Liberal International

Liberal International (LI) is the political international federation for liberal political parties.

Liberal International
Logo of Liberal International
FormationApril 1947, constituted with the Oxford Manifesto
PurposeWorld federation of liberal political parties and organisations
HeadquartersNational Liberal Club
Region served
106 (as of December 2018)
Hakima El Haite
Main organ
Congress of Liberal International

Its headquarters are located at 1 Whitehall Place, London, SW1A 2HD within the National Liberal Club. It was founded in Oxford in 1947, and has become the pre-eminent network for liberal parties and for the strengthening of liberalism around the world. The Oxford Manifesto describes the basic political principles of the Liberal International.


The Liberal International Constitution (2005) gives its purposes as

to win general acceptance of Liberal principles which are international in their nature throughout the world, and to foster the growth of a free society based on personal liberty, personal responsibility and social justice, and to provide the means of co-operation and interchange of information between the member organisations, and between men and women of all countries who accept these principles.

The principles that unite member parties from Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe are respect for human rights, free and fair elections and multi-party democracy, social justice, tolerance, market economy, free trade, environmental sustainability and a strong sense of international solidarity.

The aims of Liberal International are also set out in a series of seven manifestos, written between 1946 and 1997, and are furthered by a variety of bodies including a near yearly conference for liberal parties and individuals from around the world.[1]


The bureau[2] of Liberal International is elected every 18 months by the delegates of the congress.

The 14th president of Liberal International is Hakima el Haite of the Mouvement Populaire (Morocco), is former a Minister of Environment, UN climate champion, and climate scientist. Madam El Haite succeeded Dr Juli Minoves, formerly Andorra's foreign minister and representative to the United Nations.

Former Presidents include Hans Van Baalen MEP, Lord John Alderdice, Dutch politician and former European Commissioner Frits Bolkestein, German politician Otto Graf Lambsdorff, and Spain's first democratically elected prime minister after Francoist Spain, Adolfo Suárez.

Other members of the bureau include Deputy President Prof. Karl-Heinz Paque, and Vice Presidents Cellou Dalein Diallo [Guinea]; Kitty Monterrey [Nicaragua]; Abir al-Sahlani [Sweden]; Kiat Sittheamorn [Thailand]; and Robert Woodthorpe Browne MBE [United Kingdom]. There are two elected treasurers, Judith Pallares MP [Andorra] and Minister Omar Youm [Senegal]. The secretary general is Gordon Mackay, a former Member of Parliament from South Africa.


Liberal International awards prizes to worthy individuals in the fields of human rights and liberalism.

Prize for Freedom:

The Liberal International Prize for Freedom is LI's most prestigious human rights award. Conveyed annually since 1984 to an individual who of liberal conviction who has made outstanding efforts for the defence of freedom and human rights, recipients include Maria Corina Machado [Venezuela], Senator Leila de Lima [Philippines], Raif Badawi [Saudi Arabia], Waris Dirie [Somalia], and Vaclav Havel [Czechoslovakia/Czech Republic].

Medal of Liberalism:

The Liberal International Medal of Liberalism is awarded to individuals who have worked to advance liberal values on a local, national and international level. Recipients include President Alassane Ouattara [Côte d'Ivoire]; Prime Minister Xavier Bettel [Luxembourg]; President Tsai, Ing-wen [Taiwan]; Sir Graham Watson [United Kingdom].


The LI Human Rights Bulletin is published three times per year and consists of opinion articles, video interviews and digest of the work of the LI human rights committee.

Thematic publications are published online and in print on an ad hoc basis. Recent texts have offered a liberal perspective on issues ranging from freedom of belief to the responsibility to protect. ʒ

Oxford Manifesto

The Oxford Manifesto, drawn up in April 1947 at Wadham College in Oxford by representatives from 19 liberal political parties, led by Salvador de Madariaga, is a document describing the basic political principles of the Liberal International.[3]

The Oxford Manifesto was inspired by the ideas of William Beveridge and is regarded as one of the defining political documents of the 20 century.

Fifty years on, in 1997, Liberal International returned to Oxford and issued a supplement to the original manifesto, The Liberal Agenda for the 21st century, describing Liberal policies in greater detail. The second Oxford Manifesto was adopted by the 48th Congress of Liberal International, which was held on 27–30 November 1997 in the Oxford Town Hall.[4] In 2017, the global federation marked its 70th anniversary with the adoption of the Andorra Liberal Manifesto for the twenty-first century (ALM). A three-year project across numerous continents initiated by then president Juli Minoves, the ALM embodied the widest consultation of views undertaken by Liberal International in order to compile a policy document.[5]



Portrait Name
Country Presidency Membership
1 Salvador de Madariaga
 United Kingdom
 Spain (exiled)
20 April 1948 18 April 1952 Association
Mont Pelerin Society
2 Roger Motz
 Belgium 18 April 1952 20 April 1958 Liberal Party
3 Giovanni Malagodi
 Italy 20 April 1958 15 April 1966 Italian Liberal Party
4 Edzo Toxopeus
 Netherlands 15 April 1966 25 April 1970 People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
5 Gaston Thorn
 Luxembourg 25 April 1970 18 April 1982 Democratic Party
(3) Giovanni Malagodi
 Italy 18 April 1982 26 April 1989 Italian Liberal Party
6 Adolfo Suárez
 Spain 26 April 1989 22 April 1992 Democratic and Social Centre
7 Otto Graf Lambsdorff
 Germany 22 April 1992 25 April 1994 Free Democratic Party
8 David Steel
 United Kingdom 25 April 1994 15 April 1996 Liberal Democrats
9 Frits Bolkestein
 Netherlands 15 April 1996 18 April 2000 People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
10 Annemie Neyts-Uyttebroeck
 Belgium 18 April 2000 25 April 2005 Open Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten
11 John Alderdice
 United Kingdom 25 April 2005 20 April 2009 Liberal Democrats
Alliance Party of Northern Ireland
12 Hans van Baalen
 Netherlands 20 April 2009 26 April 2014 People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
13 Juli Minoves
 Andorra 26 April 2014 30 November 2018 Liberal Party of Andorra
14 Hakima El Haite
 Morocco 30 November 2018 Incumbent Popular Movement


Full members

Country Name Government
 Andorra Liberal Party of Andorra[6]junior party in government coalition
 Argentina Unión por la Libertadin government coalition
 Belgium Reform Movement[6]in government coalition
 Belgium Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats[6]in government coalition
 Bulgaria Movement for Rights and Freedomsin opposition
 Burkina Faso Alliance for Democracy and Federation – African Democratic Rallyin opposition
 Burundi Alliance démocratique pour le renouveauin opposition
 Cambodia Cambodia National Rescue Movementextraparliamentary opposition
 Canada Liberal Party of Canada[7][8]in government
 Canada Canadian Group of Liberal InternationalN/A
 Chile Liberal Party of Chilein opposition
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Alliance pour le renouveau au Congoin opposition
 Côte d'Ivoire Rally of the Republicansin government
 Croatia Istrian Democratic Assemblyin opposition
 Cuba Cuban Liberal Unionin exile
 Cuba Democratic Solidarity Partyin exile
 Cuba National Liberal Partyin exile
 Denmark Danish Social Liberal Partysupport party to government
 Denmark Liberal Partyin opposition
 Estonia Estonian Reform Partysenior party in opposition
 Finland Centre Partyjunior party in government coalition
 Finland Swedish People's Partyjunior party in government coalition
 Georgia Republican Party of Georgiain opposition
 Germany German Group of the LIN/A
 Germany Free Democratic Partyin opposition
 Gibraltar Liberal Party[6]junior party in government coalition
 Guinea Union of Democratic Forces of Guineain opposition
 Guinea Union of Republican Forcesin opposition
 Honduras Liberal Partyin opposition
 Iceland Progressive Partyjunior party in government coalition
 Ireland Fianna Fáil[6]in opposition
 Israel Israeli Liberal GroupN/A
 Kenya Orange Democratic Movementin opposition
 Kosovo Independent Liberal Partyin opposition
 Lebanon Future Movementsenior party in government coalition
 Luxembourg Democratic Partysenior party in government coalition
 Madagascar Movement for the Progress of Madagascarin opposition
 Mexico New Alliance Partyin opposition
 Mongolia Civil Will-Green Partyextraparliamentary opposition
 Montenegro Liberal Party of Montenegrojunior party in government coalition
 Morocco Constitutional Unionin opposition
 Morocco Popular Movementjunior party in government coalition
 Netherlands Democrats 66junior party in government coalition
 Netherlands Dutch Group of LIN/A
 Netherlands People's Party for Freedom and Democracy[9]senior party in government coalition
 Nicaragua Ciudadanos por la Libertadin opposition
 North Macedonia Liberal Democratic Partyin opposition
 Norway Liberal Partyjunior party in government coalition
 Paraguay Authentic Radical Liberal Partyin opposition
 Philippines Liberal Partyin opposition
 Russia Yablokoextraparliamentary opposition
 Senegal Alliance pour la Républiquein government
 Senegal Rewmijunior party in government coalition
 Senegal Senegalese Democratic Partyin opposition
 Slovenia Modern Centre Partyjunior party in government coalition
 Somalia CAHDI Partyin opposition
 South Africa Democratic Alliancein opposition
 Spain Democràcia i LlibertatN/A
 Sweden Liberalssupport party to government
 Sweden Centre Partysupport party to government
  Switzerland FDP.The Liberalsjunior party in government coalition
 Taiwan Democratic Progressive Partyin government
 Tanzania Civic United Frontin opposition / in coalition in autonomous region of Zanzibar
 Thailand Democrat Partyin government coalition
 United Kingdom Alliance Party of Northern Irelandin opposition
 United Kingdom Liberal International British GroupN/A
 United Kingdom Liberal Democratsin opposition
Worldwide International Federation of Liberal YouthN/A
Worldwide International Network of Liberal WomenN/A

Observer parties

Country Name Government
 Austria NEOS – The New Austria and Liberal Forumin opposition
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Liberal Democratic Partyin opposition
 Brazil New PartyN/A
 Burkina Faso Union pour le Progrès et le Changementin opposition
 Comoros Alliance Nationale pour les Comoresextraparliamentary opposition
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Union pour la reconstruction du Congoin opposition
 Republic of the Congo Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Developmentin opposition
 Cyprus United Democratsextraparliamentary opposition
 Ghana Progressive People's Partyin opposition
 Italy Italian Group of Liberal InternationalN/A
 Madagascar Arche de la Nationin opposition
 Malaysia Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysiain opposition
 Malaysia People's Justice Partyin government coalition
 Mali Citizens' Party for the Renewal of Maliextraparliamentary opposition
 Mauritania Rally for Mauritaniain opposition
 Moldova Liberal Reformist Partyextraparliamentary opposition
 Romania Alliance of Liberals and Democratsin opposition
 Singapore Singapore Democratic Partyextraparliamentary opposition
 Isle of Man Liberal Vanninin opposition

Individual Member

Country Name Government
 Hong Kong Mr Martin Lee - founding chairman of Democratic Partyin opposition

Cooperating organizations

Cooperating and regional organisations are groups with a recognised status in the constitution of Liberal International as bodies that share the values and objectives of LI but do not operate as a political party. Co-operating organisations have the right of representation but in no case the right to vote at statutory events.

Organization Region
Africa Liberal Network Africa
Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats Asia
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (ALDE-PACE) Europe
Friedrich Naumann Stiftung Europe
Fondazione Libro Aperto Europe
Fondazione Luigi Einaudi Europe
Neue Zürcher Zeitung Europe
Swedish International Liberal Centre Europe
Red Liberal de América Latina Latin America
Arab Liberal Federation MENA
National Democratic Institute North America

Liberal think tanks and foundations

The International is also in a loose association with the following organisations:

Organization Country
Centre Jean Gol Belgium
Friedrich Naumann Foundation Germany
Fondazione Luigi Einaudi Italy
Fondazione Critica Liberale Italy
Friedrich Naumann Stiftung Germany
Teldersstichting Netherlands
The Bertil Ohlin Institute Sweden
CentreForum United Kingdom
European Liberal Forum Europe

See also


  1. "Constitution – Politics – Liberalism". Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  2. "Bureau Members". Liberal International. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  3. "Oxford Manifesto 1947 – Manifesto – Politics – Liberalism". Archived from the original on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  4. "Oxford Manifesto 1997 – Manifesto – Politics – Liberalism". 30 November 1997. Archived from the original on 7 February 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  5. "Andorra Liberal Manifesto - 2017". Liberal International. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  6. "Europe - Liberal International". Liberal International. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  7. "Liberal Party of Canada Welcomes Liberal International to 2009 Convention". Liberal Party of Canada. 6 March 2009. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  8. "North America - Liberal International". Liberal International. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  9. (in Dutch) VVD is a member of LI Archived 28 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
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