Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs.) is a county in eastern England, with a long coastline on the North Sea to the east. It borders Norfolk to the south east, Cambridgeshire to the south, Rutland to the south west, Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire to the west, South Yorkshire to the north west, and the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north. It also borders Northamptonshire in the south for just 20 yards (19 m), England's shortest county boundary. The county town is the city of Lincoln, where the county council has its headquarters.
|Motto: Land and God|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
Yorkshire and the Humber (North Lincolnshire and
North East Lincolnshire)
|Lord Lieutenant||Toby Dennis|
|High Sheriff||Robert Day (2019–20)|
|Area||6,959 km2 (2,687 sq mi)|
|• Ranked||2nd of 48|
|Population (mid-2018 est.)||1,087,659|
|• Ranked||18th of 48|
|Density||156/km2 (400/sq mi)|
|County council||Lincolnshire County Council|
|Area||5,921 km2 (2,286 sq mi)|
|• Ranked||4th of 26|
|• Ranked||14th of 26|
|Density||127/km2 (330/sq mi)|
Districts of Lincolnshire
|Members of Parliament|
|Time zone||Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)|
|• Summer (DST)||British Summer Time (UTC+1)|
The ceremonial county of Lincolnshire is composed of the non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire and the area covered by the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. Part of the ceremonial county is in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, and most is in the East Midlands region. The county is the second-largest of the English ceremonial counties and one that is predominantly agricultural in land use. The county is fourth-largest of the two-tier counties, as the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire are not included.
The county has several geographical sub-regions, including the rolling chalk hills of the Lincolnshire Wolds. In the southeast are the Lincolnshire Fens (southeast Lincolnshire), the Carrs (similar to the Fens but in north Lincolnshire), the industrial Humber Estuary and North Sea coast around Grimsby and Scunthorpe, and in the southwest of the county, the Kesteven Uplands, comprising rolling limestone hills in the district of South Kesteven.
During pre-Roman times, most of Lincolnshire was inhabited by the Corieltauvi people. The language of the area at that time would have been Common Brittonic, the precursor to modern Welsh. The name Lincoln derives from the Brittonic Lindo meaning 'lake'.
Modern-day Lincolnshire is derived from the merging of the territory of the Kingdom of Lindsey with that controlled by the Danelaw borough of Stamford. For some time the entire county was called "Lindsey", and it is recorded as such in the 11th-century Domesday Book. Later, the name Lindsey was applied to the northern core, around Lincoln. This emerged as one of the three Parts of Lincolnshire, along with the Parts of Holland in the south east, and the Parts of Kesteven in the south west, which each had separate Quarter Sessions as their county administrations.
In 1888 when county councils were set up, Lindsey, Holland and Kesteven each received separate ones. These survived until 1974, when Holland, Kesteven, and most of Lindsey were unified into Lincolnshire. The northern part of Lindsey, including Scunthorpe Municipal Borough and Grimsby County Borough, was incorporated into the newly formed non-metropolitan county of Humberside, along with most of the East Riding of Yorkshire.
A local government reform in 1996 abolished Humberside. The land south of the Humber Estuary was allocated to the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. These two areas became part of Lincolnshire for ceremonial purposes, such as the Lord-Lieutenancy, but are not covered by the Lincolnshire police; they are in the Yorkshire and the Humber region.
The area was shaken by the 27 February 2008 Lincolnshire earthquake, reaching between 4.7 and 5.3 on the Richter magnitude scale; it was one of the largest earthquakes to affect Britain in recent years.
Lincolnshire is home to Woolsthorpe Manor, birthplace and home of Sir Isaac Newton. He attended The King's School, Grantham. Its library has preserved his signature, carved into a window sill when he was a youth.
Geography and ecology
Bedrock in Lincolnshire features Jurassic limestone (near Lincoln) and Cretaceous chalk (north-east). The area around Woodhall Spa and Kirkby on Bain is dominated by gravel and sand. For much of prehistory, Lincolnshire was under tropical seas, and most fossils found in the county are marine invertebrates. Marine vertebrates have also been found including ichthyosaurus and plesiosaur.
The biggest rivers in Lincolnshire are the Trent, running northwards from Staffordshire up the western edge of the county to the Humber estuary, and the Witham, which begins in Lincolnshire at South Witham and runs for 132 kilometres through the middle of the county, eventually emptying into the North Sea at The Wash. The Humber estuary, on Lincolnshire's northern border, is also fed by the River Ouse. The Wash is also the mouth of the Welland, the Nene and the Great Ouse.
Lincolnshire's geography is fairly varied, but consists of several distinct areas:
- Lincolnshire Wolds - area of rolling hills in the north-east of the county designated an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty
- The Fens - dominating the south-east quarter of the county
- The Marshes - running along the coast of the county
- The Lincoln Edge/Cliff - limestone escarpment running north-south along the western half of the county
Lincolnshire's most well-known nature reserves include Gibraltar Point National Nature Reserve, Whisby Nature Park Local Nature Reserve, Donna Nook National Nature Reserve, RSPB Frampton Marsh and the Humberhead Peatlands National Nature Reserve. Although the Lincolnshire countryside is intensively farmed, there are many biodiverse wetland areas, as well as rare limewood forests. Much of the county was once wet fenland (see The Fens).
From bones, we can tell that animal species formerly found in Lincolnshire include woolly mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, wild horse, wolf, wild boar and beaver. Species which have recently returned to Lincolnshire after extirpation include little egret, Eurasian spoonbill, European otter and red kite.
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Lincolnshire at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
|Year||Regional Gross Value Added|
- a includes hunting and forestry
- b includes energy and construction
- c includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
Notable businesses based in Lincolnshire include the Lincs FM Group, Young's Seafood, Openfield and the Lincolnshire Co-operative (whose membership includes about one quarter of the population of the county).
Lincolnshire has long been a primarily agricultural area, and it continues to grow large amounts of wheat, barley, sugar beet, and oilseed rape. In south Lincolnshire, where the soil is particularly rich in nutrients, some of the most common crops include potatoes, cabbages, cauliflowers, and onions. Lincolnshire farmers often break world records for crop yields. South Lincolnshire is also home to one of the UK's leading agricultural experiment stations, located in Sutton Bridge and operated by the Potato Council; Sutton Bridge Crop Storage Research engages in research for the British potato industry.
The Lincoln Longwool is a rare breed of sheep, named after the region, which was developed both for wool and mutton, at least 500 years ago, and has the longest fleece of any sheep breed. The Lincoln Red is an old breed of beef cattle, originating from the county. In the mid 20th century most farms in Lincolnshire moved away from mixed farming to specialise in arable cropping, partly due to cheap wool imports, partly to take advantage of efficiencies of scale and partly because the drier land on the eastern side of England is particularly suitable for arable cropping.
Mechanization around 1900 greatly diminished the number of workers required to operate the county's relatively large farms, and the proportion of workers in the agricultural sector dropped substantially during this period. Several major engineering companies developed in Lincoln, Gainsborough and Grantham to support those changes. Among these was Fosters of Lincoln, which built the first tank, and Richard Hornsby & Sons of Grantham. Most such industrial companies left during late 20th-century restructuring.
Today, immigrant workers, mainly from new member states of the European Union in Central and Eastern Europe, comprise a large component of the seasonal agricultural workforce, particularly in the south of the county. Here more labour-intensive crops are produced, such as small vegetables and cut flowers. This seasonal influx of migrant labour occasionally causes tension between the migrant workforce and local people, in a county which had been relatively unaccustomed to large-scale immigration. Agricultural training is provided at Riseholme College and in 2016 the University of Lincoln opened the Lincoln Institute for Agri-Food Technology.
Westminster Parliamentary constituencies
|Overall numbers of seats as of 2019|
The Conservative Party won all 11 seats in the 2019 United Kingdom general election in Lincolnshire.
|Boston and Skegness||Boston, East Lindsey||Matt Warman||Conservative|
|Brigg and Goole||North Lincolnshire (plus part in East Riding of Yorkshire)||Andrew Percy||Conservative|
|Cleethorpes||North East Lincolnshire, North Lincolnshire||Martin Vickers||Conservative|
|Gainsborough||West Lindsey, East Lindsey||Edward Leigh||Conservative|
|Grantham and Stamford||South Kesteven||Gareth Davies||Conservative|
|Great Grimsby||North East Lincolnshire||Lia Nici||Conservative|
|Lincoln||Lincoln, North Kesteven||Karl McCartney||Conservative|
|Louth and Horncastle||East Lindsey||Victoria Atkins||Conservative|
|Scunthorpe||North Lincolnshire||Holly Mumby-Croft||Conservative|
|Sleaford and North Hykeham||North Kesteven, South Kesteven||Caroline Johnson||Conservative|
|South Holland and The Deepings||South Holland, South Kesteven||John Henry Hayes||Conservative|
Lincolnshire County Council
The Conservatives control the county council, with 58 of the 70 seats. North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire are unitary authorities and do not form part of the non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire.
The Conservative Party comfortably controlled the County Council after the 2009 local elections, in which they increased their majority to 43 seats. The Labour Party lost a total of 15 seats including 7 in Lincoln, whilst the Liberal Democrats lost three. The Lincolnshire Independents gained a total of four seats, although one of their number moved to the Conservative group during 2010, increasing the number of Conservative seats to 61. The collective group of the Lincolnshire Independents, the Boston Bypass Party and other independent councillors formed the opposition for the four-year term.
In the 2013 County Council elections, the Conservatives lost their overall majority and formed a coalition with the Liberal Democrats and independents. The UK Independence Party made significant gains from the Conservatives, particularly around the town of Boston, due to opposition to Eastern European immigration.
The 2017 Lincolnshire County Council election took place on 4 May 2017 and saw a local landslide victory for the Conservatives, who won 58 out of the 70 seats. UKIP was left without a single seat. Labour lost four seats, reducing their number of seats to six, the Liberal Democrats were reduced to one seat, and the Lincolnshire Independents were also reduced to a single seat after losing eight seats. Four other independents were elected.
1975 EC membership referendum
The 1975 EC membership referendum was the first major referendum to be held in the county, and saw one of the largest majority votes in favour of continued membership of the then European Communities (which would later become the European Union) within non-metropolitan Lincolnshire and also Humberside, which then included northern parts of historic Lincolnshire. The referendum was held on 5 June 1975 with votes within the county being centrally counted under the provisions of the Referendum Act 1975 where voters were asked to decide on the question “Do you think that the United Kingdom should stay in the European Community (the Common Market)?” by voting for either “Yes” or “No”. The result was declared on the following day.
|United Kingdom European Community|
(Common Market) membership referendum, 1975
|Invalid or blank votes||445||0.18%|
|Registered voters and turnout||370,518||63.70%|
- The result above only includes non-Metropolitan Lincolnshire as parts of historic northern Lincolnshire made up part of Humberside at the time.
|County||Yes votes||No votes||Yes||No||Turnout|
2011 AV referendum
The 2011 United Kingdom Alternative Vote referendum was the first to be held in Lincolnshire since the 1975 EC membership referendum and was only the second time that the people of Lincolnshire have been asked to vote in a referendum. The referendum asked voters whether to replace the present "first-past-the-post" (simple plurality) system with the "alternative vote" (AV) method for electing MPs to the House of Commons in future general elections. The proposal to introduce AV was overwhelmingly rejected by voters with all eight counting areas within Lincolnshire returning significant "no" votes.
United Kingdom Alternative Vote referendum, 2011
|Invalid or blank votes||1,593||0.51%|
|Registered voters and turnout||722,210||40.17%|
- The result above includes all areas within historic Lincolnshire
The seven shire-districts and two unitary authorities in Lincolnshire were used as the voting areas.
|Counting Areas||Turnout %||No votes||Yes votes||No %||Yes %|
|North East Lincolnshire||34.23||29,484||9,549||75.54||24.46|
2016 EU membership referendum
On 23 June 2016, in the EU referendum, the people of Lincolnshire voted for the second time on the issue of the UK's continued membership of what is now known as the European Union under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act 2015 where voters were asked to decide on the question “Should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union or leave the European Union” by voting for either “Remain a member of the European Union” or “Leave the European Union”. Of the ten MPs which represented the historic county at the time six MPs Andrew Percy, Martin Vickers, Edward Leigh, Karl McCartney, Stephen Phillips and John Hayes supported a "Leave" vote with five MPs Matt Warman, Nick Boles, Victoria Atkins, Melanie Onn and Nic Dakin supported a "Remain" vote.
United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016
|Leave the European Union||380,556||65.98%|
|Remain a member of the European Union||196,184||34.02%|
|Invalid or blank votes||308||0.05%|
|Registered voters and turnout||780,761||73.91%|
- The result above includes all areas within historic Lincolnshire
The seven shire-districts and two unitary authorities in Lincolnshire were used as the voting areas.
|Voting areas||Turnout %||Remain votes||Leave votes||Remain %||Leave %|
|North East Lincolnshire||67.9%||23,797||55,185||30.1%||69.9%|
Police and Crime Commissioners
The most recent elections for Police and Crime Commissioners within the Lincolnshire and Humberside police force areas took place on 5 May 2016.
|Lincolnshire Police and Crime Commissioner election, 2016|
|Party||Candidate||1st round||2nd round|
First round votes Transfer votes
|Total||Of round||Transfers||Total||Of round|
|Lincolnshire Independent||Daniel Simpson||18,497||16.52%||
|Conservative gain from Independent|
|Humberside Police and Crime Commissioner election, 2016|
|Party||Candidate||1st round||2nd round|
First round votes Transfer votes
|Total||Of round||Transfers||Total||Of round|
|Liberal Democrats||Denis Healy||23,451||15.25%||
|Labour gain from Conservative|
Services and retail
Lincolnshire is one of the few counties in the UK that still uses the 11-plus to decide who may attend grammar school. As a result, many towns in Lincolnshire have both a grammar school and a secondary modern school. Lincolnshire's rural character means that some larger villages also have primary schools and are served by buses to nearby high schools.
Lincoln itself, however, is primarily non-selective, as is the area within a radius of about seven miles. In this area, almost all children attend comprehensive schools, though it is still possible to opt into the 11-plus system. This gives rise to the unusual result that those who pass the Eleven plus can attend a Grammar School outside the Lincoln Comprehensive area, but those who do not pass still attend a (partly non-selective) Comprehensive school.
Being on the economic periphery of England, Lincolnshire's transport links are poorly developed compared with many other parts of the United Kingdom. The road network in the county is dominated by single carriageway A roads and local roads (B roads) as opposed to motorways and dual carriageways – the administrative county of Lincolnshire is one of the few UK counties without a motorway, and until several years ago, it was said that there was only about 35 km (22 mi) of dual carriageway in the whole of Lincolnshire. The M180 motorway passes through North Lincolnshire, splitting into two dual carriageway trunk roads to the Humber Bridge and Grimsby, and the A46 is now dual carriageway between Newark-on-Trent and Lincoln.
The low population density of the county means that the number of railway stations and train services is very low considering the county's large area. Many of the county's railway stations were permanently closed following the Beeching Report of 1963. The most notable reopening has been the line and two stations between Lincoln and Sleaford, which reopened within months of the Beeching closure. Most other closed lines in the county were long ago lifted and much of the trackbed has returned to agricultural use.
Prior to 1970, a through train service operated between Cleethorpes and London King's Cross via Louth, Boston and Peterborough. The part of this line in Grimsby is now the A16 road, preventing reinstatement as a railway line, and a small section of the line is now the Lincolnshire Wolds Railway, with an extension towards Louth in progress.
A daily through train service operated between Cleethorpes and London King's Cross via Grimsby, Market Rasen and Lincoln Central until the late 1980s. The Humberlincs Executive, as the service was known, was operated by an InterCity 125, but was discontinued following the electrification of the East Coast Main Line. Passengers now have to change trains at Newark North Gate when travelling to and from London. However, the East Coast Main Line passes through the western edge of the county and one can catch direct trains to London from Grantham.
Most rail services are currently operated by East Midlands Railway and Northern. London North Eastern Railway and CrossCountry have services which pass through the county, with London North Eastern Railway frequently passing and stopping at Grantham on the East Coast Main Line and a daily return train to Lincoln which is at the end of the branch line, while CrossCountry trains stop at Stamford on their way between Birmingham and Stansted Airport. Stations along the Humber are served by TransPennine Express services between Manchester Airport and Cleethorpes. One of the most infrequent services in the UK is in Lincolnshire: the Sheffield-Gainsborough Central-Cleethorpes line has passenger trains only on a Saturday, with three trains in both directions. This line is, however, used for freight.
On 22 May 2011 East Coast started a Lincoln-London service. One train travels both ways each day, and there is a northbound service on a Sunday. East Midlands Railway also run a daily (Mon-Sat) service each way between Lincoln and London St Pancras, though this is a stopping service which takes around 3 hours via Nottingham, compared to London North Eastern Railway's service to London King's Cross which takes around 1 hour 50 minutes.
The only airport in Lincolnshire is Humberside Airport, near Brigg. East Midlands airport the main airport servicing the East Midlands is within travelling distance of the county. Doncaster Sheffield Airport near Doncaster is within travelling distance of much of Lincolnshire.
The county's biggest bus companies are Stagecoach Grimsby-Cleethorpes (formerly Grimsby-Cleethorpes Transport) and Stagecoach in Lincolnshire, (formerly Lincolnshire Road Car). There are several smaller bus companies, including Brylaine of Boston, Delaine Buses and Hornsby's of Scunthorpe.
A Sustrans cycle route runs from Lincoln to Boston in the south of the county.
The United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust is one of the largest trusts in the country, employing almost 4,000 staff and with an annual budget of over £200 million. The north of the county is served by the Northern Lincolnshire and Goole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust.
Some of the larger hospitals in the county include:
- Diana Princess of Wales Hospital, Grimsby
- Scunthorpe General Hospital
- Boston Pilgrim Hospital
- Lincoln County Hospital
Since April 1994, Lincolnshire has had an Air Ambulance service. The air ambulance is stationed at RAF Waddington near Lincoln and can reach emergencies in Lincolnshire within 25 minutes. An A&E hospital is only 10 minutes away by helicopter from any accident in Lincolnshire.
Separately to the commercial water companies the low-lying parts of the county are drained by various internal drainage boards, such as the Black Sluice Internal Drainage Board,Witham 4th District IDB, Lindsey Marsh Drainage Board, or the Welland and Deepings Internal Drainage Board.
Lincolnshire is now the second fastest growing county in the UK with thousands of people moving there every year. Over the next two decades, Lincolnshire is set to grow both in population and economy with the help of the Government's Growth Points strategy. Lincolnshire has been awarded £13 million in funding to deliver sustainable development and intensive growth through sites of key regional significance. In essence, the target for Lincoln is 14,000 new homes and 12,000 new jobs by 2026 whilst the target for Grantham is an additional 3,200 homes by 2016 and at least 6,200 by 2026. This housing growth will be supported by the provision for 4,800 jobs by 2016.
Towns and villages
The non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire has no major urban areas, apart from the areas in and around Lincoln, Grantham and Boston and to a lesser degree around Spalding. However, the Skegness, Ingoldmells and Chapel St Leonards areas (and to a lesser extent the Sutton-on-Sea and Mablethorpe areas) along the Lincolnshire coast are becoming increasingly urbanised, as people holiday at large caravan sites during the summer. These holidaymakers are not reflected in census or local population figures, though it is estimated that at the height of the summer months there are over 100,000 such residents in these coastal areas. This has an appreciable impact on the local infrastructure and amenities.
|Largest settlements in Lincolnshire by population|
|Rank||City/ Town||District/Unitary Authority||Population|
|2||Grimsby||North East Lincolnshire||88,243|
|6||Cleethorpes||North East Lincolnshire||39,505|
For a more detailed list of the largest populated towns see the List of settlements in Lincolnshire by population page.
For a full list of Lincolnshire towns and villages see the List of places in Lincolnshire page.
The majority of tourism in Lincolnshire relies on the coastal resorts and towns to the east of the Lincolnshire Wolds. The county has some of the best-known seaside resorts in the United Kingdom, which are a major attraction to visitors from across England, especially the East Midlands and parts of Yorkshire. There are three main coastal resorts in Lincolnshire and several smaller village resorts.
The main county seaside resort of Skegness with its famous Jolly Fisherman mascot and famous slogan "Skegness is so bracing", together with its neighbouring large village coastal resorts of Ingoldmells and Chapel St Leonards, provides the biggest concentration of resorts along the Lincolnshire Coast, with many large caravan and holiday sites. The resort offers many amusements, beaches, leisure activities and shops, as well as Butlins Skegness, Fantasy Island, Church Farm Museum, Natureland Seal Sanctuary, Skegness Stadium, Skegness Pier and several well-known local golf courses. There are good road, bus and rail links to the rest of the county.
The second largest group of resorts along the coast is the small seaside town of Mablethorpe, famous for its golden sands, and the neighbouring village resorts of Trusthorpe and Sutton-on-Sea. This area also offers leisure activities and has large caravan and holiday sites. But the area is less developed, with fewer amusement arcades and nightclubs, and poorer road links to the rest of the county; but the area offers a more traditional seaside setting. The rail service to these towns was axed in the Beeching cuts.
The third group of resorts includes the seaside town of Cleethorpes and the large village resort of Humberston within North East Lincolnshire. It has Pleasure Island Family Theme Park, Cleethorpes Coast Light Railway and Cleethorpes Pier along with its local golf courses and caravan and holiday sites. Cleethorpes is well-served by road and rail; it is easily accessible from the M180 and the TransPennine Express route to Manchester.
Nature is an attraction for many tourists: the south-east of the county is mainly fenland that attracts many species of birds, as do the nature reserves at Gibraltar Point, Saltfleetby and Theddlethorpe. The reserve at Donna Nook also has a native seal colony popular with nature lovers.
The market towns of the Lincolnshire Wolds (Louth, Alford, Horncastle, Caistor and Spilsby) are also attractive, with several having historic links. The Wolds are quite popular for cycling and walking, with regular events such as the Lincolnshire Wolds Walking Festival.
Lincolnshire is a rural area where the pace of life is generally much slower than in much of the United Kingdom. Sunday is still largely a day of rest, with only shops in Lincoln, larger market towns, and resorts and industrial towns of the North Sea coast generally remaining open. Some towns and villages in the county still observe half-day closing on Thursdays. Due to the large distances between the towns, many villages have remained very self-contained, with many still having shops, pubs, local halls and local chapels and churches, offering a variety of social activities for residents. Fishing (in the extensive river and drainage system in the fens) and shooting are popular activities. A lot of the culture in Lincoln itself is based upon its history. The Collection is an archaeological museum and art gallery in Lincoln. Lincoln Cathedral also plays a large part in Lincoln's culture, playing host to many events throughout the year, from concert recitals to indoor food markets.
Lincolnshire is one of the least ethnically diverse counties of the United Kingdom (98.5% of the population describe themselves as "white"). Over recent years inward migration by people from ethnic minority communities has increased (particularly to population centres such as Lincoln and Boston) but the absolute number of non-white Lincolnshire residents remains very low.
Recently, the county has also witnessed a growing trend towards immigration of retired people from other parts of the United Kingdom, particularly those from the southern counties of England attracted by the generally lower property prices and the slower and more relaxed pace of life. The relatively high proportion of elderly and retired people is reflected in many of the services, activities and events. Sleaford is considered one of the fastest-growing towns in the East Midlands, with many professional people moving there to benefit from the (relatively) low house prices and crime rate, and the selective education.
Those born in Lincolnshire are sometimes given the nickname of Yellowbellies (often spelt "Yeller Bellies", to reflect the pronunciation of the phrase by the typical Lincolnshire farmer). The origin of this term is debated, but is most commonly believed to derive from the uniform of the 10th Regiment of Foot (later the Lincolnshire Regiment) which featured yellow facings. For this reason, the coat of arms of Lincolnshire County Council is supported by two officers of the regiment.
Lincolnshire has many notable people associated with it, such as:
- Sir Isaac Newton, celebrated mathematician, physicist, astronomer, Biblical theologist, alchemist, Warden and Master of the Royal Mint, the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, and President of the Royal Society.
- Margaret Thatcher, former Prime Minister
- Guthlac of Crowland
- Hereward the Wake
- Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln
- Hugh of Lincoln, Robert Grosseteste, Christopher Wordsworth and Edward King, Bishops of Lincoln
- Nicolaa de la Haye
- Lucy of Bolingbroke
- Aaron of Lincoln
- Berechiah de Nicole
- Eleanor of Castile
- Katherine Swynford
- Gilbert of Sempringham, Saint and Founder of the Gilbertine Order
- Henry IV of England
- William Byrd, composer
- William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, Chief Advisor to Queen Elizabeth I
- Havelok the Dane
- Sir John Franklin, Arctic explorer
- Joseph Banks, Botanist and plant collector
- Matthew Flinders, navigator and cartographer
- Halford Mackinder, geographer
- George Bass Explorer of Australia
- George Boole, mathematician
- Thomas Paine, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, who was appointed as a Grantham-based excise officer in December 1762.
- John Harrison, chronometer innovator
- William Stukeley, antiquarian
- Frank Bramley and Peter De Wint, artists
- Herbert Ingram, journalist
- Alfred Lord Tennyson, Jean Ingelow, Anne Bradstreet, Elizabeth Jennings and Andreas Kalvos, poets
- Richard Foxe, bishop and founder of Corpus Christi College, Oxford
- Anne Askew, Protestant martyr
- John Smyth, founder of the Baptist denomination
- John Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury
- Robert Tighe, translator on the Committee for The King James Bible
- John Foxe, author of Foxe's Book of Martyrs
- John Cotton, Puritan
- John and Charles Wesley, founders of the Methodist movement
- Samuel Eyles Pierce, preacher
- Richard Watson, theologian and Methodist writer
- Thomas Scott, Bible commentator and co-founder of the Church Missionary Society
- Captain John Smith, leader of the settlement of Jamestown, Virginia,
- Madge Kendal and Sybil Thorndike, actresses
- Arthur Lucan, part of the music hall act Old Mother Riley
- Frank Pick, railway administrator
- "The Acid Bath Murderer" John George Haigh
- Businesswoman and Welsh language translator Lady Charlotte Guest
- Inventor of Crucible Steel Benjamin Huntsman
- Tenor Alfred Piccaver
- Field Marshal William Robertson
- Founder of "The Samaritans" Chad Varah
- Industrialists Joseph Ruston and William Tritton
- R.A.F personnel Douglas Bader, Leslie Manser, Frank Whittle, Guy Gibson
- Victoria Cross recipients Charles Richard Sharpe, Harold Jackson (VC), Guy Gibson, Thomas Colclough Watson and Gonville Bromhead
- Medal of Honor recipient George Green (Medal of Honor)
- Founder of Royal College of Nursing Sarah Swift
- Historian Francis Hill
- Archbishops of Canterbury Æthelhard, Stephen Langton and John Whitgift
- Fashion Designer Charles Frederick Worth
- Hangman William Marwood
- Frontiersman George Davenport
- ballad composer and hymn writer Charlotte Alington Barnard
- Leaders of the Lincolnshire Rebellion, Nicholas Melton and Rev.d Thomas Kendall
- Clergyman and ecologist Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock
Present day figures include
- Actors Thomas Turgoose, Jim Broadbent, Jonathan Kerrigan, Neil McCarthy and John Alderton
- Actresses Patricia Hodge, Joan Plowright, Liz Smith, Kelly Adams and Sheridan Smith
- Actress and comedian Jennifer Saunders
- Singer and songwriter Ella Henderson
- Radio and TV presenter Nicholas Parsons
- Author of My Mad Fat Teenage Diary (the basis for the television show My Mad Fat Diary) Rae Earl
- Crime writer Colin Dexter
- Astronaut Michael Foale
- Songwriters Bernie Taupin and Rod Temperton
- Military historian and author Bruce Barrymore Halpenny
- Actor, comedian and writer Robert Webb
- Musicians Jane Taylor and Neville Marriner
- Musician and composer Robert Wyatt
- Golfer Tony Jacklin
- Shotputter Geoff Capes
- Swimmers Paul Palmer, Kate Haywood and Brenda Fisher
- Footballers Lee Chapman, Ray Clemence, Chris Woods, Paul Mayo, Ted Savage, Sam Clucas, and Lee Frecklington Ellis Chapman
- Cricketer Luke Wright
- Fashion designer Antonio Berardi
- Glamour model Abi Titmuss
- Motorcycle racer and television presenter Guy Martin
- Business executive and wife of the former Prime Minister David Cameron, Samantha Cameron
- Newsreader and journalist Helen Fospero
In common with most other Northern and Midlands dialects in England, "flat" a is preferred, i.e. // over //, and also traditionally in words like water, pronounced /ˈwætər/ watter (though such a pronunciation is rarely heard nowadays). Similarly, /ʌ/ is usually replaced by /ʊ/. Features rather more confined to Lincolnshire include:
- Elaboration of standard English /eɪ/ or /iː/ into a complex triphthong approximating, and often transcribed -air- or -yair-. For example: "mate" [m(j)ɛːət]; "beast" [b(j)ɛːəst]; "tates" (potatoes) [t(j)ɛːəts].
- An equivalent elaboration of standard English /oʊ/ – commonly [oː] in Northern England – into -ooa-. For example, "boat" [bʊːət].
- Insertion of an extra schwa into the standard English diphthong /aʊ/.
- Vocabulary: "duck" as a term of endearment or informal address, "mardy" meaning upset or angry, "mowt" (pronounced like mout) for might, "while" as a substitute for standard English "until", "frit" meaning frightened, "grufty" meaning dirty or disgusting, and the inimitable salutation "now then!?" (hello), sometimes written nairn to reflect pronunciation.
- In the north east of the county, around Grimsby and Immingham, the nurse-square merger can be heard, as is also the case along the east coast of Yorkshire and also in Liverpool. Words that take /ɜː/ in RP take /ɛː/ in these areas.
Lincolnshire has its own dialect "champion", a farmer from the village of Minting called Farmer Wink (real name Robert Carlton), who has produced videos about rural life, narrated in his broad Lincolnshire accent. A resident of Woodhall Spa has published a dictionary of words once prevalent in parts of the county.
Lincolnshire was historically associated with the Lincolnshire bagpipe, an instrument derided as a coarse and unpleasant instrument in contemporary literature, but noted as very popular in the county. The last player, John Hunsley of Middle Manton, died in 1851, and since then the instrument has been extinct.
The Lincolnshire Poacher is a traditional English folk song associated with the county of Lincolnshire, and deals with the joys of poaching. It is considered to be the unofficial county anthem of Lincolnshire.
Lincolnshire has a number of local dishes:
- Stuffed chine – this is salted neck-chine of a pig taken from between the shoulder blades, salted for up to ten months and stuffed with parsley (other ingredients are normally kept secret), and served cold.
- Haslet – a type of pork loaf, also flavoured with sage (pronounced HAYSS-let or AYSS-let in Lincolnshire but HAZ-let in many other parts of the country).
- Lincolnshire sausages – most butchers in Lincolnshire have their own secret recipe for these and a competition is held each year to judge the best sausages in the county. Traditional Lincolnshire sausages are made entirely from minced pork, stale bread crumb (rusk is used nowadays) pepper, sage and salt. The skins should be natural casings which are made from the intestines of either sheep or pig.
- Pork pies – the same pork butchers will take a pride in their unique recipe for pork pies.
- Giblet pie.
- Mutton stuffed with oysters.
- Plum bread – as with plum pudding, plum refers to dried fruit, namely currants, raisins and sultanas, sometimes soaked in tea.
- Grantham Gingerbread – a hard white ginger biscuit.
- Lincolnshire Poacher cheese – a cheddar-style cheese produced in Alford. Lincolnshire Poacher has won numerous awards over the years including Supreme Champion at the 1996/7 British Cheese Awards and Best British Cheese at the World Cheese awards in 2001/2.
- Batemans ales – a beer brewed in Wainfleet and served in many pubs in the county and further afield.
- There are several small breweries.
- Grimsby is renowned for its fishing industry, and historically Grimsby Fish has carried a premium price. Since the decline of the fishing industry following entry to the European Economic Community in the 1970s this is no longer the case, with the majority of fish sold at the town's fish market being brought overland from other ports. However, Grimsby Fish is still a recognised product, one associated with a particular area that specialises in and has expertise in a particular trade (cf Sheffield steel). In 2009 smoked fish from the town was granted Protected Geographical Indication by the European Union, reflecting the unique smoking methods used by certain local fish companies.
Craft Chocolatiers can be found throughout the county, such as Hansens in Folkingham. In 2013 Redstar Chocolate's Duffy's Venezuela Ocumare Milk won a Gold medal as best bean-to-bar. The factory is in Cleethorpes.
Every year the Lincolnshire Agricultural Society, founded in 1869, stages the Lincolnshire Agricultural Show. It is held on the Wednesday and Thursday of the last whole week of June at its showground at Grange de Lings, a few miles north of Lincoln on the A15. The show was first held here in 1958. First held around the year 1884, it is one of the largest agricultural shows in the country, and is attended by around 100,000 people over its two days. The showground is in regular use throughout the year for a wide range of other events and functions.
Each year RAF Waddington is the home to the RAF International Waddington Air Show. The two-day event attracts around 150,000 people and usually takes place during the first weekend of July. Since its inception over 35 countries have participated, with aircraft from around the globe attending the Lincolnshire Base. Beginning 2017, the event will be held at nearby RAF Scampton.
On the Monday before Easter, an unusual auction takes place in Bourne to let the grazing rights of the Whitebread Meadow. Bidding takes place while two boys race toward the Queen's Bridge in Eastgate, the end of which dash is equivalent to the falling of the gavel. The whole affair dates back to the 1742 will of William Clay.
The Haxey Hood village competition takes place every January, as it has for over 700 years.
Stamford's Mid-Lent fair sees showmen converge on the town the week after Mothering Sunday, with rides and sideshows filling Broad Street, the Sheepmarket and the Meadows for a week. Stalls selling Grantham gingerbread and nougat are a traditional feature. The following week sees them in Grantham, on the way north for the Summer. Roger Tuby brings a small funfair to Bourne and then to Spalding in Spring and returns in Autumn at the end of the season.
The Belchford Downhill Challenge which is held every two years: soapbox racers race down the hill at up to 30 km/h. The turnout has been up to 1,000.
In recent years Lincoln Christmas Market, a street market throughout the historic area of the city, has been held at the start of December. Around the same time, Christmas lights are turned on in Bourne, Sleaford, Skegness, and other towns.
The Spalding Flower Parade was held in late spring every year between 1959 and 2013. Colourful floats decorated with tulip heads competed for a cup.
The main sports played in the county are football, cricket and rugby union. Lincolnshire does not have a high sporting profile, mainly due to the lack of facilities and high-profile football teams. Probably the most well-known sporting venues in Lincolnshire are Cadwell Park near Louth, where a round of the British Motorbike Championship is held on the last Monday of August every year and the racecourse at Market Rasen
- Three teams from Lincolnshire play in the Football League: Lincoln City play in Football League One, While Scunthorpe United and Grimsby Town play in Football League Two. In non-league football Boston United and Gainsborough Trinity play in the Football Conference North.
- In cricket Lincolnshire are a minor county and play in the Minor Counties Championship.
- In hockey Lindum Hockey Club play in the north of Lincoln.
- Scunthorpe Rugby Club are the most notable rugby union team from Lincolnshire, and will play in the fifth level of the English league system in the 2017-18 season. Other notable teams include Market Rasen and Louth RUFC, Lincoln RFC, and Boston Rugby Club.
- Lincolnshire is home to one racecourse, at Market Rasen.
- Cadwell Park is the only motor-racing course in Lincolnshire. There is a speedway track in Scunthorpe, home of the Scunthorpe Scorpions, and stock-car racing at a stadium at Orby, near Skegness.
- Lincolnshire has an American Football club, the Lincolnshire Bombers, which has existed in its current guise since 2005.
- Lincolnshire is home to the UK roller derby team, the Lincolnshire Bombers Roller Girls, which is sponsored by Motörhead.
The unofficial anthem of the county is the traditional folk song, "The Lincolnshire Poacher", which dates from around 1776. A version of the song was the theme for BBC Radio Lincolnshire for many years.
In August 2005, BBC Radio Lincolnshire and Lincolnshire Life magazine launched a vote for a flag to represent the county. Six competing designs were voted upon by locals. The winning submission was unveiled in October 2005. Lincoln has its own flag – St George's flag with a Fleur-de-Lys.
The Lincoln Imp has symbolised cathedral, city, and county for many years. In 2006 it was replaced as the brand of Lincolnshire County Council by the stylised version seen on the header here which has lost even the unique pose of the carving.
The county is home to one daily newspaper, the Grimsby Telegraph which as the name suggests, is published in the town and whose circulation area ostensibly covers North East Lincolnshire, although it reaches as far south as Louth and Alford and as west as Brigg.
There are two further weekly papers which used to be published daily until 2011; the Lincolnshire Echo is published weekly from Lincoln and covers the majority of the county reaching as far north as Louth, and the Scunthorpe Telegraph which covers northern Lincolnshire. All three are ultimately owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust.
There are also a number of weekly papers serving individual towns published in the county by Johnston Press. One of these, the Stamford Mercury claims to be Britain's oldest newspaper, although it is now a typical local weekly and no longer covers stories from the whole East Midlands as the archived copies did.
With the exception of a small area to the south west of the county, Lincolnshire is served from the Belmont transmitter, receiving programmes from ITV Yorkshire and BBC One Yorkshire and Lincolnshire regions.
The BBC has, since 2003, provided the area with its twelfth regional service: BBC Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, carrying a local "Look North" news programme from the main studio in Hull, with input from other studios in Lincoln and Grimsby.
ITV Yorkshire provides coverage through its evening news programme "Calendar". Until late 2008 the station provided a separate edition for the Belmont transmitter (although it was still broadcast from Leeds). From January 2009 the area is now covered by a programme that covers the entire ITV Yorkshire region.
From 1959 to July 1974 ITV programmes were provided by Anglia Television (although some coverage could be received from the Manchester-based Granada and ABC Weekend). Based in Norwich the company had news offices in Grimsby. Following a transmitter change ITV services were provided by Yorkshire Television. This company kept open the offices in Grimsby and opened further facilities in Lincoln, although both of these closed in the mid-1990s.
South-west Lincolnshire receives BBC East Midlands and ITV Central which are broadcast from the Waltham-on-the-Wolds Transmitting Station. Although subject to co-channel interference from the Waltham transmitter, a small number of households in the southern tip of the county are able to receive regional programming from BBC East and ITV Anglia.
The area is covered by several local radio stations including:
- Lincoln City Radio The only radio station dedicated to the over-50's in the City of Lincoln and the surrounding villages.
- BBC Lincolnshire Can be heard throughout historic Lincolnshire although its broadcast remit is the present county of Lincolnshire
- BBC Radio Humberside The counties of northern Lincolnshire that were formerly known as South Humberside
- Boundary Sound Newark (closed 2011)
- Compass FM Grimsby, Cleethorpes and Immingham
- Heart Peterborough and South Lincolnshire
- Lincs FM Historic Lincolnshire
- Gravity FM Grantham
- Siren FM Lincoln
- Endeavour FM (formerly Stump Radio) Boston
- Endeavour Radio Boston
- Tulip Radio Spalding and South Holland
- Viking FM Northern Lincolnshire and the East Yorkshire, formerly the constituent areas of Humberside
Because of its flat geography and low population density, Lincolnshire is an ideal place for airfields, and the Air Ministry built prolifically with the county hosting nearly seventy separate air bases. It became known as "bomber county". Since the end of the Second World War most of these airfields or stations were decommissioned, but the RAF retains a significant footprint in Lincolnshire for the air defence of the United Kingdom and aircrew training. For more information on former bases, see List of former RAF stations.
Two major front-line bases located in Lincolnshire are RAF Coningsby, which is one of only two RAF Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) Stations in the United Kingdom and home to the Eurofighter Typhoon jet fighters, and RAF Waddington, where most of the RAF's Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Reconnaissance aircraft are based. Other stations in Lincolnshire include RAF Cranwell, home to all Air Force Basic Officer Training for the Royal Air Force; RAF Scampton, home base to the Red Arrows Aerobatic Team and former base of the Avro Vulcan nuclear strike V bomber-force; RAF Barkston Heath, a training airfield; and minor bases such as RAF Kirton in Lindsey, RAF Donna Nook and RAF Digby.
Lincolnshire is also home to two active RAF and NATO-allied air weapons training bombing ranges, located along The Wash and north Lincolnshire coastline—RAF Holbeach active since 1926 (originally part of the former RAF Sutton Bridge station) and Donna Nook. The RAF Wainfleet range was decommissioned in 2010.
Places of interest
|Accessible open space|
|Museum (free/not free)|
- Alford Manor House
- Alford Windmill
- Alkborough Turf Maze
- Ayscoughfee Hall
- Bardney Limewoods
- Baldocks Mill
- Belmont Mast (No longer the tallest construction in the European Union)
- Belton House
- Bolingbroke Castle
- Boston Stump
- Bourne Abbey
- Boultham Park
- Branston Hall
- Burghley House
- Church Farm Museum, Skegness
- Crowland Abbey
- Cogglesford Mill
- Dambusters Inn and Heritage Centre
- Doddington Hall
- Dogdyke Engine
- Donna Nook
- Dunston Pillar
- East Lighthouse, Sutton Bridge
- Ellis Mill (windmill)
- Fantasy Island, Ingoldmells
- Gainsborough Old Hall
- Gainsthorpe Deserted Medieval Village
- Gibraltar Point
- Gordon Boswell Romany Museum
- Grantham Museum
- Grimsby Dock Tower
- Grimsthorpe Castle
- Gunby Hall
- Hartsholme Country Park
- Harlaxton Manor
- Heckington Windmill
- Hubbard's Hills, Louth
- Kesteven Forest
- Lincoln Arboretum
- Lincoln Castle
- Lincoln Cathedral
- Lincolnshire Aviation Heritage Centre
- Lincolnshire's coastal grazing marshes
- Lincolnshire Wolds Railway
- Maud Foster Windmill, Skirbeck, Boston
- Metheringham Windmill
- Mount Pleasant Mill, Kirton in Lindsey
- Mrs Smith's Cottage, Navenby
- National Fishing Heritage Centre
- Natureland Seal Sanctuary
- New Theatre Royal Lincoln
- Normanby Hall
- Pelham's Pillar
- Pinchbeck Engine and museum of land drainage
- River Ancholme
- Snipe Dales
- St. James Church, Louth
- St. Peter's Church, Barton upon Humber
- Sibsey Trader Mill
- Somerton Castle
- Stamford Museum
- Stow Minster
- Tattershall Castle
- Tattershall College
- The Collection (The Usher Art Gallery)
- The Humber Bridge
- Lincolnshire Wolds
- Museum of Lincolnshire Life
- The South Common, Lincoln
- The Wash
- The West Common, Lincoln
- Thornton Abbey
- Waltham Windmill
- Whisby Nature Park
- Woolsthorpe Manor
- Outline of England
- Custos Rotulorum of Lincolnshire – List of Keepers of the Rolls for Lincolnshire
- Earl of Lincoln is a title that has been created eight times in the Peerage of England and is currently represented.
- High Sheriff of Lincolnshire
- Lincolnshire (UK Parliament constituency) List of MPs for the Lincolnshire constituency
- Lincs Wind Farm
- List of bridges and viaducts in Lincolnshire
- List of churches in Lincolnshire
- List of civil parishes in Lincolnshire
- List of companies in Lincolnshire – Both current and former
- List of forests and woodland in Lincolnshire
- List of monastic houses in Lincolnshire
- List of museums in Lincolnshire
- List of Parliamentary constituencies in Lincolnshire
- List of places in Lincolnshire
- List of public art in Lincolnshire
- List of Roman sites in Lincolnshire
- List of schools in Lincolnshire
- List of watermills in Lincolnshire
- List of waterways in Lincolnshire
- List of windmills in Lincolnshire
- Lord Lieutenant of Lincolnshire
- Stamford Senior Youth Theatre
- 1185 East Midlands earthquake
- "Privy Council Office-APPOINTMENT OF SHERIFFS". London Gazette. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- "Lincolnshire County Council". Thebythams.org.uk. 24 October 2005. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- Lincolnshire Biodiversity Action Plan
- UKGE (3 December 2015). "A rare Cretaceous ichthyosaur from Lincolnshire". Deposits Magazine. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- "The Lincoln Plesiosaur - The Collection". Thecollectionmuseum.com. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- Franklin, Ashley (22 June 2017). "Man climbs Lincolnshire's highest point - but where is it?". lincolnshirelive.co.uk. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 August 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Sympson, E. Mansel (22 November 2012). Lincolnshire. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107612648. Retrieved 14 December 2018 – via Google Books.
- "Conservationists and anglers clash over otters' return". Grantham Journal. 1 January 2018. Archived from the original on 3 December 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- "Red kites at Belton House". National Trust. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- "Wheat yield world record shattered in Lincolnshire". Farmers Weekly. 24 August 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- "New world record for combined peas set in Lincs - Agronomist & Arable Farmer". Aafarmer.co.uk. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- "Potato Council Sutton Bridge Crop Storage Research (CSR) facility". Potato.org.uk. 12 September 2012. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- "History of the Breed — National Lincoln Sheep Breeders Association". Lincolnsheep.com. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- "Why did voters turn to Ukip in parts of true blue Lincolnshire?". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- "What's next for 'UKIP Lincolnshire' after name change debacle..." Lincolnshire Echo. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Norton, Emily. "Majority of Lincolnshire MPs and East Midlands MEPs back Brexit". The Lincolnite. Stonebow Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 7 July 2018. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
- "Town centres data from 2000". Archived from the original on 9 March 2005. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- "Home". Hornsbytravel.co.uk. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- "Sustrans Lincolnshire". Sustrans.org.uk. Archived from the original on 8 March 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- "United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust Website – Home". Ulh.nhs.uk. Archived from the original on 3 April 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 May 2004. Retrieved 6 February 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Map of Lincolnshire IDBs Archived 22 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "2006 Thorne Moors Vertebrate Report - "Thorne Waste (except now the Yorkshire Triangle) lies in South Yorkshire, and the other parishes lie in East Yorkshire, except Crowle Moor and the Yorkshire Triangle, which are in North Lincolnshire". birdingsiteguide.com. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- "Humberhead Peatlands - Map of Thorne Moors". Humberhead Peatlands Website. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- "Mobile Libraries". Lincolnshire County Council. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
Wherever you live in Lincolnshire, whether in the countryside of the Wolds or Fens, the Coastal area or even on the edge of a town, a Mobile Library will stop nearby.
- "Lincolnshire Sayings and Traditions". Rootsweb.ancestry.com. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- "Civic Heraldry visited 22 December 2006". Civicheraldry.co.uk. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Binnall, P.B.B., "A Man of Might" in FOLKLORE Vol.52, p.73, 1941
- Binnall, P.B.G. "A Man of Might", in FOLKLORE Vol.52, p.74, 1941
- Songfacts. "The Lincolnshire Poacher by Traditional - Songfacts". www.songfacts.com. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
- "Lincolnshire's Dishes". Portsmouth Evening News. 5 November 1937. Retrieved 15 February 2015 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Elliott, Valerie (17 November 2009). "Traditional Grimsby Smoked Fish is granted European PGI status". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- "Chocolatier in Louth". Archived from the original on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- Bingham, Caroline (November 2012). "Chocolatier in Willingham". Lincolnshire Life. Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Chocolatier in Skegness". Archived from the original on 10 September 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Hansen's chocolate house". Archived from the original on 18 August 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Hansen's Chocolate House, Folkingham, Lincolnshire". Explore Lincolnshire. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Best Milk Chocolate Bean-To-Bar". 2013 awards. Academy of Chocolate. Archived from the original on 4 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- Williams, Holly (7 July 2013). "Best of British". The Independent. Archived from the original on 8 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Red Star Chocolate". Archived from the original on 26 June 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Lincolnshire Events Centre". Lincolnshire Showground. Archived from the original on 24 February 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- "The Largest Village Show in England". Heckingtonshow.org.uk. Archived from the original on 5 May 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- "Corby Glen Sheep Fair Gallery". Corbyglen.com. Archived from the original on 21 July 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- "RAF Red Arrows – Home". Raf.mod.uk. 11 January 2010. Archived from the original on 16 May 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- "The White Bread Meadow". Homepages.which.net. Archived from the original on 15 July 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- "Stamford Shakespeare Company". Stamfordshakespeare.co.uk. Archived from the original on 10 June 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- "Spalding Flower Parade". Spaldingnet.com. Archived from the original on 30 April 2018. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- Play-Sport New Media (13 June 2002). "Play-Cricket the ECB Cricket Network". Lincscb.play-cricket.com. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- "Now sponsored by MOTÖRHEAD! – Lincolnshire Bombers". Lincolnshire Bombers' News forum. 1 April 2009. Archived from the original on 14 May 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- "New county flag design unveiled". BBC News. 24 October 2005. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2010.
- "Lincolnshire flag at the self-appointed flag registry". Archived from the original on 12 July 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- Santos, Cory (19 April 2013). "Tracking the mysterious origins of the Lincoln Imp". The Lincolnite. Archived from the original on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
the imp has come to represent Lincoln as its mischievous mascot.
- Williams, Phil (16 December 2011). "A History of the Lincoln Imp". Lincoln Cathedral. Archived from the original on 28 May 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
Lincoln's imp is a well known emblem of the Cathedral and the city, to the extent it has been adopted as the symbol of Lincoln
- "mb21 - Transmitter Information - Waltham". Web.archive.org. 11 June 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- "mb21 - Transmitter Information - Belmont". Web.archive.org. 9 June 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- ITV 1968 – A Guide to Independent Television, Independent Television Authority, London, 1967, page 175
- "mb21 - Transmitter Information - Sandy Heath". Web.archive.org. 4 June 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- "'Bomber County' past and present". BBC News. 18 May 2012. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- "A Better Defence Estate" (PDF). Ministry of Defence. November 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Wilkes, David (23 June 2009). "Our tallest tower is cut down to size: Protests over plan to chop 118f t of f T V mast". Daily Mail.
- Foster, C. W.; Longley, Thomas, eds. (1924). The Lincolnshire Domesday and Lindsey Survey. Annual works of the society. 19. Horncastle: Lincoln Record Society.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lincolnshire.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lincolnshire.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Lincolnshire.|
|Wikisource has the text of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (9th ed.) article Lincoln.|
- Lincolnshire County Council website
- Lincs FM website
- Lindcolne Skipfierde: Lincolnshire's Anglo-Saxon, Viking and Norman re-enactment and living history group
- Lincolnshire Show official website
- Pathe newsreel of motor tractors at 1919 agricultural show, thought to be Lincoln show
- Images of Lincolnshire at the English Heritage Archive