Linda Susanne Gottfredson (née Howarth; born June 24, 1947) is an American psychologist and writer. She is professor emeritus of educational psychology at the University of Delaware and co-director of the Delaware-Johns Hopkins Project for the Study of Intelligence and Society. Gottfredson's work has been influential in shaping U.S. public and private policies regarding affirmative action, hiring quotas, and "race-norming" on aptitude tests.
Linda Gottfredson interviewed in 2016
Linda Susanne Howarth
June 24, 1947
|Alma mater||University of California, Berkeley|
Johns Hopkins University
|Known for||Mainstream Science on Intelligence|
|Institutions||University of Delaware, editorial boards of Intelligence, Learning and Individual Differences, and Society|
|Thesis||The relation of situs of work to occupational achievement (1977)|
She is on the boards of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences (ISSID), the International Society for Intelligence Research (ISIR), and the editorial boards of the scientific journals Intelligence, Learning and Individual Differences, and Society.
Gottfredson has received research grants worth $267,000 from the Pioneer Fund, an organization which has been described as racist and white supremacist. The University of Delaware unsuccessfully sought to block Gottfredson from receiving Pioneer Fund grants before reaching a legal settlement with her in 1992.
Gottfredson was born in San Francisco on June 24, 1947. She is a third generation university faculty member. Her father, Jack A. Howarth (died 2006), was a faculty at U.C. Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, as was his father. Gottfredson initially majored in biology, but later transferred to psychology with her first husband, Gary Don Gottfredson. In 1969, she received a bachelor's degree in psychology from University of California, Berkeley. She worked in the Peace Corps in Malaysia. Gottfredson and her husband went to graduate school at Johns Hopkins University, where she received a Ph.D. in sociology in 1977.
Gottfredson took a position at Hopkins' Center for Social Organization of Schools and investigated issues of occupational segregation and typology based on skill sets and intellectual capacity. She married Robert A. Gordon, who worked in a related area at Hopkins, and they divorced by the mid-90s.
In 1985, Gottfredson participated in a conference called "The g Factor in Employment Testing". The papers presented were published in the December 1986 issue of the Journal of Vocational Behavior, which she edited. In 1986, Gottfredson was appointed Associate Professor of Educational Studies at the University of Delaware, Newark.
In 1989, The Washington Post reported that one of Gottfredson's presentations was cited favorably by an article in the National Association for the Advancement of White People's magazine.
That year, she presented a series of papers on general intelligence factor and employment. Gottfredson has said:
We now have out there what I call the egalitarian fiction that all groups are equal in intelligence. We have social policy based on that fiction. For example, the 1991 Civil Rights Act codified Griggs vs. Duke Power, which said that if you have disproportionate hiring by race, you are prima facie -- that's prima facie evidence of racial discrimination. ...Differences in intelligence have real world effects, whether we think they're there or not, whether we want to wish them away or not. And we don't do anybody any good, certainly not the low-IQ people, by denying that those problems exist.
While an assistant professor of Educational Studies in the late 1980s, Gottfredson applied for and received three grants from the Pioneer Fund, which was created to advocate research into eugenics. She was promoted to full professor at the University of Delaware in 1990. That year, her fourth grant application to the Pioneer Fund was rejected by the board of the University, which said the funding would undermine their university's affirmative action. Gottfredson challenged the ruling with assistance from the Center for Individual Rights and the American Association of University Professors. In 1992, after two and a half years of debate and protest, the University administration reached a settlement that once again allowed Gottfredson and Jan Blits to continue receiving research funding from the Pioneer Fund. The arbitrator of the case held that the University's research committee had violated its own standards of review by looking at the content of Gottfredson's research and that Gottfredson had a right to academic freedom that public perceptions alone did not suffice to overcome.
Gottfredson has defended the Pioneer Fund's president J. Philippe Rushton, calling him "a scholar and a gentleman" whose "critics often act like neither". She has criticized sociologist Nathan Glazer of Harvard University, who wrote that the thesis of The Bell Curve would require African-Americans to "accept an inferior place in society" and which he felt posed the question of whether "the untruth is not better for American society than the truth." Gottfredson responded to Glazer by arguing that "Lying about race differences in achievement is harmful because it foments mutual recrimination" and would be "futile and harmful in the long run".
Gottfredson has been very critical of psychologist Robert Sternberg's work on the triarchic theory of intelligence, arguing that Sternberg has not demonstrated a distinction between practical intelligence and the analytical intelligence measured by IQ tests.
- George A Miller Award (for outstanding journal article across specialty areas), Society for General Psychology, American Psychological Association, 2008
- Mensa Foundation – Mensa Award for Excellence in Research, (2005) - for "Dissecting practical intelligence theory: Its claims and evidence".
- Fellow, Association for Psychological Science, elected 1998.
- Fellow, American Psychological Association, elected 1994.
- Fellow, Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, elected 1994.
Selected articles and papers
- Gottfredson, Linda S. (March–April 1994). "Egalitarian Fiction and Collective Fraud" (PDF). Society. 31 (3): 53–59. doi:10.1007/bf02693231. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- Gottfredson, Linda S. (1997). "Mainstream Science on Intelligence (editorial)" (PDF). Intelligence. 24: 13–23. doi:10.1016/s0160-2896(97)90011-8. ISSN 0160-2896.
- Gottfredson, Linda S. (1997). "Why g matters: The complexity of everyday life" (PDF). Intelligence. 24 (1): 79–132. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.535.4596. doi:10.1016/S0160-2896(97)90014-3. ISSN 0160-2896. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
- Gottfredson, Linda S. (1998). "The general intelligence factor" (PDF). Scientific American Presents. 9 (4): 24–29.
- Circumscription and compromise (2006), Encyclopedia of Career Development. (Based on her much cited work on the subject.)
- Intelligence: Is It the Epidemiologists' Elusive "Fundamental Cause" of Social Class Inequalities in Health? (2004), Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
- Gottfredson, Linda S. (11 March 2005). "Chapter 9: Suppressing Intelligence Research: Hurting Those We Intend to Help" (PDF). In Wright, Rogers H.; Cummings, Nicholas A. (eds.). Destructive Trends in Mental Health: The Well Intentioned Path to Harm. Taylor & Francis. pp. 155–186. ISBN 978-0-203-95622-9.
- Gottfredson, Linda S. (2006). "Chapter 20: Social consequences of group differences in cognitive ability (Conseqüências sociais das diferenças de grupo na capacidade cognitiva)" (PDF). In Flores-Mendoza, Carmen E.; Colom, Roberto (eds.). Introdução à Psicologia das Diferenças Individuais. Porto Alegre, Brazil: ArtMed Publishers. pp. 155–186. ISBN 978-85-363-1418-1.
- Flynn, Ceci, and Turkheimer on Race and Intelligence: Opening Moves (2007) Cato Unbound
- What if the Hereditarian Hypothesis Is True? (2003)
- Gottfredson, Linda S. (2009). "Chapter 1: Logical Fallacies Used to Dismiss the Evidence on Intelligence Testing". In Phelps, Richard P. (ed.). Correcting Fallacies about Educational and Psychological Testing. Washington (DC): American Psychological Association. ISBN 978-1-4338-0392-5. Lay summary (9 July 2013).
- Kilborn, Peter T. (19 May 1991). "The Nation; 'Race Norming' Tests Becomes a Fiery Issue". The New York Times.
- Avner Falk. Anti-semitism: a history and psychoanalysis of contemporary hatred. Abc-Clio, 2008, pg. 18
- Kaufman, Ron (July 6, 1992). "U. Delaware Reaches Accord On Race Studies". The Scientist. 6 (14): 1.
- Miller, Adam (1994). "The Pioneer Fund: Bankrolling the Professors of Hate". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (6): 58–61. doi:10.2307/2962466. JSTOR 2962466.
- "Linda Gottfredson". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
- "Jack Howrath". senate.universityofcalifornia.edu. Retrieved 2018-09-23.
- Wainer, Howard; Robinson, Daniel H. (September 2009). "Linda S. Gottfredson". Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics. 34 (3): 395–427. doi:10.3102/1076998609339366. ISSN 1076-9986.
- Wainer, Howard; Robinson, Daniel (November 11, 2007). "Interview of Linda S. Gottfredson" (PDF). Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics (in press). Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- Hunt, Morton M. (1999). The New Know-Nothings: The Political Foes of the Scientific Study of Human Nature. Transaction Publishers. pp. 96–99. ISBN 9781412838016. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
- Rowette, Christine (24 November 1994). "Robert Gordon Draws Student Protest at Homewood". The Gazette (Johns Hopkins University). Retrieved 23 December 2018.
- "Linda Susanne Gottfredson". Ferris State University. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- ANDERSON, JACK; ATTA, DALE VAN (1989-11-16). "PIONEER FUND'S CONTROVERSIAL PROJECTS". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-12-24.
- "PBS ThinkTank: Race, IQ, Success and Charles Murray". web.archive.org. May 25, 2011.
- O'Neil, Robert (2009). Academic Freedom in the Wired World: Political Extremism, Corporate Power, and the University. Harvard University Press. pp. 119–124. ISBN 9780674033726. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
- "Linda Gottfredson". University of Delaware. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- Hamilton, David P. (1990). "University Bars Pioneer Grants". Science. 259 (4973): 1103. JSTOR 2878028.
- Kaufman, Ron (6 July 1992). "U. Delaware Reaches Accord On Race Studies". The Scientist.
- DelFattore, Joan (2010). Knowledge in the Making: Academic Freedom and Free Speech in America's Schools and Universities. Yale University Press. pp. 67–77. ISBN 9780300168518.
- Anderson, Craig (3 November 2016). "Political Correctness on College Campuses: Freedom of Speech v. Doing the Politically Correct Thing". SMU Law Review. 46 (1): 171–224.
- Kors, Alan Charles; Silverglate, Harvey (1999). The Shadow University: The Betrayal of Liberty on America's Campuses. Simon and Schuster. pp. 136–145. ISBN 9780684867496.
- Hunt, Morton (2017). The New Know-nothings: The Political Foes of the Scientific Study of Human Nature. Routledge. pp. 96–99. ISBN 9781351478625.
- Gottfredson, Linda S. (July 2013). "Resolute ignorance on race and Rushton". Personality and Individual Differences. 55 (3): 218–23. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2012.10.021.
- Republic, The New (31 October 1994). "In Response to "Race, Genes and I.Q."". The New Republic.
- "What If The Hereditarian Hypothesis Is True?" (PDF). Cite journal requires
- Goode, Erica (April 3, 2001). "SCIENTIST AT WORK: ROBERT STERNBERG; His Goal: Making Intelligence Tests Smarter". The New York Times. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
- "University Press Release on Award"
- "Winners, 2004-2005". Mensa Foundation. Retrieved 2019-03-26.
- "List of Fellows from APS-website"
- Gottfredson, L. S. (1981). "Circumscription and Compromise: A Developmental Theory of Occupational Aspirations" (PDF). Journal of Counseling Psychology Monograph. 28 (6): 545–579. doi:10.1037/0022-0126.96.36.1995.
- Linda S. Gottfredson homepage (with online prints of publications)