorian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Theodora
Θεοδώρα
c. 815 830 Wife of Emperor Theophilos and regent. After 867
Thekla
Θέκλα
830s Daughter of Theophilos.
Anna
Ἄννα
830s Daughter of Emperor Theophilos.
Anastasia
Ἀναστασία
830s Daughter of Emperor Theophilos.

Macedonian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Zoe Zaoutzaina
Ζωή Ζαούτζαινα
898 Third wife of Leo VI the Wise May 899
Theodora
Θεοδώρα
921 Wife of Romanos I. 20 February 922
Helena Lekapene
Ἑλένη Λεκαπηνή
c. 910 February 922 Wife of Constantine VII. 19 September 961
Sophia
Σοφία
February 922 Wife of Christopher Lekapenos.
Anna
Ἄννα
933 Daughter of Gabalas and wife of Stephen Lekapenos.

Komnenid dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Catherine of Bulgaria
Αἰκατερίνη
before 1018 1057 Empress-consort of Emperor Isaac I Komnenos. after 1059

Doukid dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Eudokia Makrembolitissa
Ευδοκία Μακρεμβολίτισσα
c. 1021 1059–1067 Second wife of Emperor Constantine X Doukas and later became the wife of Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes. 1096

Komnenid dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Anna Dalassena
Ἄννα Δαλασσηνή
1025 1081 Mother of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. 1102

See also

References

Citations

  1. Kazhdan 1991, pp. 694–695.
  2. Langford 2013, Introduction, note 88; Bédoyère 2018, p. 282.
  3. Barbara Levick (2014). Faustina I and II: Imperial Women of the Golden Age. Oxford University Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-19-537941-9.
  4. Société française de numismatique et d'archéologie 1873, p. 151.

Sources

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